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7. Diminutives in OLUS, OLA, OLUM; and ULUS, ULA, ULUM, always shorten the penult; as, urceðlus, filiðla, musæðlum ; lectŭlus, ratiuncŭla, corculum, &c.
8. Adverbs in TIM lengthen the penult; as, oppidātim, virītim, tribūtim. Except affătim, perpětim, and stătim.
9. Desideratives in URIO shorten the antepenultima, which in the second or third person is the penult; as, esūrio, esūris, esūrit. But other verbs in urio lengthen that syllable; as, ligūrio, ligūris; scatūrio, scatūris, &c.
PENULT OF PROPER NAMES. The following proper names lengthen the penult: Abdēra, Abydus, Adonis, Æsõpus, Ætolus, Ahāla, Alaricus, Alcides, Amgclæ, Andronicus, Anubis, Archimēdes, Ariarathes, Ariobarzānes, Aristides, Aristobulus, Aristogiton, Arpinum, Artabanus; Brachmānes, Busiris, Buthrotus; Cethēgus, Chalcēdon, Cleobulus, Cyrēne, Cythera, Curētes; Darici, Demonicus, Diomēdes, Dióres, Dioscuri; Ebudes, Eriphyle, Eubulus, Euclides, Euphrātes, Eumēdes, Euripus, Euxinus, ; Gargānus, Gætülus, Granicus ; Heliogabālus, Henricus, Heraclides, Heraclitus, Hipponax, Hispānus ; Irene ; Lacedas, Latona, Leucāta, Lugdūnum, Lycõras ; Mandāne, Mausolus, Maximinus, Meleāger, Messāla, Messāna, Milētus ; Nasica, Nicānor, Nicētas; Pachgnus, Pandora, Peloris & -us, Pharsalus, Phænice, Polites, Polyclētus, Polynīces, Priāpus; Sarpēdon, Serāpis, Sinope, Stratonice, Suffêtes; Tigránes, Thessalonica; Verona, Veronica.
The following are short : Amăthus, Amphipolis, Anabosis, Anticêra, Antigonus, & -ne, Antilochus, Antiochus, Antiopa, Antipas, Antipăter, Antiphănes, Antiphătes, Antiphila, Antiphon, 'Anýtus, Apůlus, Areopăgus, Ariminum, Arměnus, Athěsis, Attalus, Attica; Bitŭrix, Bructěri ; Calăber, Calicrătes, Callistrátus, Candăce, Cantăber, Carneădes, Cherîlus, Chrysostomus, Cleombrotus, Cleoměnes, Corýcos, Constantinopolis, Cratěrus, Cratýlus, Creměra, Crustuměri, Cyběle, Cyclădes, Cyzīcus; Dalmătæ, Damocles, Dardănus, Dejóces, Dejotărus, Democritus, Demipho, Didymus, Diogěnes, Drepănum, Dumnoris ; Empedocles, Ephesus, Evergětes, Euměnes, Eurymědon, Euripýlus ; Fucinus; Geryoncs, Gyărus ; Hecýra, Heliopolis, Hermione, Herodotus, Hesiodus, Hesione, Hippocrătes, Hippotămos, Hypăta, Hypănis; Icărus, Icětas, Illyris, Iphỉtus, Ismărus, Ithắca ; Laodice, Laomědon, Lampsăcus, Lamyrus, Lapsthæ, Leucretilis, Libănus, Lipăre, v. -a, Lysimăchus, Longimănus ; Marăthon, Mænălus, Marmarựca, Massagětæ, Matróna, Megăra, Melitus, & -ta, Metropolis, Mutina, Myconus ; Neðcles, Nerstos, Norğcum ; Omphăle ; Patăra, Pegăsus, Pharnăces, Pisistrătus, Polydămas, Polyxěna, Porsěna, or Porsenna, Praxitěles, Puteoli, Pylădes, Pythagoras; Sarmătæ, Sarsina, Seměle, Semirăinis, Sequăni, & -a, Serịphos, Sicoris, Socrătes, Sodoma, Sotădes, Spartăcus, Sporădes, Strongyle, Stymphălus, Sybăris ; Taygetus, Telegonus, Telemăchus, Tenědos, Tarrăco, Theophănes, Theophilus, Tomýrus ; Urbicus ; Veněti, Vologěsus, Volusus ; Xenocrătes, Zorlus, Zopyrus.
