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vincimus, omnia nobis tuta erunt, commeatus abunde, municipia atque coloniae patebunt: si metu cesserimus, eadem illa advorsa tient, neque locus neque amicus quisquam teget, quem arma non texerint. Praeterea, milites, non eadem nobis et illis necessi. 5 tudo impendet; nos pro patria, pro libertate, pro vita certamus, illis supervacaneum est pro potentia paucorum pugnare. Quo audacius aggrediamini, memores pristinae virtutis. Licuit vobis cum summa turpitudine in exsilio aetatem agere; potuistis 10 nonnulli Romae amissis bonis alienas opes exspectare: quia illa foeda atque intoleranda viris videbantur, haec sequi decrevistis. Si haec relinquere voltis, audacia opus est; nemo nisi victor pace bellum mutavit. Nam in fuga salutem sperare, cum 15 arma, quibus corpus tegitur, ab hostibus avorteris, ea vero dementia est. Semper in proelio eis maxumum est periculum, qui maxume timent; audacia pro muro habetur. Cum vos considero, milites, et cum facta vostra aestumo, magna me spes victoriae tenet. 20 Animus, aetas, virtus vostra me hortantur; praeterea necessitudo, quae etiam timidos fortes facit. Nam multitudo hostium ne circumvenire queat, prohibent angustiae loci. Quod si virtuti vostrae fortuna inviderit, cavete, inulti animam amittatis, 25 neu capti potius sicuti pecora trucidemini, quam virorum more pugnantes cruentam atque luctuosam victoriam hostibus relinquatis.”

59. Haec ubi dixit, paululum commoratus, signa canere jubet, atque instructos ordines in locum 30 aequum deducit. Dein remotis omnium equis, quo militibus exaequato periculo animus amplior esset, ipse pedes exercitum pro loco atque copiis instruit. Nam uti planities erat inter sinistros montes et ab dextra rupe aspera, octo, cohortes in fronte consti- 35 tuit, reliquarum signa in subsidio artius collocat. Ab eis centuriones omnes, lectos et evocatos, praeterea ex gregariis militibus optumum quemque armatum in primam aciem subducit. C. Manlium in

dextra, Faesulanum quendam in sinistra parte curare jubet. Ipse cum libertis et colonis propter aquilam adsistit, quam bello Cimbrico C. Marius in exercitu

habuisse dicebatur. At ex altera parte C. Anto5 nius, pedibus aeger, quod proelio adesse nequibat,

M. Petreio legato exercitum permittit. Ille cohortes veteranas, quas tumultus causa conscripserat, in fronte, post eas ceterum exercitum in subsidiis locat.

Ipse equo circumiens, unum quemque nominans 10 appellat, hortatur, rogat, ut meminerint se contra

latrones inermes pro patria, pro liberis, pro aris atque focis suis certare. Homo militaris, quod amplius annos triginta tribunus aut praefectus aut

legatus aut praetor cum magna gloria in exercitu 15 fuerat, plerosque ipsos factaque eorum fortia noverat: ea commemorando militum animos accendebat.

60. Sed ubi, omnibus rebus exploratis, Petreius tuba signum dat, cohortes paulatim incedere jubet.

Idem facit hostium exercitus. Postquam eo ven20 tum est, unde a ferentariis proelium committi posset,

maxumo clamore cum infestis signis concurrunt; pila omittunt, gladiis res geritur. Veterani, pristinae virtutis memores, comminus acriter instare;

illi haud timidi resistunt: maxuma vi certatur. 25 Interea Catilina cum expeditis in prima acie vor

sari, laborantibus succurrere, integros pro sauciis arcessere, omnia providere, multum ipse pugnare, saepe hostem ferire: strenui militis et boni impe

ratoris officia simul exsequebatur. Petreius, ubi 30 videt Catilinam, contra ac ratus erat, magna vi

tendere, cohortem praetoriam in medios hostes inducit, eosque perturbatos atque alios alibi resistentes interficit. Deinde utrimque ex lateribus

ceteros aggreditur. Manlius et Faesulanus in pri35 mis pugnantes cadunt. Catilina postquam fusas

copias seque cum paucis relictum videt, memor generis atque pristinae suae dignitatis, in confertissumos hostes incurrit ibique pugnans confoditur.

61. Sed confecto proelio, tum vero cerneres, quanta audacia quantaque vis animi fuisset in exercitu Catilinae. Nam fere, quem quisque vivus pugnando locum ceperat, eum amissa anima corpore tegebat. Pauci autem, quos medios cobors praetoria disjecerat, paulo divorsius, sed omnes tamen advorsis 5 volneribus conciderant. Catilina vero longe a suis inter hostium cadavera repertus est, paululum etiam spirans, ferociamque animi, quam habuerat vivus, in voltu retinens. Postremo ex omni copia neque in proelio neque in fuga quisquam civis ingenuus 10 captus est: ita cuncti suae hostiumque vitae juxta pepercerant. Neque tamen exercitus populi Romani Jaetam aut incruentam victoriam adeptus erat. Nam strenuissumus quisque aut occiderat in proelio aut graviter volneratus discesserat. Multi autem, qui 15 e castris visundi aut spoliandi gratia processerant, volventes hostilia cadavera, amicum alii, pars hospitem aut cognatum reperiebant; fuere item, qui inimicos suos cognoscerent. Ita varie per omnem exercitum laetitia, maeror, luctus atque gaudia agi- 20 tabantur.

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Crombie, - Crombie's Gymnasium sive Symbola Critica.
Dict. Antiqq., - Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.
Dict. Biog., - Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and

Mythology.
Dict. Geog., = Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography.
Lex. or Lexicon, Andrews's Freund's Latin Lexicon.
Niebuhr, - Niebuhr's History of Rome.

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80s.

JUGURTRA, king of Numidia, was a grandson of Masinissa, being a son of his youngest son, Mastánabal; but on account of his illegitimate birth — his mother being only a concubine — he was neglected by his grandfather, and remained in a private situation so long as Masinissa lived. But when Micipsa succeeded to the throne (B. C. 149), he adopted his nephew, and caused him to be brought up with his own sons, Hiempsal and Adherbal. Jugurtha quickly distinguished himself, both by his abilities and his skill in all bodily exercises, and rose to so much favor and popularity with the Numidians, that he began to excite the jealousy of Micipsa, who became apprehensive lest he should eventually supplant his two

In order to remove him to a distance, and not without a hope that he inight perish in the war, Micipsa sent him, in B. C. 134, with an auxiliary force, to assist Scipio against Numantia ; but this only proved to the young man a fresh occasion of distinction: by his zeal, courage, and ability, he gained the favor not only of his commander, but of all the leading nobles in the Roman camp, by many of whom he was secretly stimulated to nourish ambitious schemes for acquiring the sole sovereignty of Numidia; and notwithstanding the contrary advice of Scipio, these counsels seem to have sunk deep into the mind of Jugurtha. On his return, he was received with every demonstration of honor by Micipsa; nor did be allow his ambitious projects to break forth during the lifetime of the old man. Micipsa, on his death-bed, though but too clearly foreseeing what would happen, commended the two young princes to the care of Jugurtha; but at the very first interview which took place between them after his decease (B. C. 118), their dissensions broke out with the utmost fierceness. Shortly after, Jugurtha found an opportunity to surprise and assassinate Hiempsal in his lodging

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