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Warburton says, that this character of a Cynic is finely drawn by Lucian, in his Auction of the Philosophers, and that Shakspeare has copied it well. There appears to be a want of exactness in this remark. We have before seen that Shakspeare could only have copied Lucian at second or third hand, as that witty writer had not been translated in his time. “ This character of a Cynic” would justify the reader in inferring, that Lucian had drawn Apemantus: he has indeed drawn the Cynic in glowing colours; but the sitter is Diogenes, not Apemantus. The observation, however, is not substantially objectionable. Shakspeare had probably met with the draft of a Cynic, borrowed from Lucian, either anonymous or under the name of Diogenes; and finding that Apemantus was the companion of Timon, justly concluded that “ the knight of the shire might represent them all;" the disciple of the sect might inherit the mantle of his master. It might not improbably be supposed, that he found this outline in Mr. Strutt's manuscript play : but it is not so. The personæ dra

. matis have Philargurus, a covetous churlish old man; but no Apemantus, a churlish philosopher.

A single specimen of Apemantus is all that our limits will allow :

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Hey day, what a sweep of vanity comes this way!
They dance! they are mad women.
Like madness is the glory of this life,
As this pomp shows to a little oil, and root.
We make ourselves fools, to disport ourselves;
And spend our flatteries, to drink those

Upon whose age we void it up again,
With poisonous spite, and envy. Who lives, that's not
Depraved, or depraves ? who dies, that bears

Not one spurn to their graves of their friend's gift ?
I should fear, those, that dance before me now,
Would one day stamp upon me: It has been done;
Men shut their doors against a setting sun.

This anathema against dancing might have subjected our poet to the charge of classical plagiarism, had his means of reading been sufficiently extensive to support it. Cicero, in his Oration for Murena, seems to look at this exercise with puritanical abhorrence. “Nemo enim fere saltat sobrius, nisi forte insanit: neque in solitudine, neque in convivio moderato atque honesto.”


ALCIBIADES furnishes an important and curious study of human nature. Splendour of birth and personal beauty seem to have been the two circumstances, which gave his character its form and pressure. He was nearly related to Pericles; but by what tie, is disputed among authors. Suidas says,

he was the son of Clinias and Pericles's sister. Valerius Maximus calls Pericles his uncle ; but Plutarch tells us he was the son of Dinomache, the daughter of Megacles. Whatever was the relationship, Alcibiades was brought up under the guardianship, and in the house of Pericles.

In Isocrates, there is an oration, De Bigis, professing to be delivered by the son of Alcibiades, containing a defence and panegyric of his father. He there enters into a long genealogical deduction : Και το τελευταίον Αλκιβιάδης, και Κλεισθένης, ο μεν προς σατρός, ο δε προς μητρός ών πρόπαππος του πατρός τoυμού, στρατηγήσαντες, της φυγής κατήγαγον τον δήμον, και τους τυράννους εξέβαλον, και κατέςησαν εκείνην την δημοκρατίαν, εξής οι σολίται προς μέν ανδριάν ούτως επαιδεύθησαν, ώστε τους βαρβάρους τους επί πάσαν ελθόντας την Ελλάδα, μόνοι νικάν μαχομένοι. He then goes on to state that Alcibiades's father and his own grandfather fell in the battle of Cheronea. 'Επιτροπεύθη δε υπό Περικλέους, δν σάντες αν ομολογήσαιεν ως σωφρονέστατον, και δικαιότατον, και σοφώτατον γεγενήσθαι των πολιτών. It appears clearly in Ηerodotus, that Clinias

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was the son of the Alcibiades meant in the first passage of Isocrates,' and father of the Alcibiades whose fame was afterwards so celebrated in Greece. Τών δε Ελλήνων κατά ταύτην την ημέρην ηρίστευσαν Αθηναίοι, και Αθηναίων Κλεινιής ο Αλκιβιάδεω. Ρlutarch Censures Pericles for negligence in his office of guardian; for he appointed Zopyrus, an old Thracian slave of obstinate temper, to be his schoolmaster.* All the ancients concur in admiration of his extraordinary Comeliness. Plutarch says, ου γαρ, ως Ευριπίδης έλεγε, πάντων των καλών και το μετόπωρον καλόν έστιν, but that the figure of Alcibiades retained its attractive character, through the advantage of a naturally vigorous and healthy temperament.

On the subject of his lisping, Plutarch quotes a passage from the Vespæ of Aristophanes : Τη δε φωνή και την τραυλότητα εμπρέψαι λέγουσι, και το λάλω πιθανότητα παρασχεϊν, χάριν επιτελούσαν. μέμνηται δε και 'Αριστοφάνης αυτού της τραυλότητος εν οίς επισκέπτει Θέωρον,

Είτ'Αλκιβιαδης είπε προς με τραυλίσας,
“Όλάς Θέωλον και την κεφαλήν κόλακος έχει.

Ορθώς γε τούτ' Αλκιβιάδης έτραύλισε.
Και "Αρχιππος τον υιόν του Αλκιβιάδου σκώπτων,

Βαδίζει, φησί, διακεχλιδώς, θοιμάτιον έλκων, όπως εμφερής τα πατρί μάλιςα δόξειεν είναι,

Κλαυσαυχενεύεται τε και τραυλίζεται. Cicero begins a letter to Cælius with a similar ridicule of fashionable affectation, where he spells the name of Hirrus, Cælius's competitor for the ædileship, according to the lisping pronunciation.

• Alcibiades's early partiality for Homer is well known.


it away.

« Non enim possum adduci, ut abs te, postea quam ædilis es factus, nullas putem datas : præsertim cum esset tanta res, tantæ gratulationis ; de te, quia quod sperabam : dein Hillo, balbus enim sum, quod non putaram. : Aristotle, De Republica, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of music in the education of boys. Πότερον δε δεί μανθάνειν αυτούς άδοντάς τε και χειρουργούντας, ή μη, καθάπερ ησορήθη πρότερον, νύν λεκτέον. Lib. viii. In the course of the chapter, Aristotle represents Minerva as finding a flute and throwing

Alcibiades had supported his own juvenile resolution against learning the flute, by a reference to the same anecdote, fifty years before Aristotle ; and his ridicule was the means of confining musical accomplishment among gentlemen to the lyre. Plutarch introduces him: - Αυλείτωσαν ούν, έφη, Θηβαίων παίδες: ου γαρ ίσασι διαλέγεσθαι. ημίν δε τους Αθηναίοις, ώς οι πατέρες λέγουσιν, αρχηγέτις 'Αθηνά και πατρώος Απόλλων εστίν» ών ή μεν έρριψε τον αυλόν, ο δε και τον αυλητήν εξέδειρε.

Xenophon, in the first book of his Memorabilia, introduces a conversation between Antipho and Socrates, thus :-"Αξιον δε αυτού, και ά προς 'Αντιφώντα τον σοφιστής διελέχθη, μη σαραλιπείν. Ο γαρ 'Aντιφών ποτέ βουλόμενος τους συνουσιαστές αυτού παρελέσθαι, προσελθών τω Σωκράτει, παρόντων αυτών, έλεξε τάδε ώ Σώκρατες, εγώ, μεν ώμην τους φιλοσοφούντας ευδαιμονέστερους χρήναι γίγνεσθαι συ δε μοι δοκείς ταναντία της σοφίας άσολελαυκέναι. Socrates of course throws his antagonist on his back after his usual manner, concluding that to want nothing is the condition of a God, and to want next to nothing the state of humanity nearest to that condition. ,

Whether this be the Antipho, held up to ridicule by Plato in his Menexenus, is uncertain: the an

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