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of the Cesura. Without this, a line consisting of the number of feet requisite will be little else than mere prose ; as,
Romæ mænță tērrůst impigěr Hannibăl ärmis. Ennius. The ancient Romans, in pronouncing verse, paid a particular attention to its melody. They not only observed the quantity and accent of the several syllables, but also the different stops and pauses which the particular turn of the verse required. In modern times we do not fully perceive the melody of Latin verse, because we have now lost the just pronunciation of that language, the people of every country pronouncing it in a manner similar to their own. In reading Latin verse, therefore, • we are directed by the same rules which take place with respect to English verse.
The tone of the voice ought to be chiefly regulated by the sense. All the words should be pronounced fully; and the cadence of the verse ought only to be observed, so far as it corresponds with the natural expression of the words. At the end of each line there should be no fall of the voice, unless the sense requires it; but a small pause, half of that which we usually make at a
2. PENTAMETER. The Pentaměter verse consists of five feet. Of these the two first are either dactyles or spondees; the third always a spondee; and the fourth and fifth an anapæstus ; as,
Nātu- | ræ sěqui- | tūr sē. | mìnă quis- | quě súæ. Propert.
Cárměni- | būs vi- / vēs tēm- | půs in om- | ně mčís. Ovid. But this verse is more properly divided into two hemisticks or halves; the former of which consists of two feet, either dactyles or spondees, and a cæsura ; the latter, always of two dactyles and another cæsura ; thus,
Nätü- | ræ sěqui- | tür | sēmînă | quisquě sů- l æ.
Cärmini- | būs vi- / vēs tēmpús in omně mě- l is.
3. ASCLEPIADEAN. The Asclepiadéan verse consists of four feet; namely, a spondee, twice a choriambus, and a pyrrhichius; as,
Mæcė- | nās åtăvis | ēdītě re- | gībūs. Hor. But this verse may be more properly measured thus : in the first place, a spondee; in the second, a dactyle ; then a cæsura ; and after that two dactyles ; thus, Mæce- | nas ata- | vis | edite | regibus.
Nāvis quæ tỉbị cre- | dětům. Horat.
5. SAPPHIC and ADONIAN.
Intě. I gēr vi- 1 tæ, scělě- | risquě | pūrūs. Horat. An Adonian verse consists only of a dactyle and spondec ; as, Jupitěr | urgêt. Horat.
6. PHERECRATIAN. The Pherecratian verse consists of three feet, a spondee, dactyle, and spondee; thus, Nigris | æquoră / vēntis. Horat.
7. PHALEUCIAN. The Phaleucian verse consists of five feet; namely, a spondee, a dactyle, and three trochees; as, Summām nēc mětů- | as di- | ēm, něc | optěs. Martial.
8. The GREATER ALCAIC. The Greater Alcaic, called likewise Dactylic, consists of four feet, a spondee or iambus, iambus and cæsura, then two dactyles; as, Virtūs | répül- | sæ | nēsc1ă | sordựdæ. Horat.
9. ARCHILOCHIAN. The Archilochian lambic verse consists of four feet. In the first and third place, it has either a spondee or iambus; in the second and fourth, always an iambus; and in the end, a cæsura; as,
Nēc sū- | mit, aūt | põnīt | sěcũ- | rēs. Horat.
10. The LESSER ALCAIC. The Lesser Dactylic Alcaic consists of four feet; namely, two dactyles and two trochees; as,
Arbitri- | o popů- | läris | aūræ. Horat. Of the above kinds of verse, the first two take their names from the number of feet of which they consist. All the rest derive their names from those by whom they were either first invented, or frequently used.
There are several other kinds of verse, which are named from the feet by which they are most commonly measured, such as the dactylic, trochaic, anapæstic, and iambic. The last of these is most frequently used.
11. IAMBIC. Of lambic verse there are two kinds. The one consists of four feet, and is called by a Greek name Dimëter; the other consists of six feet, and is called Trimăter. The reason of these names is, that among the Greeks two feet were considered only as one measure in jambic verse; whereas the Latins measured it by single feet, and therefore called the dimeter quaternarius, and the trimeter senarius. Originally this kind of verse was purely iambic, i. e. admitted of no other feet but the iambus ; thus,
Dimeter, Inār- sit æ | siúð- súis. Horat.
