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at Thirmïda; whereupon Adherbal and his partisans rushed to arms, but were defeated in battle by Jugurtha; and Adherbal bimself filed for refuge to the Roman province, from whence he bastened to Rome, to lay his cause before the senate. Jugurtha had now the opportunity of putting to the test that which he had learned in the camp before Numantia, of the venality and corruption of the Roman nobility: he sent ambassadors to Rome to counteract, by a lavish distribution of bribes, the effects of the just complaints of Adherbal; and by these means succeeded in averting the indignation of the senate. A decree was however passed for the division of the kingdom of Numidia between the two competitors; and although Jugurtha obtained by far the larger and richer portion of the two, he was by no means contented, but continually harassed the frontiers of the neighboring kingdom, in hopes of inducing Adherbal to repress these petty assaults by arms. The patience and steadiness with which Adherbal adhered to a pacific and defensive system frustrated these hopes, and Jugurtha at length invaded his territories with a large army. Adherbal was defeated in the first conflict, and though two successive deputations from Rome commanded both parties to desist from hostilities, he was shortly after (B. C. 112) captured and immediately put to death. War was therefore declared against the Numidian king, and one of the consuls, L. Calpurnius Bestia, landed in Africa with a largo army; and though several Roman commanders successively undertook the conduct of the war, such was their avarice or incapacity, that the general result was simply failure and disgrace. Nor was any headway made against Jugurtha until the arrival of the consul Q. Caecilius Metellus (B. C. 109), who at once began to retrieve the honor of the Roman arms; and though Metellus met with some reverses, he would doubtless have brought the war to a successful termination, had not Caius Marius been appointed to succeed him,
The arrival of Marius infused fresh vigor into the Roman arms. Success followed upon success, until, finally, the defection of Jugurtha's ally, Bocchus, king of Mauritania, gave the finishing stroke to the war. Bocchus was gained over by Sulla, the quaestor of Marius, and he joined in a plan for seizing the person of the Numidian king. Jugurtha fell into the snare. He was induced, under pretence of a conference, to repair, with only a few followers, to meet Bocchus, when he was instantly surrounded, his attendants cut to pieces, and he himself made prisoner, and delivered in chains to Sulla, by whom he was conveyed directly to the camp of Marius. This occurred B. 106. He remained in captivity till the return of Marius to Rome, when, after adorning the triumph of his conqueror (Jap. 1, B. C. 104), be was thrown into a dungeon, and there starved to death. - Abbreriated from Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.
Page 1-10. Falso, «njustly, without reason; is the emphatic word, and 13 therefore occupies one of the emphatic positions -- the beginning of the sentence. 2. Aevi brevis, short duration : aevi being a genitive of quality, characteristic, or description. A. & S. $ 211, Rem. 6; H. 396, IV.; B. 757; A. 215. 3. Regatur, it is governed : subjunctive to refer the statement to natura sua (principle of oratio obliqua). A. & S. & 266, 3; H. 520, II.; B. 1255; A. 340. In translating the subjunctive mood, use those auxiliary verbs (when auxiliaries are necessary) which best convey the real meaning: those commonly used in grammars to define this mood are often inadequate to a correct rendering of it. Contra, on the contrary. Reputando, by reflecting = on reflection : the gerund as an ablative of means. 4. Invenias, you will find. This is a subjunctive of modest or cautious statement. subjunct. to soften the assertion. A. & S. & 260, II., Rem. 4; H. 485; B. 1177–8; A. 311, b; H. and B. call it a "potential subjunctive;" A., a “subjunctive of implied condition.” Some MSS. read invenies. Naturae, dative limiting deesse. A. & S. & 223, and Rem. 2; H. 384–5 (or 386, 2); B. 820; A. 231, a. 5. Hominum limits naturae. — Industriam deesse, that industry (or exertion) is wanting. Industriam is subject accusative of deesse, depending upon invenias. A. & S. 272; H. 551, I.; B. 1135; A. 272. In translation, the subject of the infinitive is commonly preceded by the word that. 6. Mortalium =hominum: a favorite word! with Sallust. 7. Via, by the path : instrumental ablative. 8. Pollons, abounding in strength; potens, efficient in the use of one's strength. M. Neque eget, and does not stand in need of fortune = and is not dependent on chance. Neque = netque, and is often best rendered and not. Fortuna here has reference to forto, in line 2. A. & S. 2 250, (2); H. 419, III. ; B. 907; A. 223. 9. Artes, qualities. 10. Cuiquam, from any one. A. & S. & 224, Rem. 2; H. 386, ?; B. 829; A. 229. Potest, sc. fortuna. Some MSS. read quae after quippe.