The penult of several words is doubtful; thus, Batāvi, Lucan, Batăvi, Juv. & Mart. Forluitus, Horat. Fortuitus, Mart. Some make fortuitus of three syllables; but it may be shortened like gratuitus, Stat. Patrimus, matrimus, præstolor, &c. are by some lengthened, and by some shortened; but for their quantity there is no certain authority.
FINAL SYLLABLES. XI. A, in the end of a word declined by cases, is short; as, Musă, templă, Tydeă, lampădă.
Exc. The ablative of the first declension is long; as,.Musâ, Ænēâ; and the voca tive of Greek nouns in as ; as, O Æncã, O Pallà.
A in the end of a word not declined by cases is long; as, Amă, frustrā, præterea, erga, intră.
Exc. Ită, quià, ejă, posteă, pută, (adv.) are short; and sometimes, though more rarely, the prepositions contră, ultră, and the compounds of ginta; as, trigintă, &c Contra, and ultra, when adverbs, are always long.
Natě, sedilė, patră, currě, nempě, antě. Exc. 1. Monosyllables are long; as, mé, tē, sé ; except these enclitic conjunctions, quě, vě, ně; and these syllabical adjections, ptě, cě, tě; as, suaptě, hujuscě, tutě ; but these may be comprehended under the general rule, as they never stand by themselves.
Exc. 2. Nouns of the first and fifth declension are long; as, Calliopē, Anchisē, fidē. So re-, and diē, with their compounds, quarē, hodiē, pridiē, postridiē, quotidie: Also Greek nouns which want the singular, Cetē, melē, Tempē ; and the second person singular of the imperative of the second conjugation; as, Docē, manē; but cave, vale, and vide, are sometimes short,
Exc. 3. Adverbs derived from adjectives of the first and second declension are long; as, placidē, pulchrē, valdē, contracted for validē; to these add fermë, ferē, and ohē; also all adverbs of the superlative degree; as, doctissimē, fortissimē : but beně and malē are short.
1. XIII. I final is long; as, Domini, patri, docerī. Exc. 1. Greek vocatives are short; as, Alexă, Amarylli.
Exc. 2. The dative of Greek nouns of the third declension which increase, is common; as, Palladi, Minoždi.
Mihi, tibi, sibi, are also common : so likewise are ibi, nisi, ubi, quasi ; and cui, when a dissyllable, which in poetry is seldom the case. Sicubi and necubi are always short.
0. XIV. O final is common; as, Virgo, Amo, quando. Exc. 1. Monosyllables in o are long; as, 7, do, sto, pro.
The dative and ablative sing. of the second declension, are long; as, libro, domino: also Greek nouns, as, Didő, and Atho the genitive of Athos, and adverbs derived from nouns; as, certo, falso, paulo. To these add quo, eo, and their compounds, quovis, quocunque, adeo, ideo; likewise, illo, idcirco, citró, intrā, retro, ultro.
Exc. 2. The following words are short; Ego, scio, cedo a defective verb, homo, citò, illico, imò, duo, ambo, modo, with its compounds, quomodò, dummodo, postmodò : but some of these are also found long.
Exc. 3. The gerund in DO in Virgil is long; in other poets it is short. Ergó, on account of, is long; ergo, therefore is doubtful.
U and Y.
B, D, L, M, R, T.
Ab, apůd, seměl, precor, capăt.
M final anciently made the foregoing vowel short; as, Militūm octo, Ennius. But by later poets, m in the end of a word is always cut off, when the next word begins with a vowel; thus, Milit, octo ; except in compound words; as, circùmăgo, circŭmeo.
