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&c. Cic. Similar to this figure is the Oxumoron, i. e. acutè dictum; as, Amici absentes adsunt, &c. Cic. Impietate pia est, Ovid. Num capti potuere capi, Virg

6. INTERROGATION, (Græc. Erotēsis,) is a figure whereby we do not simply ask a question, but express some strong feeling or affection of the mind in that form; as, Quousque tandem, &c. Cic. Creditis avectos hostes? Virg. Heu! quæ me æquora possunt accipere, Id. Sometimes an answer is returned, in which case it is called Subjectio; as, Quid ergo? audacissimus ego ex omnibus? minimè, Cic. Nearly allied to this is Expostulation, when a person pleads with offenders to return to their duty.

7. EXCLAMATION, (Ecphonēsis,) as, O nomen dulce libertatis! &c. Cic. 0 tempora, O mores! Id. O patria! O Divúm domus Ilium! &c. Virg.

8. DESCRIPTION, or Imagery, (Hypotypōsis,) when any thing is painted in a lively manner, as if done before our eyes. Hence it is also called Vision; as, Videor mihi hanc urbem videre, &c. Cic. in Cat. iv. 6. Videre magnos jam videor duces, Non indecoro pulvere sordidos, Hor. Here a change of tense is often used, as the present for the past, and conjunctions omitted, &c. Virg. xi. 637. &c.

9. EMPHASIS is when a particular stress is laid on some word in a sentence; as, Hannibal, peto pacem, Liv. Proh! Jupiter ibit HIC! Virg.

10. EPANARTHOSIS, or Correction, is when the speaker either recalls or corrects what he had last said; as, Filium habui, ah! quid dixi habere me? imò habui, Ter. 11. PARALEPSIS, or Omission, is when one pretends to omit or pass by, what he at the same time declares.

12. APARITHMēsis, or Enumeration, is when what might be expressed in a few words, is branched out into several parts.

13. SYNATHROISMUS, or Coacervatio, is the crowding of many particulars together;


-Faces in castra tulissem,
Implessemque foros flammis, natumque, patrumque
Cum genere extinxem, memet super ipsa dedissem. Virg.

14. Incrementum, or CLIMAX in sense, is when one number rises above another to the highest; as, Facinus est vincire civem Romanum, scelus verberare, parricidium necare, Cic. When all the circumstances of an object or action are artfully exaggerated, it is called Auxēsis, or Amplification. But this is properly not one figure, but the skilful employment of several, chiefly of the Simile and the Climax.

15. TRANSITION (metabǎsis) is when a speech is abruptly introduced; or when a writer suddenly passes from one subject to another; as, Horat. Od. ii. 13. 13. In strong passion, a change of person is sometimes used; as, Virg. Æn. iv. 365, &c. xi. 406, &c.

16. SUSPENSIO, or Sustentatio, is when the mind of the hearer is long kept in suspense; to which the Latin inversion of words is often made subservient.

17. CONCESSIO is the yielding of one thing to obtain another; as, Sit fur, sit sacrilegus, &c. at est bonus imperator, Cic. in Verrem, v. 1. PROLEPSIS, Prevention or Anticipation, is when an objection is started and answered. ANACOINOSIS, or Communication, is when the speaker deliberates with the judges or hearers; which is also called Diaporēsis or Addubitatio. LICENTIA, or the pretending to assume more freedom than is proper, is used for the sake of admonishing, rebuking, and also flattering; as, Vide quàm non reformidem, &c. Cic. pro Ligario. APOSIOPESIS, or Concealment, leaves the sense incomplete; as, Quos ego sed præstat motos componere fluctus, Virg.

18. SENTENTIA, (gnome,) a sentiment, is a general maxim concerning life or manners, which is expressed in various forms; as, Otium sine literis mors est, Seneca. Adeo in teneris assuescere multum est, Virg. Probitas laudatur & alget; Misera est magni, custodia census; Nobilitas sola est atque unica virtus, Juv.

