« IndietroContinua »
190. Lustravere; compare Aen. I. 608, note.
195. ferventes; this seems to be here an inappropriate epithet; see Georg. I. 92, note. -munera nota; "well known," because they had, while alive, been in the habit of wearing them; see Aen. VI. 221, note.
200, 201. semiustaque servant busta, "and watch the half-consumed piles"; properly speaking, the funeral pile was called pyra, v. 185; when set on fire, it was rogus, v. 189, and when consumed, bustum.
202. stellis ardentibus aptum; see Aen. IV. 482, note.
205, 206. avecta tollunt, for avehunt; "
carry away" in chariots.
206. urbi, to the city to which each belonged.
207. caedis, for caesorum.
208. Nec numero nec honore, "without (taking any account of) their number or (rendering them individually funeral) honors."
213. in tectis, "in the houses" of the city, as opposed to the camp.
218. Ipsum has nearly the force of solum, "him alone."
219. primos honores; namely, the hand of Lavinia, with the succession to the kingdom.
222. Multa simul (est) sententia.
223. obumbrat, "protects him."
226. super (haec omnia), "over and above" all these things.
232. Fatalem manifesto numine ferri, "was destined by the manifest will of the gods" to found a kingdom in Italy.
235. Imperio accitos; who had been summoned by him to aid in the administration of the government.
238. Et primus sceptris, "and first by virtue of his royal dignity." 243. Argiva castra; the city of Argyrippa.
245. Ilia tellus, for urbs.
246. patriae cognomine gentis; the city of Argyrippa is said to have been named after Argos Hippium in the Peloponnesus; this was not, however, strictly his paternal land, for he succeeded to the kingdom of Argos in consequence of his marriage with Aegialea, the daughter of Adrastus.
247. Victor; he fought with Daunus against the Messapians, and received this territory as a reward for his assistance.
250. Arpos, "to Arpi"; Argyrippa was contracted into Arpi.
254. lacessere bella, "to excite wars."
256. Mitto ea, "I omit," "I do not speak of those things."-exhausta (sunt), were endured."
257. Simois ille, "that (fatal) Simois."
259. Vel Priamo miseranda, "deserving the pity even of Priam."
259, 260. Sidus Minervae, "the storm caused by Minerva"; sidus is here used for the storm, because storms were supposed to be caused by particular constellations.
262. Protei columnas; Proteus reigned on the island of Pharos, which Virgil calls columnas, in order to convey the same idea of distance which is contained in the term "Columns of Hercules."
265. Locros; probably the followers of Ajax Oileus. 267. prima intra limina, as soon as he had entered his dwelling"; literally, "within his first threshold."
268. devictam Asiam subsedit, "took in his toils (conquered Asia, i. e.) the conqueror of Asia."
269. Învidisse deos; before these words referam must be repeated, from
270. This verse does not agree with the common account, according to which Diomede did actually return home, but was compelled to leave it again by the base conduct of his wife; but he returned to Argos, his adopted country, and not to his birthplace, Calydon in Aetolia.
272. petierunt aethera pennis; they were changed into birds. 273. Fluminibus, for circa flumina.
275. speranda; compare Aen. I. 543, note.
283, 284. quantus in clypeum assurgat, "how great he rises to his shield"; in fighting with the sword, they at the same time raised their shields, and frequently clashed them against each other; see Aen. XII. 724, concurrunt clypeis.
288. Quidquid cessatum est, "all the delay which took place." was obstructed." - vestigia retulit, retreated, was rendered
290. Haesit, doubtful."
292. dextrae; namely, of Latinus and Aeneas.
295. sententia," the opinion" of Diomede. - bello, for de bello.
298. clauso gurgite, "the stream being confined."
301. Praefatus divos; it was the custom of the Romans first to invoke the gods when about to address the Senate.
302. statuisse, "to have deliberated."
305. gente deorum, "the offspring of gods "; i. e. Aeneas.
310. Cetera rerum, "the remainder of your affairs," i. e. of your army, &c. 311. inter manus, palpable, "evident."
312, 313. potuit quae plurima virtus esse, fuit; "as great as valor could be it has been." Quae plurima is equivalent to the Greek ὅση πλείστη. 313. corpore, "the strength."
316. antiquus, "ancient" , not recently brought into cultivation.
317. Longus in occasum, "stretching far to the west"; i. e. from east to · super usque, "even beyond."
324. aliam gentem, "the territory of another nation."
325. possunt, "if they can"; i. e. if they are permitted by the fates. Heyne reads poscunt, which gives, perhaps, a better meaning, but it does not rest on sufficient manuscript authority.
329. navalia, " equipment," such as ropes, sails, &c.
331. prima de gente, "of the nobility."
333. aurique eborisque talenta, "talents both of gold and ivory"; the latter was valued by weight as well as the former, and it is not therefore necessary to construct aurique talenta eborisque sellam, as most commentators have done; such a construction is termed a chiasmus.