XVII. C and N, in the end of a word, are long; as,
Ac, sic, nõn. So Greek nouns in n; as, Titān, Sirēn, Salamin, Ænean, Anchisen, Circēn, Lacedæmon, &c.
The following words are short, něc and doněc; forsităn, in, forsăn, taměn, ăn, viděn'; likewise nouns in en which have žnis in the genitive; as, carměn, criměn; together with several Greek nouns; as, Iliðn, Pylon, Alexăn. The pronoun hic, and the verb fac, are common.
AS, ES, Os. XVIII. AS, ES, and OS, in the end of a word, are long; as, Mäs, quiēs, bonos.
The following words are short, anăs, és from sum, and peněs; os, having ossis in the genitive, compos, and impos ; also a great many Greek nouns of all these three terminations ; as, Arcăs and Arcădăs, herõås ; Phrygěs; Arcados, Tenědõs, Mělós, &c. and Latin nouns in es, having the penult of the genitive increasing short; as, Alěs, heběs, obsės. But Cerēs, pariēs, ariēs, abies, and
pēs with its compounds, are long.
IS, US, Ys.
Turršs, legis, legimŭs, annŭs, Capýs.
omnes, fructûs, manûs : also the genitive singular of the fourth declension; as, portûs. But bus in the dative and ablative plural is short; as, floribus, fructibús, rebús.
Exc. 2. Nouns in 'ës are long, which have the genitive in itis, īnis, or entis ; as, līs, Samnīs, Salamīs, Simoīs. To these add the adverbs gratīs and forīs; the noun glis, and vīs, whether it be a noun or a verb; also is in the second person singular, when the plural has ātis; as, audīs, abīs, possīs. Ris in the future of the subjunctive is common.
Exc. 3. Monosyllables in us are long; as, grūs, sūs : also nouns which in the genitive have üris, ūdis, utis, untis, or õdis; as, tellus, incūs, virtus, amăthus, tripūs. To these add the genitive of Greek nouns of the third declension; as, Cliús, Sapphûs, Mantús; also nouns which have u in the vocative; as, Panthūs.
Exc. 4. Tethys is sometimes long, and nouns in ys, which have likewise yn in the nominative; as, Phorcys, Trachys.
T The last syllable of every verse is common
Or, as some think, necessarily long on account of the pause or suspension of the voice, which usually follows it in pronunciation. THE QUANTITY OF DERIVATIVE AND COMPOUND WORDS.
1. DERIVATIVES: XX. Derivatives follow the quantity of their primitives; as, Amicus, from ămo.
Decoro, from decus, -öris. Auctionor, auctio, -ōnis.
exul, -ŭlis. Auctoro, auctor, -öris.
păveo. Auditor, auditum.
Quiris, -itis. Auspicor,
radix, -icis. Cauponor,
sospes, -itis. Compětitor, compětitum.
Nātura, Cornicor, cornix, -icis,
māter. Custodio, custos, -õdis.
lěgo. Decorus, decor, -öris.
1. Long from Short. Deni, from décem. Suspicio, from suspicor. Mobilis, from moveo. Fomes,
hùmus. Humanus, homo.
Jūmentum. jůvo. Régula,
voco, &c. 2. Short from Long. Ărena and ărista, from areo.
Lůcerna, from luceo.
qualus, &c. 2. COMPOUNDS. XXI. Compounds follow the quantity of the simple words which compose them; as,
Dēduco, of dē, and dūco. So profěro, antěféro, consolor, dēnoto, depeculor, deprāvo, despēro, despūmo, desquämo, enõdo, ērúdio, exūdo, exăro, expăveo, incēro, inhŭmo, investigo, prægrăvo, prænăto, rēgělo, appăro, appāreo, concăvus, prægrăvis, dēsólo, suffoco & suffoco, diffidit from diffindo, and diffidit from diffido, indico, and indico, permănet from permåneo, and permanet from permano, effodit, in the present, and effodit in the perfect; so, exědit and exēdit ; devěnit and devēnit ; devěnīmus and devēnimus ; reperimus and reperămus; effugit and effugit, &c.