As most of these figures are used by orators, and some of them only in certain parts of their speeches, it will be proper that the learner know the parts into which a regular formal oration is commonly divided. These are, 1. The Introduction, the Exordium or Proœmium, to gain the good will and attention of the hearers: 2. The Narration or Explication: 3. The argumentative part, which includes Confirmation or proof,

and Confutation or refuting the objections and arguments of an adversary. The sources from which arguments are drawn, are called Loci, topics; and are either intrinsic or extrinsic; common or peculiar. 4. The Peroration, Epilogue or Conclusion.


The quantity of a syllable is the space of time taken up in pronouncing it.

That part of grammar which treats of the quantity and accent of Syllables, and of the measures of verse, is called PROSODY.

Syllables, with respect to their quantity, are either long or short.

A long syllable in pronouncing requires double the time of a short; as, tĕndĕrě. Some syllables are common; that is, sometimes long, and sometimes short; as the second syllable in volucris.

A vowel is said to be long or short by nature, which is always so by custom, or by the use of the poets.

In polysyllables or long words, the last syllable except one is called the Penultima, or, by contraction, the Penult; and the last syllable except two, the Antepenultima.

When the quantity of a syllable is not fixed by some particular rule, it is said to be long or short by authority; that is, according to the usage of the poets. Thus le in lego is said to be short by authority, because it is always made short by the Latin poets.

In most Latin words of one or two syllables, according to our manner of pronouncing, we can hardly distinguish by the ear a long syllable from a short. Thus le in lego and legi seem to be sounded equally long; but when we pronounce them in composition, the difference is obvious; thus, perlego, perlēgi; relěgo, -ĕre; relēgo, -āre, &c. The rules of quantity are either General or Special. The former apply to all syllables, the latter only to some certain syllables.


I. A vowel before another vowel is short; as,

Měus alius: so nihil; h in verse being considered only as a breathing. In like manner in English, create, běhave.

Exc. 1. I is long in fio, fiebam, &c. unless when followed by r; as, fieri, fiĕrem; thus,

Omnia jam fient, fieri quæ posse negabam. Ovid.

Exc. 2. E having an i before and after it, in the fifth declension, is long; as, speciei. So is the first syllable in äer, dius, ēheu, and the penultima in aulai, terrãi, &c. in Pompei, Cai, and such like words; but we sometimes find Pompei in two syllables, Horat. Od. II. 7.

Exc. 3. The first syllable in ohe and Diana is common; so likewise is the penult of genitives in ius; as, illius, unius, &c. to be read long in prose. Alius, in the genitive is always long, as being contracted for aliius; alterius, short.

In Greek words, when a vowel comes before another, no certain rule concerning its quantity can be given.

Sometimes it is short: as, Danǎe, Iděa, Sophia, Symphonia, Simõis, Hyades, Phǎon, Deucalion, Pygmalion, Thebais, &c.

Often it is long: as, Lycaon, Machaon, Didymãon; Amphion, Arion, Ixion, Pandion; Nais, Lais, Achaïa; Briseis, Cadmēis; Latõus; & Latõis, Myrtõus, Nerēïus, Priamēïus; Achelõïus, Minōïus; Archelaus, Menelaus, Amphiarāus, Æneas, Penēus, Epēus, Acrisionēus, Adamanteus, Phœbéus, Giganteus; Darius, Basirius, Eugenius, Bacchius; Cassiopea, Cæsarea, Chæronea, Cytherea, Galētea, Laodicea, Medea, Panthea, Penelopea; Clio, Enyo, Elegia, Iphigenia, Alexandria, Thalia, Antiochia, idololatria, litania, politia, &c. Laertes, Deɣphobus, Dēïjanira, Trões, herões, &c.

Sometimes it is common: as, Chorea, platea, Malea, Nereides, canopeum, Orion, Geryon, Eos, Eous, &c. So in foreign words, Michael, Israel, Raphael, Abraham, &c.

The accusative of nouns in eus is usually short; as, Orphea, Salmoněa, Capharĕa, &c. but sometimes long; as, Idomenea, Ilionea, Virg. Instead of Elegia, Cytherea, we find Elegeža, Cythěrēža, Ovid. But the quantity of Greek words cannot be properly understood without the knowledge of Greek. In English, a vowel before another is also sometimes lengthened; as, science, idea.

II. A vowel before two consonants, or before a double consonant, is long; (by position, as it is called ;) as,

arma, fallo, axis, gāza, major: the compounds of jugum excepted; as, bijūgus, quadrijŭgus, &c.

