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CHAP. considerable part of the public revenue will be XVII.

expended by the prince himself, by his ministers, by the officers of justice, and by the domestics of the palace. The most wealthy of the provincials will be attracted by the powerful motives of interest and duty, of amusement and curiosity. A third and more numerous class of inhabitants will insensibly be formed, of servants, of artificers, and of merchants, who derive their subsistence from their own labour, and from the wants or luxury of the superior ranks. In less than a century, Constantinople disputed with Rome itself the pre-eminence of riches and numbers. New piles of buildings, crowded together with too little regard to health or convenience, scarcely allowed the intervals of narrow streets for the perpetual throng of men, of horses, and of carriages. The allotted space of ground was insufficient to contain the increasing people; and the additional foundations, which, on either side, were advanced into the sea, might alone have composed a very

considerable city. Privileges.

The frequent and regular distributions of wine and oil, of corn or bread, of money or provisions, had almost exempted the poorest citizens of Rome from the necessity of labour. The magnificence of the first Cæsars was in some measure imitated

The passages of Zosimus, of Eunapius, of Sozomen, and of Agathius, which relate to the increase of buildings and inhabitants at Constantinople, are collected and connected by Gyllius de Byzant. 1. i, c. 3. Sidonius Apollinaries (in Panegyr. Anthem. 56, p. 290, edit. Sirmond) describes the moles that were pushed forwards into the sea; they consisted of the famous Puzzolan sand, which hardens in the water,

by the founder of Constantinople: but his libe- CHAP.

XVII. rality, however it might excite theapplause of the people, has incurred the censure of posterity. A nation of legislators and conquerors might assert their claim to the harvests of Africa, which had been purchased with their blood; and it was artfully contrived by Augustus, that, in the enjoyment of plenty, the Romans should lose the memory of freedom. But the prodigality of Constantine could not be excused by any consideration either of public or private interest; and the annual tribute of corn imposed upon Egypt for the benefit of his new capital, was applied to feed a lazy and indolent populace at the expence of the husbandmen of an industrious province. Some other regulations of this emperor are less liable to blame, but they are less deserving of notice. He divided Constantinople into fourteen regions or quarters," dignified the public council with

i Sozomen, 1. ii, c. 3. Philostorg. 1. ii, c. 9. Codin. Antiqui. tat. Const. p. 8. It appears by Socrates, l. ii, c. 13, that the daily allowances of the city consisted of eight myriads of 6178, which we may either translate with Valesius by the words modii of corn, or consider as expressive of the number of loaves of bread.

m See Cod. Theodos. l. xiii and xiv, and Cod. Justinian. Edicte xii, tom. ii, p. 648, edit. Genev. See the beautiful complaint of Rome in the poem of Claudian de Bell. Gildonico, ver, 46-64.

Cum subiit par Roma mihi, divisaque sumsit
Æquales aurora togas; Ægyptia rura

In partem cessere novam. n The regions of Constantinople are mentioned in the code of Justinian, and particularly described in the Notitia of the younger Theodosius; but as the four last of them are not included within the wall of Constantine, it may be doubted whether this division of the city should be referred to the founder,

XVII.

CHAP, the appellation of Senate, communicated to the

citizens the privileges of Italy, and bestowed on the rising city the title of Colony, the first and most favoured daughter of ancient Rome. The venerable parent still maintained thelegal and acknowledged supremacy, which was due to her age, to her dignity, and to the remembrance of her former greatness.

As Constantine urged the progress of the work 330 or 334. with the impatience of a lover, the walls, the por

ticoes, and the principal edifices, were completed in a few years, or, according to another account, in a few months:" but this extraordinary dili

Dedica

tion, A. D.

• Şenatum constituit' secundi ordinis; claros vocavit. Anonyn. Valesian. p. 715. The senators of old Rome were styled Clarissimi. See a curious note of Valesius and Ammian. Marcellin. xxii, 9. From the eleventh epistle of Julian, it should seem that the place of senator was considered as a burthen, rather than 'as án honour ; but the Abbé de la Bletterie (Vie de Jovien, tom. ii, p. 371) has shewn that this epistle could not relate to Constantinople. Might we not read instead of the celebrated name of BULQYTION the obscure but more probable word Blounenvous? Bisanthe or Rhædestus, now Rhodosto, was a small maritime city of Thrace. See Stephan. Byz. de Urbibus, p. 225, and Cellar. Geograph, tom. i, p. 849.