Trimeter, Súis l 'ět i- | psă Rö- | mă vi- | rìbus | růst. Id. But afterwards, both for the sake of ease and variety, different feet were admitted into the uneven or odd places; that is, in the first, third, and fifth places, instead of an iambus, they used a spondee, a dactyle, or an anapæstus, and sometimos a tribrachys. We also find a tribrachys in the even places, i.e. in the second place, and in the fourth; for the last foot must always be an iambus; thus,
Dimeter, Cānidi | ă trão | ctavit | dăpēs. Horat.
Vidē- 1 rě propě. | rāntės | dómum. Id.
Păvīdūm- | quě lepo- | raut ād- | věnām | lắquěő | grŭēm. Id.
Alīti | būs āt- | quě cảni | bằs homi- | cid' Hě- | ctorem. In comic writers we sometimes find an iambic verse consisting of eight feet, therefore called Tetrameter or Octonarius.
FIGURES IN SCANNING. The several changes made upon words to adapt them to the verse are called Figures in Scanning. The chief of these are the Synalæpha, Ecthlipsis, Synærěsis, Diærěsis ; Systole, and Diastole.
1. SYNAL@PHA is the cutting off a vowel or diphthong, when the next word begins with a vowel; as,
Conticuere omnes, intentique ora tenebant. Virg. to be scanned thus,
Contịcŭ- | ēr' om- | nės in- | tênti | qu' oră tě. I nēbānt. The Synalæpha is sometimes neglected ; and seldom takes place in the interjections, ô, heu, ah, proh, væ, vah, hei; as,
O pater, 6 hominum, Divûmque æterna potestas. Virg.
Insulæ lonio in magno, quas dira Celæno. Virg.
Glauco et Panopeæ, et Inoo Melicertæ. 2. ECT LIPSIS is when m is cut off, with the vowel before it in the end of a word, because the following word begins with a vowel; as,
O curas hominum? O quantum, est in rebus inane! Pers. thus,
O củ- | rås homi- | n', o quan- | t est in / rēbės în- | inė.
Sternitur infelix alieno vulnere, cælumque
Ardua cernebant juvenes, murosque subibant. Id. These verses are called Hypermetri, because a syllable remains to be carried to the beginning of the next line; thus, qu' Adspicit ; r' Ardua.
3. SYNÆRESIS is the contraction of two syllables into one, which is likewise called Crasis; as, Phæthon, for Phaethon. So, či in Thesei, Orphei, deinde, Pompei ; ui, in huic, cui ; oi, in proinde ; ed, in aured; thus,
Notus amor Phædræ, nota est injuria Thesei. Ovid.
Aureâ percussum virgâ, versumque venenis. Id. So in antehac, caulem, alvearia, deest, deerit, vehemens, anteit, eodem, alveo, graveolentis, omnia, semianimis, semihomo, fluviorum, totius, promontorium, &c. as,
Unâ eâdemque vià sanguisque animusque ferentur. Virg.
Bis patriæ cecidere manus : quin protinus omnia. Id
Inde legit Capreas, promontoriumque Minervæ. Ovid.
Propterea qui corpus aquæ naturaque tenvis. Lucr.
Ut Nasidjeni juvit te cæna beati. Hor. 4. DI&Resis divides one syllable into two; as, aulai, for aulæ ; Troiæ, for Trojæ ; Persëus, for Perseus; miltus, for milvus ; solüit, for solvit ; volüit, for volvit ; aquæ, suetus, süasit, suevos, relangüit, reliquas, for aquæ, suetus, &c. as,
Aulai in medio libabant pocula Bacchi. Virg.
Reliqüas tamen esse vias in mente patenteis. Lucr.
Matri longa decem tulérunt fastidia menses. Virg. 6. DIAST/LE is when a syllable usually short is made long; as the last syllable in amor, in the following verse;
Considant, si tantus amor, et mænia condant. Virg. To these may be subjoined the Figures of Diction, as they are called, which are chiefly used by the poets, though some of them likewise frequently occur in prose.
1. When a letter or syllable is added to the beginning of a word, it is called PROSTHěsis ; as, gnavus for navus ; tetúli for tuli. When a letter or syllable is interposed in the middle of a word, it is called EPENTHěsis; as, relligio, for religio ; induperator, for imperator. When a letter or syllable is added to the end, it is called PARAGÓGE; as, dicier for dici.
2. If a letter or syllable be taken from the beginning of a word, it is called APHÆRěsis; as, natus for gnatus; tenderant for tetenderant. If from the middle of a word, it is called SYNCÓPE; as, dîxti for dixisti; deủm, for deorum. If from the end, ApocÕPE ; as, riden' for videsne ; Antoni for Antonii.