The change of a vowel or diphthong in the compound does not alter the quantity; as, incãdo from in and cădo ; incīdo from in and cædo ; suffoco from sub and faux, faucis : unless the letter following make it fall under some general rule; as, admitto, pērcello, děosculor, prõhibeo.
Exc. 1. Agnitum, cognitum, dējěro, pejěro, innŭba, pronŭba, maledicus, veridicus, nilaŭlum, semisõpitus; from nótus, jūro, nūbo, dico, hīlum, and sõpio : ambitus, a
participle from ambio, is long; but the substantives ambitus and ambitio are short. Connubium has the second syllable common.
Exc. 2. The preposition PRO is short in the following words: profundus, profugio, profugus, proněpos, proneptis, profestus, profari, profiteor, profānus, profecto, procelia, prótervus, and propāgo, a lineage; pro in prõpāgo, a vine stock or shoot, is long. Pro in the following words is doubtful : propago, to propagate; propino, profundo, propello, propulso, procūro, and Proserpina.
Exc. 3. The inseparable prepositions SE and DI are long; as, sēpăro, dīvello : except dírīmo, disertus. Re is short; as, rěmitto, rēsēro: except in the impersonal verb rēfert, compounded of res and fero.
Exc. 4. E, 1, 0, in the end of the former compounding word are usually shortened ; as, trecenti, něfas, něque, patěfacio, &c. Capricornus, omnipotens, agrícola, signžfico, biformis, aliger, Trivia, tubicen, &c. Duodécim, hodie, sacrosanctus, &c. But from each of these there are many exceptions.' Thus i is long when it is varied by cases ; as, quidam, quīvis, tantīdem, eidem, &c. And when the compounding words may be taken separately; as, ludimagister, lucrifacio, siquis, &c. Idem in the masculine, is long; in the neuter, short: also, ubique, ibidem. But in ubivis and ubicunque, the ¿ is doubtful.
In every word of two or more syllables, one syllable is sounded higher than the rest, to prevent monotony, or an uniformity of sound, which is disagreeable to the ear.
When accent is considered with respect to the sense, or when a particular stress is laid upon any word, on account of the meaning, it is called Emphăsis.
There are three accents, distinguished by their different sounds; acute, gruve, and circumflex.
1. The acute or sharp accent raises the voice in pronunciation, and is thus marked [']; as, prófero, próffer.
2. The grave or base accent depresses the voice, or keeps it in its natural tone; and is thus marked (']; as, doctè. This accent properly belongs to all syllables which have no other.
The circumflex accent first raises and then sinks the voice in some degree on the same syllable; and is therefore placed only upon long syllables. When written, it has this mark, made up of the two former [^]; as, amâre.
The accents are hardly ever marked in English books, except in dictionaries, grammars, spellingbooks, or the like, where the acute accent only used.
The accents are likewise seldom marked in Latin books, unless for the sake of distinction; as, in these adverbs, aliquò, continuò, doctè, unà, &c. to distinguish them from certain cases of adjectives, which are spelt in the same way. So poētà, gloriâ, in the ablative : fructus, tumultus, in the genitive : nostrům, vestrúm, the genitive of nos and vos : ergô, on account of; occidit, he slew; Pompili, for Pompilii ; amâris, for amaveris, &c.
It is so called, because when the number of syllables requisite is completed, we always turn back to the beginning of a new line.
The parts into which we divide a verse, to see if it have its just number of syllables, are called Feet.
A verse is divided into different feet, rather to ascertain its measure or number of syllables, than to regulate its pronunciation.
FEET. Poetic feet are either of two, three, or four syllables. When a single syllable is taken by itself, it is called a Cæsüra, which is commonly a long syllable.
1. Feet of two syllables. Spondeus, consists of two long; as, ömnes. Pyrrhichius,
two short; as, děŭs. Iambus,
a short and a long; as, ámāns. Trochæus,
a long and a short; as, sērvūs.
