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C. Quid, si aliquo ad ludos me pro manduco locem ?
L. Quapropter ? C. Quia pol clare crepito dentibus.

Plautus, in Rudente.

These grotesque masks were designed partly to raise terror, and partly laughter. Juvenal also alludes to them:

Pars magna Italiæ est, si verum admittimus, in qua
Nemo togam sumit, nisi mortuus. Ipsa dierum
Festorum herboso colitur si quando theatro
Majestas, tandemque redit ad pulpita notum
Exodium, cum personæ pallentis hiatum
In gremio matris formidat rusticus infans.

Sat. iii.

Superstition is often closely connected with vice, sometimes degenerating into it, and ultimately furnishing a mere cloak for it. The festivals and ceremonies in honour of Bacchus, celebrated by his frantic priestesses, whose very name is derived árò tš palveofan are thus indignantly described :

Nota Bonæ secreta Deæ, cum tibia lumbos
Incitat; et cornu pariter, vinoque feruntur
Attonitæ, crinemque rotant, ululantque Priapi

Juvenal. sat. vi.

Morpheus is represented as one of the children of sleep, and as taking the human semblance :

At pater e populo natorum mille suorum
Excitat artificem, simulatoremque figuræ,

Ovid. Metamorph. xi.

Another of the sons of sleep is denominated Φοβήτωρ, from the Greek φοβητρόν, signifying afright, or a dreadful vision and phantom of night:

Hunc Icelon Superi, mortale Phobetora vulgus


We have an English proverb, that cleanliness is next to godliness. The sentiment, though quaint in terms, expresses an ancient and universal feeling with all people, sufficiently civilised to have “sat in good 'men's seats,” or to “have been knolled to church by the bell” of any religious sect, false or true. Plutarch thus describes the magnificence of the funeral made for Timoleon by the Syracusans, and attended by the people dressed in what we should call their Sunday clothes : Πρέπεμπον δε πολλαι μυριάδες ανδρών και γυναικών, ών όψις μεν ήν εορτή πρέπουσα, πάνίων εςεφανωμένων και καθαρώς έσθήτας φορούνίων. .

The transfiguration of Christ, as recorded by Matthew, chap. xvii., forcibly illustrates the naturally received connection, between whiteness and absolute purity :— “And after six days Jesus taketh Peter, James, and John his brother, and bringeth them up into an high mountain apart, and was transfigured before them : and his face did shine as the sun, and his raiment was white as the light.”

There is considerable obscurity and difficulty in the following passage of Plutarch's treatise, Cur Pythia nunc non reddat Oracula carmine. In the text of Wyttenbach it stands thus:- Oluas dè you νώσκειν το παρ' Ηρακλείτο λεγόμενον, ός' όναξ, ου το μαντείον εςι το εν Δελφοίς, ούτε λέγει, ούτε κρύπτει, αλλά σηpaives. The reading of the earliest editions, for what stands here as ός' όναξ, was ώστ' όναρ, which gave rise to an erroneous opinion that the distinction of Heraclitus was this : The Delphic god no longer either declares or conceals any thing by the instrumentality of dreams, but signifies it clearly. But Amyot and Xylander agree in introducing the conjectural reading is c "vat, making the sense to be, that the king whose oracle, etc. i. e. Apollo, only furnishes a glance, or vista vision of futurity, neither explaining events categorically, nor veiling them in impenetrable darkness. The reading left by Wyttenbach to occupy the text, és óvat, is manifestly incorrect. The words unabbreviated must be ως ο άναξ.

There is much curious matter in the treatise of Plutarch on Isis and Osiris, with respect to the doctrines of Zoroaster concerning Oromazes, and Arimanius, and Mithras. Mithras was the mediatorial power between the other two, whose respective worship. is thus characterised : 'Edidače jév ευκταία θύειν και χαριτήρια, τα δε αποτρόπαια και σκυθρωπά.

The proverb, Isiacum non facit Linostolia, the dress does not make the monk, seems to have originated with Plutarch:- Ούτε γαρ φιλόσοφους πωγωνοτροφίαι και τριβωνοφορίαι ποιούσι, ούτε ισιάκους αι λινοsenian ,


This elegant author was strong and bitter in his satirical paintings : as much so as Juvenal himself. The revivers of letters were naturally close copyists of the patterns they had so newly acquired: but the coarser parts of the texture were most congenial to their talents and their taste. They dealt much in general satire and personal invective : and both in their hands degenerated into abuse. The following passage from the Encomium Moriæ will be thought germane to the matter : -“ Sed multo etiam suavius, si quis animadvertat anus, longo jam senio mortuas, adeoque cadaverosas, ut ab inferis redisse videri possint, tamen illud semper in ore habere, Põę ápadov : adhuc catulire, atque, ut Græci dicere solent, xampoùy, et magna mercede conductum aliquem Phaonem inducere, fucis assidue vultum oblinere, nusquam a speculo discedere, infimæ pubis sylvam vellere, vietas ac putres ostentare mammas, tremuloque gannitu languentem solicitare cupidinem, potitare, misceri puellarum choris, literulas amatorias scribere."

The following passage is remarkable, as having furnished a subject of illustration to the pencil of Holbein :-“ Rursum alios qui pecuniæ con tactum ceu aconitum horreant, nec a vino interim, nec a mulierum contactu temperantes.” The

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