When the foregoing word ends in a short vowel, and the following begins with two consonants or a double one, that vowel is sometimes lengthened by the position; as, Ferte citi flammas, date velă, scandite muros. Virg.

But this rarely occurs.
¶ A vowel before a mute and a liquid is common;

as in the middle syllable in volucris, tenebræ, thus,

Et primò similis volucri, mox vera volūcris. Ovid.
Nox tenebras, profert, Phœbus fugat inde tenebras. Id.

But in prose these words are pronounced short. So peragro, pharetra, podagra, chiragra, celebris, latebræ, &c.

To make this rule hold, three things are requisite. The vowel must be naturally short, the mute must go before the liquid, and be in the same syllable with it. Thus a in patris is made common in verse, because a in pater is naturally short, or always so by custom; but a in matris acris is always long, because long by nature or custom in mater and acer. In like manner the penult in salubris, ambulacrum, is always long, because they are derived from salus, salūtis, and ambulātum. So a in arte, abluo, &c. is long by position, because the mute and the liquid are in different syllables.

L and r only are considered as liquids in Latin words; m and n do not take place except in Greek words.

III. A contracted syllable is long; as,

Nil, for nihil; mí, for mihi; cōgo, for coago; alius, for aliius; tibicen, for tibiicen; ît, for iit; sōdes, for si audes; nōlo, for non volo; bīgæ, for bijugæ ; scilicet, for scire licet, &c.

IV. A diphthong is always long; as,

Aurum, Caesar, Eubæ, &c. Only præ in composition before a vowel is commonly short; as, præire, præustus; thus,

Nec totâ tamen ille prior præcunte carinâ. Virg. Stipitibus durus agitur sudibusque præustis. Id. But it is sometimes lengthened; as,

-cum vacuus domino præiret Arion. Statius.

In English we pronounce several of the diphthongs short, by sinking the sound of one vowel; but then there is properly no diphthong.



Preterites and Supines of Two Syllables.

V. Preterites of two syllables lengthen the former syllable; as, Veni, vidi,


Except bibi, scidi from scindo, fidi from findo, tuli, dědi, and stěti, which are shortened.

VI. Supines of two syllables lengthen the former syllable; as, Visum, casum, mōtum.

Except sătum, from sero; citum, from cieo; litum, from lino; situm, from sino; stătum, from sisto; itum, from eo; dătum, fsom do; rutum, from the compounds of ruo; quìtum, from queo; rătus, from reor.

Preterites which double the first syllable.

VII. Preterites which double the first syllable have both the first syllables short; as,

Cěcidi, tětigi, pěpůli, pěpěri, didici, tutudi: except cecidi, from cœdo; pěpēdi, from pēdo; and when two consonants intervene; as, fefelli, tětendi, &c.


A noun is said to increase when it has more syllables in any of the oblique cases than in the nominative; as, rex, rēgis. Here re is called the encrease or crement, and so through all the other cases. The last syllable is never esteemed a crement.

Some nouns have a double increase, that is, increase by more syllables than one; as, iter, itīnēris.



A noun in the plural is said to increase, when in any case it has more syllables than the genitive singular; as, gener, genēri, generōrum.

Nouns of the first, fourth, and fifth declensions, do not increase in the singular number, unless where one vowel comes before another; as, fructus, fructui; res, rei ; which fall under Rule I.

Third Declension.

VIII. Nouns of the third declension which increase, make a and o long; e, i, and u short; as,

Pietatis, honoris; mulieris, lapidis, murmuris.

The chief exceptions from this rule are marked under the formation of the genitive in the third declension. But here perhaps it may be proper to be more particular.


A noun in A shortens atis in the genitive; as, dogma, -ătis; poema, -ătis.


O shortens inis, but lengthens enis and ōnis; as, Cardo, -inis; Virgo, inis; Anio, ēnis; Cicero, -ōnis. Gentile or patrial nouns vary their quantity. Most of them shorten the genitive; as, Macedo, -õnis; Saxo, -õnis. Some are long; as, Suessiones, Vettōnes. Brittones is common.

I, C, D.

