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RULES.

7. One substantive governs another signifying a different person or thing, in the genitive. 8. If the latter of two substantives have an adjective of praise or dispraise, joined with it, it may be put either in the genitive or ablative. 9. An adjective in the neuter gender without a substantive, governs the genitive.

10. Opus and Usus, signifying need, require the ablative.

11. Verbal adjectives, and such as signify an affection of the mind, govern the genitive.

12. Partitives, and words placed partitively, comparatives, su perlatives, interrogatives, and some numerals, govern the genitive plural.

13. Adjectives signifying profit or disprofit, likeness or unlike

govern the

ness, &c.
dative.
14. These adjectives,
dignus, indignus, præ-
prœ-
ditus, and contentus;
also, natus, satus, or-
tus, editus, and the like,
govern the ablative.

15. Adjectives, signifying plenty, or want, govern the genitive, or ablative.

16. Sum, when it signifies possession, property, or duty, governs the genitive. 17. Sum, taken for habeo, (to have,) governs the dative of a person.

18. Sum, taken for Affero, (to bring,) governs two datives; the one of a person, and the other of a thing.

:.

stans

mo.

Jesus Christus, filius Dei, est Salvator mundi. Cicero, orator, fuit consul Romæ. Numa Pompilius erat rex secundus Romanorum. Ille fuit vir magnæ prudentiæ. Ego sum publicus nuncius populi Romani; verbis meis fides sit. Ancus Marcius erat nepos Numa Pompilii, similis avo æquitate et religione.. Augustus est puer probâ indole. Petrus est vir minim, pretii. Est homo nullius stipendii. Est ager trium jugerum. Es bono animo. Capite aperto est. Cervice obvoluta est. Johannes est adolescens eximia spe, summæ virtutis. Paulus est vir præstantis genii-præstanti ingenio-præstans ingenio—præingenii. Os humerosque deo similis sit. Esto forti aniVox populi est vox Dei. Hæc est domus Cæsaris. Facilis est descensus Averni. Multum pecuniæ est illi. Plus eloquentiæ est tibi. Est nobis minus sapientiæ. Est vobis nihil sinceri. Quid rei est illis? Quicquid ingenii sit mihi. Per hoc noctis. Ad hoc ætatis, Circum id loci. Libri permulti sunt mihi. Eadem mens est mihi, eadem tibi. Nobis est opus pecuniâ. Vobis est usus viribus. Dux nobis opus sit. Nobis exempla opus sunt. Est regis. Pecus est Meliboi. Hæc sunt hominis. Temeritas est florentis ætatis, prudentia senectutis. Tuum est. Meum fuisset. Suum sit. Vestrum fuerit. Nostrum erit. Est regium. Est humanum. Lex naturæ est universalis. Illi est summa prudentia juris. Quorum magna pars fui. Liber mei est novus. Liber tui est novellus. Salus populi est suprema lex. Hoc est tuum munus. Hoc est tui muneris. Liber deest mihi. Libri desunt mihi. Præfuit exercitui. Adfuit precibus. Mali nec prosunt sibi, nec aliis. Est mihi voluptati. Est tibi exemplo. Horatius fuit cupidus pacis. Cato fuit tenax propositi. Cicero fuit amans patriæ. Cæsar fuit peritus literarum. Petrus est memor beneficiorum. Petrus est

avidus gloriæ. Paulus est ignarus fraudis. Memor esto brevis ævi. Catilina fuit audax ingenii. Est sapientis esse contentum sua sorte. Hic est assuetus labore in omnia. Nos sumus insueti moribus Romanis. Fœminæ sunt desuetæ bello, et triumphis. Una sororum fuit pulchra. Ille est aliquis philosophorum. Uterque nostrum fuit ibi. Quis vestrum est senior fratrum? Cicero fuit optimus consulum. Sunt lecti juvenum. O sancte deorum. Ille est vir præstantissimus nostræ civitatis. Poeta est utilis urbi. Hic puer est similis suo patri. Lex fuit perniciosa Reipublicæ. Censura est facilis cuivis. Hoc est commune mihi tecum. Mens est mihi sibi conscia recti. Regis dicto audiens erat. Superbia est aliena dignitatis. Nemo est immunis vitio. Omnes sunt proni ad vitium. Hic puer est dignus laude. Sapiens est contentus sua sorte. Dux est præditus virtute. Stultus est captus mente. Homo superbus sapientiâ est stultissimus. Eneas fuit ortus Anchise. Omnia plena sunt Dei. Non inopes temporis, sed prodigi sumus. Lentulus non est verbis inops. Omnium consiliorum ejus, participes fuimus. Quando erimus vacui molestiâ? Nihil insidiis est vacuum.

