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“ Murrhina et crystallina ex eadem terra effodimus, quibus pretium faceret fragilitas.”

The Troglodytes were a people of Ethiopia, below Egypt, so called from their inhabiting subterranean holes and caverns, from the word opúryang a hole, a defile, or a cavern, and súvw, to enter generally, and specifically, to enter in a crouching and creeping attitude: -“ Troglodytæ specus excavant. Hæ illis domus, victus serpentium carnes, stridorque, non vox: adeo sermonis commercio carent: Garamantes matrimoniorum exsortes, passim cum feminis degunt.”— Lib. v. cap. 8. Making allowance for Pliny's habitual tendency to the marvellous, these people must have been in the lowest condition of human nature.




'Αποσφάτλει μεν και του Τυδέως τους Θράκας: ο δε του Λαέρτου τους ανηρημένους υπάγει των ποδών, ίνα μη ποτε νεήλυδες όντες οι Θρακες ίπποι, είτα μέντοι έκπλήττωνται τους νεκρούς έμπλαττόμενοι, και αήθως κατ' αυτών, ώς τινων φοβερών βαίνοντες, αποσκιρτώσιν. -Lib. xvi. cap. 25.

The verb úmáysı ought in some cases to be rendered in Latin by subtrahit, in others by subjicit. In the Latin of Schneider's Ælianus de Natura Animalium, it is rightly translated by the former word: the latter sense would have no propriety in connection with the context.




Est etiam ventus nomine Cæcias, quem Aristoteles ita flare dicit, ut nubes non procul propellat, sed ut ad sese vocet, ex quo versum istum proverbialem factum ait :

'Εφ' εαυτόν έλκων ως ο Καικίας νέφος.

Præter hos autem, quos dixi, sunt alii plurifariam venti commenticii suæ quisque regionis indigenæ, ut est Horatianus quoque ille Atabulus, quos ipse quoque exsequuturus fui: addidissemque eos, qui Etesiæ et Prodromi appellitantur, qui certo tempore anni, quum canis oritur, ex alia atque alia parte coeli spirant: rationesque omnium vocabulorum, quia plus paulo adbibi, effudissem, nisi multa jam prorsus omnibus vobis reticentibus verba fecissem, quasi fieret a me áxgóxois émi@sexlxn.”— Noct. Attic. lib. ii. cap. 22.

There is an allusion to the effects of the wind Cæcias in the Knights of Aristophanes :

Ως ούτος ήδη καικίας και συκοφαντίας πνεϊ. .

This particular wind is frequent in the Mediterranean, and there called Greco Levante.

The reproof of Herodes Atticus to the pretended and mere outside philosopher, and his subsequent liberality to him, bear some resemblance to the conduct of Hamlet to the players, and his directions to Polonius : — “ Tum Herodes interrogat quisnam esset. Atque, ille, vultu sonituque vocis objurgatorio, philosophum sese esse dicit; et mirari quoque addit cur quærendum putasset quod videret. Video, inquit Herodes, barbam et pallium, philosophum nondum video. Quæso autem te, cum bona venia dicas mihi, quibus nos uti posse argumentis existimas, ut esse te philosophum noscitemus ? Interibi aliquot ex iis qui cum Herode erant, erraticum hominem esse dicere et nulli rei, incolamque esse sordentium ganearum ; ac, nisi accipiat quod petit, convicio turpi solitum incessere: atque ibi Herodes, Demus, inquit, huic aliquid æris, cuicuimodi est ; tamquam homines, non tamquam homini : et jussit dari precium panis triginta dierum.”

The word situs is applied to burial in general : sepultus to the full rites of Roman sepulture, when the body was burnt, the ashes collected, and all the honours duly performed. The custom of inhumation was anterior to that of burning; and the Cornelian family persisted in it without burning within the period of Cicero's remembrance. Humatus, therefore, and situs, seem to be synonymous; but afterwards sepultus was extended to all forms of interment, whether with more or less ceremony ; so that sepultus was applied to inhumation, though of course neither of the other words could be used for burning and collecting ashes. From the word situs comes siticincs, persons whose profession it was to sing dirges over dead bodies. Our undertakers' men are mutes ; equally irrational, but less offensive to the feelings of the real mourners. Aulus Gellius gives the following account of these people, lib. xx. cap. 2.: "SITICINES, scriptum est in oratione M. Catonis, qua inscribitur, Ne imperium sit veteri, ubi novus venerit. Siticines, inquit, et liticines, et tubicines. Sed Cæsellius Vindex in Commentariis lectionum antiquarum, scire quidem se ait liticines lituo cantare, et tubicines tuba : quid istuc autem sit, quo siticines cantent, homo ingenuæ veritatis scire sese negat, Nos autem in Capitonis Atei Conjectaneis invenimus, siticines appellatos, qui apud sitos canere soliti essent, hoc est, vita functos et sepultos : eosque habuisse proprium genus tubæ, a cæterorum differens.”

The ancient writers on natural philosophy applied the word Typhon to that alarming phenomenon the water-spout, not very uncommon at sea, and especially in the Mediterranean. The Vulcanians and Neptunians are, of course, at daggers drawn in their solutions. The former ascribe the agitation of the waters on the surface, to the operation of fire under the bed of the sea. The latter account for it by suction, and illustrate it by the application of cupping glasses to the skin. The same appearance and effects take place, but less frequently, on land. The mischief on those occasions is very extensive : houses are unroofed ; birds and even other animals within the influence of the storm, are caught up and dashed with violence against the ground. Aulus Gellius decribes them thus, lib. xix. cap. 1.: — “ Tum postea complorantibus nostris omnibus, atque in sentina satis agentibus, dies quidem tandem illuxit : sed

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