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cients themselves have not agreed on the point. But the sophist mentioned by Xenophon was certainly the personal enemy of Alcibiades, and wrote defamatory invectives against him; so that it is not improbable, some of the most disreputable stories extant may be libels. Athenæus, Deipnosoph., lib. xii. cap. 5. quotes an ill-natured speech of Antipho, respecting the motive of his going to Abydos. Plutarch does ample justice to the sincere and honourable friendship of Socrates, and the discrimination of Alcibiades, in preferring the wise philosopher to all the flatterers and votaries of pleasure by whom he was surrounded: Ουδέν γαρ η τύχη σεριέσχεν έξωθεν και σεριέφραξε τοϊς λεγομένοις αγαθούς τοσούτον, ώστ' άτρωτον υπό φιλοσοφίας γενέσθαι, και λόγους απρόσιτον σαρρησίαν και δηγμόν έχουσιν, όσοις 'Αλκιβιάδης ευθύς εξ αρχής θρυπτόμενος και αποκλείομενος υπό των σρος χάριν εξομιλούντων εισακούσαι του νουθετούντος και παιδεύοντος, όμως υπ' ευφυΐας έγνώρισε Σωκράτη και προσήκατο, διασχών τους πλουσίους και ενδόξους εραστές. ταχύ δέ σοιησάμενος συνήθη, και λόγων ακούσας ουχ ηδονήν άνανδρον ερασού θηρεύονloς, ουδε φιλημάτων και ψαύσεως προσαιλούνιος, αλλ' ελέγχονίος το σαθρών της ψυχής αυτού, και πιεζούνιος τον κενών και ανόητον τύφος,

"Επληξ' αλέκτωρ δούλον ώς κλίνας στερόν.

His frolic at Anytus's supper party is related by Plutarch without any mention of Thrasyllus, the only circumstance which can plead any apology for it. Αthenaeus introduces it thus : – Έσικωμάσας δε σοιε ως "Ανυλον, εραςήν όνια, και πλούσιον, συνεπικομάζονloς αυτο των εταίρων ενός Θρασύλλου, (των πενήτων δ' ούτος ήν) προπιών το Θρασύλλω τα ημίση των ποτηρίων των επί των κυλικείο προκειμένων, εκέλευσε τους ακολούθους αποφέρειν προς τον Θρασύλλον» εί9' ούτω φιλοφρονησάμενος τον "Ανυλον απηλλάσελο. , Does

not this remind the reader of Lord Byron? Would he not have been likely to administer poetical justice, in contempt of legal, much after the same manner ?

The next anecdote given by Plutarch is much to the credit of Alcibiades. It relates to άνθρωπον, ώς φασιν, ου πολλά κεκλημένον, ασoδόμενον δε σάνια, και το συναχθέν εις έκαιον σατήρας το 'Αλκιβιάδη προσφέρονία, και δεόμενον λαβείν. Alcibiades took him under his

protection, and made him outbid the old farmers of the revenue.

The character of an arrogant and dissipated young nobleman was likely to fall under the lash of so severe and impartial a historian as Thucydides. In the 15th chapter of the 8th book, he ascribes his ill-will and intrigues against Nicias to the following motive: - 'Ενήγε δε προθυμότατα την σραλείαν 'Αλκιβιάδης και Κλεινίου, βουλόμενος τώ τε Νικία έναντιούσθαι, ών και ες τα άλλα διάφορος τα σολιθικά, και ότι αυτού διαβόλως εμνήσθη, και μάλιςα ςρατηγήσαί τε επιθυμών, και ελσίζων Σικελίαν τε δι' αυτού και Καρχηδόνα λήψεσθαι» και τα ίδια άμα ευτυχήσας, χρήμασί τε και δόξη ωφελήσειν. Further on, Thucydides, who weighs men's probable motives in a nicely poised scale, gives Alcibiades, in a supposed speech to the Lacedemonians, an opportunity of assigning an honourable motive for abandoning the cause of his country, and enlisting under opposite banners :-Εσεί ώς γε δυναλά, και ουχ αμαρλήσεσθαι οίμαι γνώμης, σάνυ θαρσώ και χείρων ουδενί αξιώ δοκείν υμών είναι, εί τη εμαυλού μεία των πολεμιωλάτων, φιλόπολις σοθε δοκών είναι, νύν έγκραθώς εσέρχομαι» ουδε υσοπλεύεσθαι εις την φυγαδικήν προθυμίαν τον λόγον. He ascribes his conduct to the wickedness of his enemies.

The following anecdote proves beyond all question the strong attachment of this gay youth to

μου

his philosophical friend. After the defeat of the Athenians at the battle of Delium, Socrates was retreating on foot: Alcibiades brought him safe out of the field, in spite of the enemy who pressed furiously forward, and made a very considerable slaughter.

A speech of Andocides against Alcibiades is preserved in the Oratores Græci of Aldus, and the Oratores Veteres of Stephens, in which both his public and private character are virulently attacked.

Plato has two dialogues between Socrates and Alcibiades; one, De Natura Hominis, the other De Voto. Socrates, as usual, drives his pupil into a corner. The oratory of Alcibiades has been much commended by the ancients; but even with them, though the fact be highly probable, the report seems to be little more than that of common fame. The speeches of Thucydides are admirable as characteristic illustrations; but they are not parliamentary reports.