Ille est doctus grammaticæ. Hic est patiens algoris. Sapientia est melior gemmis. Nihil est dulcius libertate. Nihil fuit facundius Cicerone. Tu es nihilo melior alio. Amor non est medicabilis herbis. Via lethi est calcanda semel omnibus. Hic liber est mei fratris. Hæc toga erat tua. Jacobus et Johannes, qui sunt mortui, fuerunt fratres. Jupiter est omnibus idem. Peripatetici quondam iidem erant qui Academici. Est animus erga te idem ac fuit. Res est soliciti plena timoris amor. Maxima quæque domus servis est plena superbis. Amor et melle et felle est fœcundissimus. Anna est amanda omnibus, Mors est terribilis malis. Pax est optabilis omnibus. Adhibenda est nobis diligentia. Bella matribus detestata sunt. Deus est venerandus et colendus à nobis. Mors Crassi est à multis defleta. Pedibus longè melior fuit Lycus. Dum anima est, spes est. Donec eris felix, sunt tibi multi amici. Fuit olim quasi ego sum, senex. Nihil abest quin sim miserrimus. En hostis. Ecce signum. Ecce miserum hominem. Ecce duas aras tibi, Daphni. O vir bone! O vir fortis atque amicus! Heu me miserum! Heu vanitas humana! Hei mihi! Vo vobis! Proh hominum fidem! Proh Sancte Jupiter! Et ego sum in culpa, et tu. Nihil hic nisi carmina desunt. Mens, ratio, et consilium in senibus sunt. Etsi sit liberalis, tamen non est profusus. Non bonus est somnus de prandio. Ah virgo infelix! O crudelis Alexi! Es penes te? Lentæ adversus imperia aures fuerunt. Hic illius arma, hic currus fuit. Timor Domini est initium sapientiæ. Facies rerum est mutata. Quantum nummi sit ubivis, tantum fidei est etiam ibidem. Ubi plurimum est studii, ibi est minimum strepitûs. O, Fons Blandusiæ, splendidior vitro. Nil mortalibus arduum est. Sine amore jocisque nil est jucundum. O cives, quærenda pecunia est primum, Virtus post nummos. Sapientissimus philosophorum est aliquando deceptus. Heliodorus fuit longè doctissimus Græcorum. Stertinius, octavus sapientium, erat Stoicus. Satis est verborum ubique gentium, ergo virtutis. Rex, Solomon, fuit sapientior omnibus. Pax est melior bello. Cicero fuit candidior Cæsare. Dux est major milite. Cortex Peruvianus est efficax contra febrim. Fuit Ciceroni mentis ad omnia capacitas. Sunt ebrii omnes ad unum. In vino est veritas. Tu es homo ad unguem factus. Hæ sunt herbæ ad lunam messæ. Ira est brevis, et ad tempus. Nebula erat ad multum diei. Est mihi fides apud illum. Adversus infimos justitia est servanda. Sunt clamosi ab ovo usque ad mala. Est calor à sole. Fuissent omissiores de re. Erat Caio Mario ingenuarum artium et liberalium studiorum contemptor animus. Lucius Cornelius Scylla, patricio genere natus, bello Jugurthino quaestor Marii fuit; vir ingentis animi, cupidus voluptatum, sed gloriæ cupidior; literis Græcis atque Latinis eruditus, et virorum literatorum multùm amans. Est mihi nomen Alexandro. Ducitur honori tibi. Id vertitur mihi vitio. Petrus et Johannes, qui sunt docti, fuerunt studiosi.

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EXERCISES.