3. When a letter or syllable is transposed, it is called Metathěsis; as, pistris for pristis : Lybia for Libya. When one letter is put for another, it is called Antithěsis; as, faciundum for faciendum , olli for illi; voltis for vultis.
DIFFERENT KINDS OF POEMS. Any work composed in verse is called a Poem, (Poema, or Carmen.)
Poems are called by various names, from their subject, their form, the manner of treating the subject, and their style.
1. A poem on the celebration of a marriage is called an EPITHALAMIUM; on a mournful subject, an ELEGY or LAMENTATION; in praise of the Supreme Being, a HYMN; in praise of any person or thing, a PANEGYRIC or ENCOMIUM; on the vices of any one, a SATIRE or INVEC. TIVE; a poem to be inscribed on a tomb, an EPITAPH, &c.
2. A short poem adapted to the lyre or harp, is called an ODE, whence such compositions are called Lyric Poems ; a poem in the form of a letter is called an EPISTLE ; a short witty poem, playing on the fancies or conceits which arise from any subject, is called an EPIGRAM; as those of Catullus and Martial. A sharp, unexpected lively turn of wit in the end of an epigram, is called its Point. A poem expressing the moral of any device or picture, is called an EMBLEM. A poem containing an obscure question to be explained, is called an ÆNIGMA or RIDDLE.
When a character is described so that the first letters of each verse, and sometimes the middle and final letters express the name of the person or thing described, it is called an ACROSTIC as the following on our Saviour :
I nter cuncta micans I gniti sudera cæl 1,
Solem justitiæ, S ese probat esse beati S.
The Exegetic, where the poet always speaks himself, is of three kinds, Historical Didactic or Instructive, (as the Satire or Epistle,) and Descriptive.
Of the Dramatic, the chief kinds are COMEDY, representing the actions of ordinary life, generally with a happy issue; and TRAGEDY, representing the actions and distresses of illustrious personages, commonly with an unhappy issue. To which may be added Pastoral Poems or BUCOLICŚ, representing the actions and conversations of shepherds; as most of the eclogues of Virgil.
The Mixt kind is where the poet sometimes speaks in his own person, and sometimes makes other characters to speak. Of this kind is chiefly the EPIC or HEROIC poem, which treats of some one great transaction of some great illustrious person, with its various circumstances ; as the wrath of Achilles, in the Iliad of Homer; the settlement of Æneas in Italy, in the Æneid of Virgil; the fall of man, in the Paradise Lost of Milton, &c. 4. The style of poetry, as of prose, is of three kinds ; the simple, ornate, and sublime
COMBINATION OF VERSES IN POEMS. In long poems there is commonly but one kind of verse used. Thus Virgil, Lucretius, Horace in his Satires and Epistles, Ovid in his Metamorphoses, Lucan, Silius Italicus, Valerius Flaccus, Juvenal, &c. always use Hexameter verse ; Plautus, Terence, and other writers of Comedy, generally use the lambic, and sometimes the Trochaic. It is chiefly in shorter poems, particularly those which are called Lyric poems, as the Odes of Horace and the Psalms nf Buchanan, that various kinds of verse are combined.
A poem which has only one kind of verse, is called by a Greek name MONOCOLON, sc. poema, v. carmen ; or Monocolos, sc. ode : that which has two kinds, DicÕLon; and that which has three kinds of verse, TRICÒLON.
If the same sort of verse return after the second line, it is called Dicòlon DISTRÕPHON; as when a single Pentameter is alternately placed after a HEXAMETER, which is named Elegia: verse, (carmen Elegiăcum,) because it was first applied to mournful subjects ; thus,
Flebilis indignos Elegëia solve capillos ;
Ah! nimis ex vero, nunc tibi nomen erit. Ovid. This kind of verse is used by Ovid in all his other works except the Metamorphoses; and also, for the most part, by Tibullus, Propertius, &c.
When a poem consists of two kinds of verse, and after three lines returns to the first, it is called Dicolon Tristrophon : when after four lines, Dicolon Tetraslrophon : as,
Auream quisquis mediocritatem
Horat. When a poem consists of three kinds of verse, and after three lines always returns to the first, it is called Tricolon Tristrophon: but if it returns after four lines, it is called Tricolon Tetrastrophon : as when after two greater dactylic alcaic verses are subjoined an archilochian iambic and a lesser dactylic alcaic which is named Carmen Horatianum, or Horatian verse, because it is frequently used by Horace ; thus,
Virtus recludens immeritis mori
Spernit humum fugiente penna. Any one of these parts of a poem, in which the different kinds of verse are comprehended, when taken by itself, is called a Strophe, Stansa, or Staff.