Alcibiades was, like other statesmen, a Newmarket man. He won the first, second, and third prizes in person; his chariots won twice in his absence. He is said to have put Eupolis to death for writing a satire against him; in which is supposed to have been the verse quoted by Aulus Gellius :-“Eupolidis quoque versus de id genus hominibus consignatissime factus est, λαλείν άρισος, αδυνατώτατος λέγειν : quod Sallustius noster imitari volens, loquax, inquit, magis, quam facundus."

* The excellent edition of the Oratores Attici by Bekker, from the Clarendon Press, 1823, supersedes the necessity of any other, except to the professed collector.

Eupolis, a native of Athens, is honourably mentioned by Quinctilian and by Horace, who both rank him with Aristophanes and Cratinus. His fragments are scattered up and down in many ancient authors, and have been collected by Grotius. .

Alcibiades and Phæax are accused of having borrowed the consecrated plate, and having refused to return it, after profaning it by secular uses, till the eve of the sacred processions in which it was to be exhibited. The object of this retention is alleged to be, that strangers might consider it as a private loan. *

Phæax is likewise mentioned by Thucydides, lib. V. cap. 4. :-Φαίαξ δε ο Ερασιςράτου, τρίτος αυτός, 'Αθηναίων σεμπόντων, ναυσι δύο ες Ιταλίας και Σικελίαν πρεσβευτής υπό τον αυτόν χρόνον εξέπλευσε.

Nicias and Alcibiades, though not always the most sincere friends, leagued together to turn the tables on Hyperbolus, who had levelled a sentence of ostracism against either one of them, or Phæax. This Hyperbolus was the constant butt of the comic writers, and especially of Plato. He is mentioned by Plutarch in the Lives of Alcibiades, Aristides, and Nicias.

The best apology that can be made for the treason of Alcibiades to his country, which no injuries can ever justify, is the hospitality, subsist

* "Ων και τον Αλκιβιάδης έσηθιωνίο, και αυτά υπολαμβάνονίες οι μάλιςα τα 'Αλκιβιάδη άχθόμενοι, εμποδών όντι σφίσιν αυτούς μή του δήμου βεβαίως προεφάναι, και νομίσανίες, ει αυτόν εξελάσειαν, πρώτοι άν είναι, εμεγάλυνον, και έβόων ως επί δήμου καλαλύσει τα τε μυσικά και η των Ερμών περικοπή γένoίλο και ουδέν είη αυτών ό, τι ου μετ' εκείνου επράχθη» επιλέγονλες τεκμήρια, την άλλην αυτού ες τα έσίληδεύμαια ου δημοτικής παρανομίαν. Thucyd. lib. vi. cap. 28. .

ing anciently on so curious a footing, between his family and the Lacedemonians. In consideration of this tie, he had taken particular care of the prisoners captured at Pylos. Yet in this act he was thwarted, and his jealousy roused by the ascendency of Nicias, who had procured peace and the consequent liberty of the captives; so that he eclipsed Alcibiades in popularity both at home and abroad. The jealous feeling towards Nicias has been touched upon before: it found vent when the Lacedemonians had formed an alliance with the Baotians, and had delivered Panactus to the Athenians with dismantled forti. fications. Alcibiades seized on this opportunity to inflame the minds of his countrymen, and to involve Nicias in a portion of the current odium. The intrigue by which he supplanted Nicias in the confidence of the Lacedemonians, is thus developed by Thucydides :

Και λέγοντες εν τη βουλή σερί τε τούτων, και ως αυτοκράτορες ήκουσι σερί σάνιων ξυμβήναι των διαφόρων, τον 'Αλκιβιάδης εφόβουν, μη και, ήν ες τον δήμον ταύτα λέγωσιν, εσαγάγωνlαι το πλήθος. και απωσθή η Αργείων ξυμμαχία μηχανάται δε προς αυτούς τoιόνδε τι ο Αλκιβιάδης: τους Λακεδαιμονίους πείθει, σίςιν αυτούς δούς, ήν μη ομολογήσωσιν εν τώ δήμω αυτοκράτορες ήκειν, Πύλον τε αυτοίς αποδώσειν. σείσειν γαρ αυτός Αθηναίους ώσσες και νύν ανλιλέγειν, και τάλλα ξυναλλάξειν. βουλόμενος δε αυτούς Νικίου τε άσοςήσαι, ταύτα έπραίτε, και όπως εν τώ δήμω διαβαλών αυτούς ως ουδέν αληθές εν να έχουσιν, ουδέ λέγουσιν ουδέποτε ταυλα, τους 'Αργείους και Ηλείους και Μαντινέας ξυμμάχους σοιήση. και έγένειο ούτως. επειδή γαρ ες τον δήμον παρελθόντες, και επερωτώμενοι ουκ έφασαν (ώσπερ εν τη βουλή) αυτοκράτορες ήκειν, οι 'Αθηναίοι ουκέτι ήνείχοντο· αλλά του 'Αλκιβιάδου σολλώ μάλλον ή πρότερον καταβοώνloς των Λακεδαιμονίων, εσήκουόν τε και έτοιμοι ήσαν ευθύς σαραγαγόνες τους Αργείους, και τους μετ' αυλών, ξυμ

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