I shortens itis; as, Hydroměli, -žtis. Ec lengthens -ecis; as, Halec, écis.
A noun in D shortens the crement; as, David, -idis.


Masculines in AL shorten ălis; as, Sal, sălis; Hannibal, -ălis; Hasdrubal, -ălis; but neuters lengthen it; as, animal, -ālis.

Solis from sol is long; also Hebrew words in el; as, Michael, -ēlis. Other nouns in L shorten the crement; as, Vigil, -ilis; consul, -ùlis.


Nouns in ON vary their crement. Some lengthen it; as, Helicon, -ōnis; Chiron, -ōnis. Some shorten it; as, Memnon, onis; Actæon, -onis.

EN shortens inis; as, flumen, -žnis: tibīcen, -inis. Other nouns in N lengthen the penult. AN ānis; as, Titan, -ānis: En ēnis; as, Siren, -ēnis: In inis; as, delphin, -inis. YN ÿnis; as, Phorcyn, -ynis.


1. Neuters in AR lengthen aris; as, calcar, -āris. Except the following, bacchar, -ăris; jubar, ́-ăris; nectar, -ăris: Also the adjective par, păris, and its compounds, impar, -ăris; dispar, -ăris, &c.

2. The following nouns in R lengthen the genitive: Nar, Naris, the name of a river; fur, fūris ; ver, vēris : Also Recimer, -ēris; Byzer, -ēris; Ser, Sēris; Iber, -ēris; proper names.

3. Greek nouns in TER lengthen teris; as, crater, -ēris; character, -ēris. Except æther, -ĕris. 4. OR lengthens oris; as, amor, -ōris. Except neuter nouns; as, marmor, -õris; æquor, -ŏris: Greek nouns in tor; as, Hector, -õris; Actor, -õris; rhetor, -ŏris: Also, arbor, -õris, and memor, -ŏris.

5. Other nouns in R shorten the genitive; AR aris, masculine; as, Cæsar, -ăris; Hamilcar, ăris; lar, laris. ER eris of any gender; as, der, aĕris; mulier, -ĕris; cadăver, -ĕris; iter, anciently itīner, itinĕris; verbĕris, from the obsolete verber. UR uris; as, vultur, -ŭris; murmur, -ŭris. YŔ yris; as, Martyr, žris.


1. Nouns in AS, which have atis, lengthen the crement; as, pietas, -ātis; Mæcēnas, -ālis. Except anas, -ătis.

2. Other nouns in AS shorten the crement; as Greek nouns having the genitive in ădis, ătis, and ănis; thus, Pallas, -ădis; artocreas, -eălis; Melas, -ănis, the name of a river. So vas, vădis; mas, măris: But vas, vāsis, is long.


ES shortens the crement; as, miles, -itis; Ceres, -ĕris; pes, pědis.

Except locuples, -ētis; quies, -ētis; mansues, -ētis; hæres, -ēdis; merces, -ēdis.


Nouns in IS shorten the crement; as, lapis, -idis; sanguis, inis; Phyllis, -idis.

Except Glis, gliris; and Latin nouns which have itis; as, lis, lītis; dis, dītis; Quiris, -ītis; Samnis, -itis: But Charis, a Greek noun, has Charitis.

The following also lengthen the crement: Crenis, -idis; Psophis, -idis; Nesis, -idis; proper names : And Greek nouns in is, which have also in; as, Salămis, or in, Salaminis.


Nouns in OS lengthen the crement; as, nepos, -ōlis; flos, floris.
Except Bos, bovis; compos, -õtis; and impos, -õtis.


US shortens the crement; as, tempus, -õris; tripus, -õdis.


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Except nouns which have ūdis, ūris, and ūlis; as, incus, -ūdis; jus, jūris ; salus, -ulis. But Ligus has Liguris; the obsolete pecus, pecudis; and intercus, -utis. The neuter of the comparative has ōris; as, melius, -ōris.


YS shortens ydis or ydos; as, chlamys, dis or ÿdos; and lengthens ynis; as, Trachys, - īnis.


Nouns in S, with a consonant going before, shorten the penult of the genitive; as, cælebs, -ibis ; inops, -opis; hiems, hiĕmis.