DIFFERENT KINDS OF VERSE IN HORACE AND BUCHANAN. I. Odes and Psalms of one kind of verse. 1. Asclepiadēan, See N° 3. p. 208. Hor. I. 1. JII. 30. IV. 8.-Buch. Ps. 28. 40. 80.
2. Choriambic Alcaic Pentameter, consisting of a spondee, three choriambuses, and a pyrrhichius or iambus : Hor. I. 11. 18. IV. 10.
3. Tambic trimăter, No 11.-Hor. Epod. 17.-Buch. Ps 25. 94. 106. 4. Hexameter, No 1. Hor. Satires and Epistles.-Buch. Ps. 1. 18. 45. 78. 85. 89. 104. 107. 132. 135.
5. Tambic Diměler, No 11.- -Buch. Ps. 13. 31. 37 47. 52. 54. 59. 86. 96. 98. 117. 148. 149. 150. 6. The Greater Dactylic Alcaic, No 8.-Buch. Ps. 26. 29. 32. 49. 61. 71. 73. 143.
7. Trochaic, consisting of seven trochees and a syllable ; admitting also a tribrachys in the uneven places, i. e. in the first, third, fifth, and seventh foot; and in the even places, a tribrachys, spondee, dactyle, and anapestus.-Buch. Ps. 105. 119. 124. 129.
8. Anapestic, consisting of four anapestuses, admitting also a spondee or dactyle ; and in the last place, sometimes a tribrachys, amphimăcer, or trochee. Ps. 113.
9. Anacreontic lambic, consisting of three iambuses and a syllable; in the first foot it has sometimes a spondee or anapestus, and also a tribrachys.- -Ps 131.
II. Odes and Psalms of two kinds of verse following one another alternately.
1. Glyconian and Asclepiadean, No 4. and 3.-Hor. I. 3. 13. 19. 36. III. 9. 15. 19. 24. 25. 28. IV. 1.3.-Buch. Ps. 14. 35. 43.
2. Every first line, (Dactylico-Trochaic,) consisting of the first four feet of a hexameter verse
then three trochees or a spondee for the last; every second verse, (lambic Archilochian,) consisting
3. The first line, Hexameter : and the second, Alcmanian Dactylic, consisting of the four last feet
4. Every first line, Aristophanic, consisting of a choriambus, and bacchius or amphimacer: every
5. The first line, Trochaic, consisting of three trochees, and a cæsura ; or of an amphimacer,
6. The first line, Hexameter; the second, Dactylic Archilochian, two dactyles and a cæsura, Hor.
7. The first line, lambic Trimeter; and the second, lambic Dimeter; No 11. -Hor. Epod. 1, 2,
8. The first line, lambic Dimeter ; the second Sapphic, consists of two dactyles, a cæsura, and
10. Hexameter and lambic Trimeter. Hor. Epod. 16.—Buch. Ps. 2. 20. 24. 57. 60. 69. 83. 93. 95.
11. The first line, Sapphic, No 5. and the second, lambic Dimeter, No 11. Buch. Ps. 8.
14. The first line, Hexameter ; and the second line, the three last feet of a hexameter, with a
15. Hexameter and Pentameter, or Elegiac verse. Buch. Ps. 88. 114. 137.
III. ODES and Psalms of two kinds of verse, and three or four lines in each stanza.
1. The three first lines, Sapphic; and the fourth, Adonian, No 5. Horat. Carm. I. 2. 10. 12. 20.
2. The three first lines, Asclepiadean, and the fourth, Glyconian. Hor. Carm. I. 6. 15. 24. 33.
3. The two first lines, Ionic Trimeter, consisting of three Ionici minores ; the third line, Ionic
4. The two first lines have four trochees, admitting, in the second foot, a spondee, dactyle, &c.
5. The three first lines, Glyconian, No 4, admitting also a spondee, or iambus, in the first foot;
IV. ODES and PsALMs of three kinds of verse, and three or four lines in each stanza.
2. The two lines, the Greater Dactylic Alcaic, No 8. The third, Archilochian lambic, No 9. The
3. The first line, Glyconian ; the second, Asclepiadēan ; the third a spondee, three choriambuses,
4. The first line, Hexameter; the second, Iombic Dimeter; and the third, two dactyles and a