P Cod. Theodos. 1. xiv, 13. The commentary of Godefroy (tom. v, p. 220) is long, but perplexed ; nor indeed is it easy to ascertain in what the Jus Italicum could consist, after the freedom of the city had been communicated to the whole empire.

9 Julian (Orat. i, p. 8) celebrates Constantinople as not less superior to all other cities, than she was inferior to Rome itself. His learned commentator (Spanheim, p. 75–76) justifies this language by several parallel and contemporary instances, Zosimus, as well as Socrates and Sozomen, flourished after the division of the empire be. tween the two sons of Theodosius, which established a perfect equality between the old and the new capital.

Codinus (Antiquitat, p. 8) affirms, that the foundations of Constantinople were laid in the year of the world 5837 (A. D. 329), on the 26th of September, and that the city was dedicated the 11th

1

gence should excite the less admiration, since ch a p. many of the buildings were finished in so hasty XVIL and imperfect a manner, that, under the succeeding reign, they were preserved with difficulty from impending ruin. But while they displayed the vigour and freshness of youth, the founder prepared to celebrate the dedication of his city. The games and largesses which crowned the pomp of this memorable festival may easily be supposed: but there is one circumstance of a more singular and permanent nature, which ought not entirely to be overlooked. As often as the birth-day of the city returned, the statue of Constantine, framed by his order, of gilt wood, and bearing in its right hand a small image of the genius of the place, was erected on a triumphal car. The guards, carrying white tapers, and clothed in their richest apparel, accompanied the solemn procession as it moved through the Hippodrome.

of May 5838 (A. D. 330). He conneets these dates with several characteristic epochs, but they contradict each other ; the authority of Codinus is of little weight, and the space which he assigns must appear insufficient. The term of ten years is given us by Julian (Orat. i, p. 8), and Spanheim labours to establish the truth of it (p. 69–75); by the help of two passages from Themistius Orat. iv, p. 58) and Philostorgius (1. ii, c. 9), which form a period from the year 324 to the year 334. Modern critics are divided con. cerning this point of chronology, and their different sentiments are very accurately discussed by Tillemont, Hist. des Empereurs, tom. iv, p. 619-625.

* Themistius, Orat. iii, p. 47. Zosim. l. ii, p. 108. Constantine himself, in one of his laws (Cod. Theod. 1. xv, tit. i), betrays his impatience.

+ Cedrenus and Zonaras, faithful to the mode of superstition which prevailed in their own times, assure us that Constantinople was consecrated to the virgin Mother of God.

XVII.

CHAP. When it was opposite to the throne of the reign

ing emperor, he rose from his seat, and with grateful reverence adored the memory of his predecessor." At the festival of his dedication, an edict, engraved on a column of marble, bestowed the title of Second or New Rome on the city of Constantine. But the name of Constantinople has prevailed over that honourable epithet; and after the revolution of fourteen centuries, still perpetuates the fame of its author.?

The foundation of a new capital is naturally connected with the establishment of a new form of civil and military administration. The distinct view of the complicated system of policy, introduced by Diocletian, improved by Constantine,

Form of govern. ment.

u The earliest and most complete account of this extraordinary ceremony may be found in the Alexandrian Chronicle, p. 285. Tillemont and the other friends of Constantine, who are offended with the air of paganism, which seems unworthy of a Christian prince, had a right to consider it as doubtful ; but they were not authorised to omit the mention of it.

* Sozomen, l. ii, c. 2. Ducange c. P. I. i, c. 6. Velut ipsius Romæ filiam, is the expression of Augustin de Civitat. Dei, l. v,

c. 25.

3 Eutropius, l. X, c. 8. Julian. Orat. i, p. 8. Ducange c. P. 1. i, c. 5. The name of Constantinople is extant on the medals of Constantine.

2 The lively Fontenelle (Dialogues des Morts, xii) affects to deride the vanity of human ambition, and seems to triumph in the disappointment of Constantine, whose immortal name is now lost in the vulgar appellation of Istambol, a Turkish corruption of $15 any πολιν. Yet the original name is still preserved, 1. By the nations of Europe. 2. By the modern Greeks. 3. By the Arabs, whose write ings are diffused over the wide extent of their conquests in Asia and Africa. See d'Herbelot Bibliotheque Orientale, p. 275. 4. By the more learned Turks, and by the emperor himself in his public mandates. Cantemir's History of the Othman empire,

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