Accuso, to accuse.
Adumbro, to shade.
Edifico, to build.
Estimo, to value.
Animo, to encourage.
Appello, to call.
Apto, to fit.
Assevero, to affirm.
Bello, to war.
Beo, to bless.
Calco, to tread.
Castigo, to chastise.
Celo, to conceal.
Clamo, to cry.
Cogito, to think.
Comparo, to compare.
Considero, to consider.
Contamino, to pollute.
Creo, to create.
Curo, to care.
Damno, to condemn.
Declaro, to declare.
Decoro, to adorn.
Dedico, to dedicate.
Desolo, to lay waste.
Dono, to present.
Educo, to bring up.
Emendo, to amend.
Erro, to wander.
Exploro, to search.
Extrico, to disentangle.
Fabrico, to frame.
Fascino, to bewitch.
Fatigo, to weary.
Festino, to hasten.
Flagito, to dun.
Flo, to blow.
Frio, to crumble.
Fugo, to put to flight.
Guberno, to govern.
Gusto, to taste.
Honoro, to honour.
Jacto, to boast.
Immolo, to sacrifice.
Impero, to command.
Inchoo, to begin.
Indico, to show.
Instigo, to push on.
Intro, to enter.
Invito, to invite.

Jubilo, to shout for joy.
Juro, to swear.
Laboro, to labour.
Lacero, to tear.
Latro, to bark.
Lego, to send an embassy.
Libo, to taste.
Libero, to free.
Ligo, to bind.
Mando, to command.
Meneoro, to tell.
Migro, to remove.
Muto, to charge.
Narro, to relate.
Navigo, to sail.
Nego, to deny.
Noming, to name.
Nudo, to make bare.
Numero, to count.
Obsecro, to beseech.
Odore, to perfume.
Onero, to load.
Opto, to wish.

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Singular. 1. Amo, I love,

2. Amas, thou lovest,

3. Amat, he loves;

INDICATIVE MOOD.

Present Tense, love, do love, or am loving.

Plural. Amamus, we love, Amatis, ye love, Amant, they love.

Imperfect, loved, did love, or was loving.

1. Amăbam, I loved,
2. Amabas, thou lovedst,
3. Amabat, he loves;

Amabamus, we loved,
Amabatis, ye loved,
Amabant, they loved.

Perfect, loved, have loved, or did love.

1. Amāvi, I have loved,
2. Amavisti, thou hast loved,
3. Amavit, he has loved;

Pluperfect,

1. Amávěram, I had loved, 2 Amaveras, thou hadst loved, 3. Amaverat, he had loved;

1. Amābo, I shall love,
2. Amabis, thou shalt love,
3. Amabit, he shall love;

Future, shall, or will love.

1. Amem, I may love,
2. Ames, thou mayest love,
3. Amet, he may love;

1. Amarem, I might love, 2. Amares, thou mightest love, 3. Amaret, he might love;

Pres. Infin.

Perfect, may 1. Amăverim, I may have loved, 2. Amaveris, thou mayest have loved, 3. Amaverit, he may have loved;

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. Present Tense, may, or can love.

ămăre, To love.

Amavimus, we have loved,
Amavistis, ye have loved,

Amavērunt, v.-ĕre, they have loved. had loved.

Amēmus, we may love,
Ametis, ye may love,
Ament, they may love.

Imperfect, might, would, could, or should love.

Amaveramus, we had loved, Amaveratis, ye had loved, Amaverant, they had loved.

1. Amávěro, I shall have loved, 2. Amaveris, thou shalt have loved, 3. Amaverit, he shall have loved;

Amabimus, we shall love, Amabitis, ye shall love, Amabunt, they shall love.

2. Ama, v. amato, love thou, 3. Amato, let him love;

Amarēmus, we might love, Amaretis, ye might love, Amarent, they might love. have loved.

Pluperfect, might, would, could, or should have loved.

1. Amāvissem, I might have loved, 2. Amavisses, thou mightest have loved, 3. Amavisset, he might have loved; Future, shall

Amaverimus, we may have loved, Amaveritis, ye may have loved, Amaverint, they may have loved.

Amavissemus, we might have loved, Amavissetis, ye might have loved, Amavissent, they might have loved. have loved.

IMPERATIVE MOOD.

Amaverimus, we shall have loved, Amaveritis, ye shall have loved, Amaverint, they shall have loved.

Amate v. amatote, love ye, Amanto, let them love.

INFINITIVE MOOD.

Pres. Amare, to love. Perf. Amavisse, to have loved.

Fut. Esse amaturus, to be about to love, Fuisse amaturus, to have been about to love.

PARTICIPLES.

Pres. Amans, loving. Fut. Amaturus, about to love.