2. Feet of three syllables. Dactülus,
a long and two short; as, scriběrě. Anapæstus,
two short and a long; as, pvětās. Amphimăcer, a long, a short, and a long , as, charitas Tribråchys,
three short; as, dominūs.
The following are not so much used:
Ionicus minor, propěrabant.
Pæon primus, tempărăbăs,
Pæon secundus, põlēntii. 3. Feet of four syllables.
ănimālīs. Proceleusmaticus, hominibùs.
Epitritus primus, võlūplūlės.
Epitritus secundus, pænitentēs.
Epitritus tertius, discórdias.
Epitritus quartus, förtünālūs.
SCANNING. The measuring of verse, or the resolving of it into the several feet of which it is composed, is called Scanning
When a verse has just the number of feet requisite, it is called Versus Acatalectus, or Acatalecticus, an Acatalectic verse: if a syllable be wanting, it is called Catalecticus : if there be a syllable too much, Hypercataleclicus, or Hyperměter.
The ascertaining whether the verse be complete, defective, or redundant, is called Depositio, or Clausula.
DIFFERENT KINDS OF VERSE.
1. HEXAMETER. The Hexameter or Heroic verse consists of six feet. Of these the fifth is a dactyle, and the sixth a spondee ; all the rest may be either dactyles or spondees; as,
Lūděrě | quæ vėl. | lēm călă. / mo pēr- | misst ă- | grėsti. Virg.
Infân- 'dum Rė- l'gină, jů. | bēs rěnð- vārě do- lorem. Id. A regular Hexameter line cannot have more than seventeen syllables, or fewer than thirteen. Sometimes a spondee is found in the fifth place, whence the verse is called Spondaic: as,
Cără Dě- | um sóbó- I lēs mā- ' gnum Jóvis | incrē- | mēntūm. Virg. This verse is used when any thing grave, slow, large, sad, or the like, is expressed. It commonly has a dactyle in the fourth place, and a word of four syllables in the end.
Sometimes there remains a superfluous syllable at the end. But this syllable must either terminate in a vowel, or in the consonant m, with a vowel before it : so as to be joined with the following verse, which in the present case must always begin with a vowel ; as,
Omnia | Mercũri- | ỏ simi- | lis võ- | comquẽ có 1 lôrêmque
Ludere quæ vellem calamo permisit agresti. Virg.
Pinguis et ingratæ premeretur caseus urbi. Id. Or which have more dactyles than spondees; as,
Tityre tu patulæ recubans sub tegmine fagi. Id. It is esteemed a great beauty in a Hexameter verse, when by the use of dactyles and spondees, the sound is adapted to the sense; as,
Quadrupedante putrem sonitu quatit ungula campum. Virg.
Accipiunt inimicum imbrem, rimisque fatiscunt. IJ.
Cæsura is when, after a foot is completed, there remains a syllable at the end of a word to begin a new foot; as,
At ré-gină gră-vi jām-dudum, &c. The Cæsura is variously named, according to the different parts of the hexameter verse in which it is found. When it comes after the first foot, or falls on the third half-foot, it is called by a Greek name, Trieminēris: when on the fifth half-foot or the syllable after the second foot, it is called Penthemiměris: when it happens on the first syllable of the fourth foot, or the seventh half-foot, it is called Hepthemimeris: and when on the ninth half-foot, or the first syllable of the fifth foot, it is called Ennë emiměris. All these different species of the Cæsura sometimes occur in the same verse; as,
Illě lă-tus nivě-um mol-li fül-tus hýă-cinthô. Virg. But the most common and beautiful Cæsura is the penthemim; on which some lay a particular accent or stress of the voice in reading a hexameter verse thus composed, whence they call it the Cæsural pause : as,
Tityre dum rede- 0, brevis est via, pasce capellas. Virg. When the Cæsura falls on a syllable naturally short, it renders it long; as, the last syllable of fullus in the foregoing example.
The chief melody of a hexameter verse in a great measure depends on the proper disposition