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expected to live in unity, but under the influence and example of their common parent.
After serving with his father in Britain, in Germany, and in Judea, with the winning behaviour and address ascribed to him by Tacitus, it is no wonder that he gained a complete ascendency over his soldiers. In the fifth book, his army is described as consisting of the fifth, tenth and fifteenth legions, which had served under Vespasian, the twelfth from Syria, and two others from Alexandria, with twenty cohorts of allies, and eight squadrons of horse. The kings Agrippa and Sohemus accompanied him, King Antiochus sent auxiliaries, and the Arabs took the field against the Jews, whom they hated. With this tremendous force Titus encamped near Jerusalem, and besieged the city. The fifth and tenth legions here mentioned, had been brought from Alexandria in the time of Nero, when Vespasian sent his son for them from Achaia, while he himself passed over the Hellespont, and went by land into Syria, where he collected the Roman forces, and organised the subsidiary armies of the neighbouring kings.
It is at this period, that Josephus takes up the history of Titus. He sailed, as has been stated, from Achaia to Alexandria, earlier than was generally practicable in winter. With the forces for which he was sent, he marched expeditiously and unexpectedly to Ptolemais. He found his father there with the fifteenth legion, to which he joined the forementioned fifth and tenth, which were the most distinguished in the service. Eighteen cohorts followed these legions. Five others came from Cæsarea, with one troop of horsemen, and five other troops of horsemen from Syria.
The filial piety of Titus was conspicuous, when a report was circulated in the army that the general was wounded. The Romans were thrown into extreme disorder at the sight of Vespasian's blood; and the agony of the son, with the regard they had for the father, spread so general a panic, that a large portion of the multitude left the siege in surprise and confusion.
In the course of this war, Trajan also displayed that liberal spirit which appeared' to so much advantage in his after life. Having gained the victory of Jotapata, he sent messengers to Vespasian requesting him to send his son that he might take possession of the city. Titus came, and his men immediately occupied it : but the inhabitants got together and offered the Romans battle in the narrow streets. The women also threw whatever came to hand, and with the assistance of the fighting men held out for six hours. It ended in total defeat, and the slaughter of young and old, partly in the open air, and partly in their own houses.
At this time Josephus delivered himself up to the Romans. As the brave are generous, his afflictions and his age excited the pity of Titus, who reflected also like a philosopher, that no condition of human life is certain. So arbitrary is the power of fortune, and so rapid the vicissitudes of war, that he who but a while ago was fighting, has fallen into the hands of his enemies. By uttering these sentiments aloud he brought others to the same compassionate feeling with himself, and excited a general commiseration for Josephus. The historian, who tells his own tale with the utmost modesty, addressed a speech to Vespasian after he had desired all but Titus and two of their friends
He tells the Roman general, that though he only thinks he has taken Josephus captive, that Josephus is actually come as a messenger of great tidings : and that had he not been sent by God, he knew the law of the Jews under certain circumstances, and how it becomes generals to die. Now by the law of the Jews is generally understood the law of Moses ; but self-murder, in preference to slavery under heathens, is no where to be found as a maxim of that law. It is probable that the allusion is to some doctrine of the Pharisees, Essenes, or Herodians, or to some strained interpretation substituted for the just consequences to be drawn from the law of God as delivered by Moses. Josephus did not on this occasion obtain his liberty from Vespasian : but suits of clothes and many precious gifts were bestowed on him, with much personal civility. This mild and obliging conduct was continued under the influence of Titus, who contributed his full share to the honours conferred on him.
The valour of Titus in the expedition against Taricheæ is recorded in the third book of the Jewish war, chap. 10. Trajan had arrived with four hundred horsemen before the general battle. As the reputation of the victory would be diminished by sharing it with so many, the soldiery, inflamed by a spirited harangue of Titus, fell into an extraordinary fury. Titus made his own horse march first against the enemy, and the others followed with a great noise, extending themselves on the plain to the width of the enemy's front. This manæuvre made them appear much more numerous than they really were. The Jews soon fell back, and Titus pressed upon the hindmost with much slaughter. Some he fell upon in crowds, others he confronted, and trod them down as they stood encumbered by their own numbers. He cut off their retreat to the wall, and turned them back into the plain : till at last they forced a passage by their own weight, and escaped into the city, the tumult in which was extreme. Titus made another speech to his soldiers while under the wall, in which he called to them not to delay when God was giving the Jews up to them. He appealed for the certainty of victory, to the noise within the city, where those who had got away from the Romans were in an uproar against one another. As soon as he had finished his speech he leaped upon his horse, rode to the lake, and was the first to enter the city, but was immediately supported by his people. After the city was taken, the slaughter continued : for the foreigners who had not fled, made opposition. The natives were killed without fighting : for they abstained in the hope that Titus would extend his right hand as a pledge of amnesty, which they the more expected, as conscious that they had not consented to the war. When the authors of the revolt were slain, Titus stopped the further effusion of blood, and took pity on the innocent inhabitants. The Roman affairs, and the tumults which took place under Galba, Otho, and Vitellius, are touched on by Josephus, but the detail is given by Tacitus, Suetonius, and Dio.
In the fifth book, chap. 2., Josephus gives the order of Titus's army on his march through the enemy's country, states his arrival at Jerusalem, the great danger to which he was exposed, and his extraordinary valour. The auxiliaries sent by the kings marched first, with all the other auxiliaries
following them ; then those who were to prepare the roads, and measure out the camp. Next came the commanders' baggage, protected by the other soldiers completely armed, Titus himself followed with another select body, after him the pike-men, and after them the horse belonging to that legion. It was the Roman usage for the general to go in state, in the front of his army. Titus marched before the main body through Samaria to Gophna, a city garrisoned by Roman soldiers, which had formerly been taken by his father. After a night's lodging, he marched on another day's march, and encamped in what the Jews called the Valley of Thorns, near a village whose name meant the Hill of Saul, about thirty furlongs from Jerusalem. In his way to the city with a small band he was intercepted ; and many darts were thrown at him while he was without head-piece or breast-plate: for he went out to reconnoitre, not to fight. But they all passed aside without hurting him, or even touching his body. Josephus says that they seemed to miss him on purpose, and only to hiss as they passed by him. As he marched forward, his opponents flew off in great numbers, while the few who shared his danger kept close to him, though wounded on their backs and sides. Their only chance of escape was to assist Titus in forcing a passage, that he might not be encompassed before he could get away. He succeeded, and returned in safety to his camp. On another occasion, during a sally of the Jews, Titus was left with a few others in the midst of an acclivity. His friends despised their own danger, and were ashamed to desert their general : but they endeavoured to dissuade him from running into such dangers. The Jews