GERUNDS. Aman-dum-di-do-dum-do, loving, of loving, &c.

SUPINES.

Former, Amatum, to love.

Latter, Amatu, to love, or to be loved.

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DEPONENT

AND COMMON VERBS.

Abominor, to abhor.
Adulor, to flatter.
Arbitror, to think.
Bacchor, to revel.
Conor, to endeavour.
Criminor, to blame.
Cunctor, to delay.
Dominor, to rule.
Epulor, to feast.
Frustror, to disappoint.
Glorior, to boast.
Hortor, to encourage
Imitor, to imitate.
Luctor, to wrestle.
Machinor, to contrive.
Minor, to threaten.
Opinor, to think.
Osculor, to kiss.
Precor, to pray.
Recordor, to remember.
Suspicor, to suspect.

Testor, to witness.
Veneror, to worship
Venor, to hunt.

EXERCISES.

Censeo, to judge. Misceo, to mix Sorbeo, to sup. Teneo, to hold. Torreo, to roast.

UI and ITUM. Habeo, to have. Adhibeo, to admit. Cohibeo, to restrain.. Exhibeo, to exhibit. Perhibeo, to give out. Prohibeo, to hinder. Posthabeo, to value less. Redhibeo, to return a thing. Debeo, to owe. Mereo, to deserve. Moneo, to admonish. Præbeo, to afford. Caleo, to be warm. Careo, to want. Jaceo, to lie. Doleo, to be grieved. Liceo, to be lawful. Noceo, to hurt. Pareo, to appear. Placeo, to please. Taceo, to be silent.

UI, sup. caret. Albeo, to be white. Calleo, to be hard. Caneo, to be hoary. Egeo, to want. Emineo, to be eminent. Floreo, to flourish. Frendeo, to gnash the teeth. Frondeo, to bear leaves. Horreo, to be rough. Humeo, to be wet. Immineo, to hang over, Langueo, to languish. Liqueo, to melt. Maceo, to be lean. Niteo, to shine. Palleo, to be pale. Pateo, to be open. Putreo, to rot. Rigeo, to be stiff. Rubeo, to be red. Studeo, to favour. Stupeo, to be amazed. Splendeo, to shine. Tepeo, to be warm. Torpeo, to be benumbed. Tumeo, to swell. Arceo, to drive away. Sileo, to conceal. Timeo, to fear.

BEO and CEO. Jubeo, to order. Mulceo, to soothe. Luceo, to shine.

DEO.
Prandeo, to dine.
Video, to see.
Sedeo, to sit.

Strideo, to make a noise.
Mordeo, to bite.

Pendeo, to hang.
Spondeo, lo promise.
Tondeo, to clip.
Remordeo, to bite again.

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2. Doce, v. docēto, teach thou, 3. Doceto, let him teach;

Docebimus, we shall teach, Docebitis, ye shall teach, Docebunt, they shall teach.

Imperfect, might, could, would, or should teach.

Doceamus, we may teach, Doceatis, we may teach, Doceant, they may teach.

Doceremus, we might teach, Doceretis, ye might teach, Docerent, they might teach. have taught.

Pluperfect, might, would, could, or should have taught.

Docuerimus, we may have taught, Docueritis, ye may have taught, Docuerint, they may have taught.

1. Docuissem, I might have taught, Docuissemus, we might have taught, 2. Docuisses, thou mightest have taught,Docuissetis, ye might have taught, Docuissent, they might have taught. have taught.

3. Docuisset, he might have taught;
Future, shall
1. Docuĕro, I shall have taught,
2. Docueris, thou shalt have taught,
3. Docuerit, he shall have taught;

IMPERATIVE MOOD.

Docuerimus, we shall have taught, Docueritis, ye shall have taught, Docuerint, they shall have taught.

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Docěte, v. docetote, teach ye, Docento, let them teach.

INFINITIVE MOOD.

Pres. Docere, to teach. Perf. Docuisse, to have taught. Fut.

Esse docturus, to be about to teach. Fuisse docturus, to have been about to teach.

PARTICIPLES.

Pres. Docens, teaching. Fut. Doctūrus, about to teach. GERUNDS.

Docendum-di-do-dum-do, teaching, of teaching, &c.

SUPINES.

Former. Doctum, to teach.

Latter. Doctu, to teach, or to be taught.

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