334. The sella curulis, and the trabea were symbols of authority among the Romans, Albans, and Etrurians, and were frequently sent as presents. 335. in medium, "for the common advantage."
337. Obliqua, "sly," not straightforward.
338. Largus opum, "of great wealth."
341. One of the old grammarians says that Drances was the son of a sister of Latinus by a father of ignoble extraction.
345. mussant, "hesitate."
346. flatus," arrogance."
349. Lumina ducum, "noble leaders."
350. Consedisse luctu, "to be immersed in grief.”
351. fugae fidens, "trusting to flight."
352. etiam; equivalent to praeterea.
359. jus proprium, “the right which belongs to them.”—regi patriaeque; Heyne thinks that patriae is inappropriate, and suggests regique patrique; but with regard to the marriage of a king's daughter, his country may be said to be entitled to a voice in the matter.
363. pignus; namely, the marriage of Lavinia to Aeneas.
364. invisum; taken actively, "hostile."
366. pulsus, "having been defeated.". sat is here used as an adjective.
369. dotalis regia, a kingdom for a dowry."
374. patrii Martis, "of the martial valor of thy country." - adspice contra, look him in the face, "meet him."
375. Qui vocat, "who challenges thee."
381. distinet, "keeps at a distance"; better than the other reading, detinet. 382. inundant has sometimes an active, and sometimes, as here, a neuter signification.
383. tona eloquio, "thunder with thy eloquence." It has been imagined by some critics that M. Antony is represented under the character of Turnus, and Cicero under that of Drances. Such kinds of interpretation ought to be received with great caution; but yet, as it is generally admitted that Virgil has described the character of Augustus under that of Aeneas, the resemblance may not be entirely fanciful. Catrou and the author of an anonymous treatise entitled "Turnus and Drances" have ably supported this theory.
384. quando, "since"; spoken in irony.
389. Imus, "do we go "; equivalent to eamus, "let us go."
398. Inclusus muris; an allusion to the circumstance of his penetrating into the Trojan camp, Aen. IX. 729.
399. Nulla salus bello; the words of Drances, v. 362.
399, 400. Capiti cane talia Dardanio, "forbade such things to the Trojan." 400. rebusque tuis, "and thine own cause"; implying that he favored the cause of Aeneas.
402. Gentis bis victae; alluding to the conquest of Troy, first by Hercules, and then by the Greeks; compare Aen. II. 642. premere, to depreciate." 403. Myrmidonum proceres; the chiefs of the Myrmidons, i. e. of the Greeks. Turnus endeavours to turn into ridicule the refusal of Diomede to take part in the war.
405. The Aufidus flows near Arpi, the settlement of Diomede; and Turnus ironically asserts, that its terror at the arrival of the Trojans is so great, that it turns back its stream and flies away from the Adriatic.
406. Vel cum se fingit, "nay, when he pretends"; the apodosis of the sentence is wanting, which is owing to the excitement of the speaker.— jurgia, "threats."
407. Artificis scelus, for artifex sceleris.
412. Si tam deserti sumus, "if we are so utterly deserted"; alluding to Diomede, who was in fact the only one who had refused assistance.
416. mihi; in my judgment; "in my opinion."—fortunatus laborum, "happy in his misfortunes."
418. semel, "once for all."
421. gloria, 'victory."
425. dies, "the succession of days." —varii labor mutabilis aevi, "the fickle changes of inconstant time."
427. Lusit, "has (at one time) deceived.". et in solido rursus locavit, "and (at another) again established them a firm footing."
429. felix; as Tolumnius was an augur, this may refer to his skill in augury.
433. florentes, "glittering."
437. tanta pro spe; the hope, namely, of being alone the preserver of his country.
438. Ibo contra, "I will confront (Aeneas)."
439. paria, "equal" to those of Achilles.
443, 444. Turnus concludes his speech with another ironical allusion to
the want of valor in Drances; I am ready, he says, to accept the challenge of Aeneas, rather than that Drances should be obliged to do so; for I do not wish that Drances may suffer the penalty of death (which he so much dreads), if such is the angry resolve of the gods; nor, if this is (an occasion for the display of) bravery (of which he is totally destitute) and (of gaining) glory, that he should take it away (from me)."
452. arrectae irae, "their passions are aroused."
459, 460. arrepto tempore cogite concilium, "take this (fine) opportunity and call a council"; spoken ironically. Wagner connects arrepto tempore Turnus ait, "Turnus, seizing this opportunity, speaks."
464. in armis, for armatum. Messapus and Coras are in the nominative, for the vocative.
465. fratre, Catillus; see Aen. VII. 672.
467. jusso, for jussero.
472. urbi; to share with him the government.