Except Cyclops, -õpis; seps, sēpis : gryps, gryphis; Cecrops, -õpis; plebs, plēbis; hydrops, -õpis.


T shortens the crement; as, caput, -itis.


1. Nouns in X, which have the genitive in gis, shorten the crement; as, conjux, -ŭgis; remex, -igis; Allobrox, -ogis; Phryx, Phrygis. But lex, legis, and ex, rēgis, are long; and likewise frugis. 2. EX shortens icis; as, vertex, -icis: except vibex, -icis.

3. Other nouns in X lengthen the crement; as, pax, păcis; radix, -icis; vox, võcis; lux, lūcis; Pollux, -ucis, &c.

Except facis, něcis, vicis, precis, calicis, cilicis, picis, fornicis, nivis, Cappadocis, ducis, nécis, crăcis, trucis, onychis, Erīcis, mastyx, -ychis, the rosin of the lentiscus, or mastich-tree, and many others whose quantity can only be ascertained by authority.

4. Some nouns vary the crement; as, Syphax, -ācis, or -ăcis ; Sandyx, -icis, or -icis ; Bebryx, -žcis, or -icis.

Increase of the Plural Number.

IX. Nouns of the plural number which increase, make A, E, and O long; but shorten I and U; as,

musārum, ṛērum, dominōrum; rēgibus, portubus: except bōbus or būbus, contracted for bõvibus.


A verb is said to increase, when any part has more syllables than the second person singular of the present of the indicative active; as, amas, amămus, where the second syllable ma is the increase or crement; for the last syllable is never called by that


A verb often increases by several syllables; as, amas, amābāmìni; in which case it is said to have a first, second, or third increase.

X. In the increase of verbs, a, e, and o, are long; i and u, short; as,

Amare, docere, amātōte; legimus, sumus, volumus.

The poets sometimes shorten děděrunt and stětěrunt; and lengthen rimus and rītis, in the future of the subjunctive; as, transierītis aquas, Ovid. All the other exceptions from this rule are marked in the formation of the verb.

The first or middle syllables of words which do not come under any of the foregoing rules, are said to be long or short by authority; and their quantity can only be discovered from the usage of the poets, which is the most certain of all rules.


1. Patronymics in IDES or ADES usually shorten the penult; as, Priamides, Atlantiădes, &c. Unless they come from nouns in cus; as, Pelides, Tydides, &c.

2. Patronymics, and similar words, in AIS, EIS, ITIS, OIS, OTIS, INE, and ONE, commonly lengthen the penult; as, Achāis, Ptolemais, Chryseis, Æneis, Memphitis, Lalõis, Icariōtis, Nerine, Arisione. Except Thebais, and Phocais; and Nereis, which is common.

3. Adjectives in ACUS, ICUS, IDUS, and IMUS, for the most part shorten the penult; as, Egyptiacus, academicus, lepidus, legitimus; also superlatives; as, fortissimus, &c. Except opacus, amicus, apricus, pudicus, mendicus, posticus, fidus, infidus, (but perfidus of per and fides, is short,) bimus, quadrimus, patrimus, matrimus, opimus; and two superlatives, imus, prīmus.

4. Adjectives in ALIS, ANUS, ARUS, IVUS, ORUS, OSUS, lengthen the penult; as, dotālis, urbānus, avārus, æstivus, decōrus, arenōsus. Except barbărus, opipărus.

5. Verbal adjectives in ILIS, shorten the penult; as, agilis, facilis, &c. But derivatives from nouns usually lengthen it; as, anīlis, civīlis, herilis, &c. To these add exilis, subtīlis; and names of months, Aprilis, Quinctilis, Sextilis: Except humilis, parīlis ; and also similis. But all adjectives in atilis, are short; as, versatilis, volatilis, umbratilis, &c.

6. Adjectives in INUS derived from inanimate things, as plants, stones, &c. also from adverbs of time, commonly shorten the penalt; as, amaracinus, crocinus, cedrinus, faginus, oleaginus, ădamantinus, cristallinus, crastinus, pristinus, perendinus, &c.

Other adjectives in INUS are long; as, agninus, austrinus, binus, clandestīnus, Latīnus, marīnus, supinus, vespertinus, &c.

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