473. Praefodiunt, "dig trenches in front of the gates."- ·saxa sudesque, to be employed as missiles.
477. Palladis; Minerva was not yet worshipped in Italy; but as Tacitus speaks of the worship of some of the Roman deities by the Germans, meaning that the attributes bore some resemblance, so it is probable that a goddess is here referred to who held nearly the same place in their mythology as Minerva did in that of Greece and Rome.
482. de limine, "from the threshold," where they stood to offer their supplications.
490. aureus; auro fulgere and aureus fulgere have different significations; the former is "to glitter (clothed) in gold"; the latter, "to glitter like gold." 495. flumine noto; the stream which he was accustomed to frequent; compare Ecl. I. 52, note.
497. Luxurians, "exultingly."
507. horrenda; exciting astonishment, "wonderful."
509, 510. omnia supra, "superior to all" dangers and misfortunes. 512. improbus, "too bold."
513, 514. quaterent campos, "to scour the plains."— ipse per deserta montis ardua, "through the steep and unfrequented regions of the mountain." — ad urbem adventat, jugo ea superans, "crossing them on the summit.”
515. Furta, ໄດ້ an ambush."
522. valles, the old form for vallis.
524. Urguet, "hems in."
527. ignota, not because unknown to Aeneas, but because it could not be seen by those who were going through the pass; Heyne, however, explains it ignota Trojanis.
529. instare jugis, to stand upon the summit."
536. nostris armis; because Camilla, like Diana and her nymphs, bore
539. viresque superbas, "and power too haughtily exercised."
543. Casmillae; the name Casmilla is Pelasgic, and was changed into Camilla by the softer pronunciation of Italy.
544. longa, long, " extensive."
551. subito vix haec sententia sedit (quum telo natam implicat), "scarcely had this thought suddenly suggested itself to him" when he fastened his daughter to a weapon, &c. But the construction of the latter part of the sentence is complicated, being what grammarians call anacoluthon. Telum immane is in the nominative case, but is not followed by a verb; the sentence breaks off at cocto, and a new one begins with Huic, "to this " he fastens.
553. cocto, rendered tough in the smoke. 554. libro et subere, for libro suberis.· clausam, "wrapped up in." 555. habilem, "so as to be conveniently thrown." 558. famulam, “as a servant." Ipse expresses that this is contrary to the usual practice of fathers, who are generally desirous that their daughters should marry and bear children, from which, as consecrated to Diana, she would be precluded.
560. dubiis, "uncertain" with regard to the safety of the child.
562. sonuere undae; the spear, rushing through the air above the surface of the waters, caused them to emit a whizzing sound.
563. Infelix; on account of the danger to which she was exposed.
566. donum Triviae; now dedicated as "a gift to Diana," in accordance with his vow.
568. neque manus dedisset, "nor would he have yielded," i. e. "consented"; a figure taken from the custom of combatants in the games, who held out their hands to be bound, in token of defeat.
569. exegit pastorum aevum, a shepherd's life," et solis montibus.
571. ferino; horses were reckoned among ferae.
586. Cara foret; Diana does not mean that she is no longer dear to her on account of her taking part against the Trojans, for that would contradict v. 537, but that she would have been preserved from the death which she knew to be impending, and which would naturally terminate her affection.
590. Haec cape; in saying these words, she gives her a bow and arrow. 591. sacrum,"consecrated" to Diana.
596. Insonuit marks the rapidity of the flight. — turbine, “a cloud."
597. manus Trojana; the infantry led by Aeneas.
599. numero; in the number which each troop ought to have.
600. Insultans; compare Georg. III. 117, note. — pressis habenis, "with the reins held in tight."
602. ardent, "glitter."
607. Adventus virum ardescit; the approach of the men became more ardent, i. e. "as the men approached, their ardor increased."
611. umbra, scil. telorum.
613, 614. ruinam dant, "fall"; this is the meaning of ruinam dare, facere, or trahere, and not, as Heyne would have it, "they rush on." They are both overthrown, nor is this interpretation irreconcilable, as Heyne thinks, with v. 616; for that goes on to describe the manner of the fall of Aconteus, fulminis in morem.
619. Rejiciunt, "throw over their backs" to defend them.
622. mollia, "flexible." - colla, scil. equorum; "they wheel round."
624. alterno gurgite, "with waves alternately advancing and receding." 625. scopulos superjacit, "dashes over the rocks."
627, 628. resorbens saxu," sucking back the stones," revoluta aestu rapidus retro fugit.
633. Tum vero et gemitus, &c.; the verb is omitted.
642, 643. nudo vertice, nudi humeri; he wore no defensive armour on his head or shoulders.
644. Tantus in arma patet; "so much, i. e. with so large a part of his body, is he exposed to the weapons" of the enemy.
649. Unum exserta latus pugnae, "with one breast bared for the fight." 650. denset," throws thick and fast."