11-27. Captus, ensnared. 12. Possum - ost, it has been wholly given up .
The etymology of pessum is uncertain. In general, pessum dari
= to be sent to the bottom. “ The notion of its meaning 'cast under foot,' as if connected with pes, is derived, perbaps, from the apparent similitude of the words.” M. 13. Usus, hav
Page 13 ing enjoyed. 14. Diffuzere, have drifted aray. 15. Suam— trans
ferunt, the authors (of the blaine) transfer each to circumstances their own blame. With auctores supply culpae. 16. Quod si, but if. Hominibus esset = men had, hominibus being a dative of the possessor. 17. Quanto studio must be rendered as is the zeal with which. Nihil profutura = things that will be of no profit : nihil, accus. of specification. A. & S. $ 234, II. ; H. 380 ; B. 728; A. 240, c. 18. Regerentur, and esset in line 17, are subjunctives, the latter in protăsis, the former in apodosis. A. & S. § 261,1; H. 510; B. 1267; A. 308; G. 599. 19. Eo magnitudinis, to such a pitch (or degree) of greatness. A. & S. & 212; H. 396, III. ; B. 771 ; A. 216, 4. 20. Ubi= ut ibi, the preceding 80 = ud talem gradum ; hence fierent is subjunctive of result. A. & S. 262; H. 489; B. 1218; A. 320. Pro mortalibus, instead of mortal. So D. and M.; but An. renders,
as far as is consistent with mortal lot.” The former rendering seems to form a better contrast with gloria aeterni, immortal in
24. Nostra. Observe that while this word agrees only with studia, its force belongs equally to res. Alia, alia, etc. Rerder, pursue, some the nature of the body, others, etc. 25. Facies, beauty. Ad, in addition to. 26. Hujusce modi = hujuscemodi: gen. of description or quality. Brovi, sc. tempore. 27. At, but, emphatically calls the attention to something different and opposed. Madvig, 437, c. Ingeni. Sallust always employs this contracted form of the genitive from nouns of the second declension in ius and ium. Egregia, i. e. e grege, chosen from the flock = choice,
excellent, admirable, splendid. 14 1-17. Order : postremu ut (est) initium sic est finis bonorum (of
the good things = advantages) corporis et fortunae. 2. Orta = that have risen. 3. Senescunt. Cf., “The sun himself shall grow dim with age, and nature sink in years." Cato's Soliloquy. Incorruptus, not “incorrupt,” but = not subject to decay, imperishable. 4. Agit, acts upon, grapples with. 5. Quo, wherefore: strictly, ablat. of cause from the relative qui. 6. Per, in. 7. Aetatem agunt, pass their time, live. Ceterum properly signifies as for the rest,” being an accus. of specification from ceterus, but is often used in the same sense as sed, but. Z. $ 349. 8. Quo, than which, A. & S. & 256, 2; H. 417; B. 895; A. 247. Render aliud, nothing, and neque — neque, either — or. 10. Cum praesertim, especially as: hence sint, there are, subjunct. of cause. A. & S. & 263, 5; H. 517, I.; B. 1251; A. 326. 11. Artes animi, occupations for the mind. 12, Ex eis, sc. artibus animi. Magistratus, imperia, civic offices, military offices. 13. Minume, least of all, by no
Tage The old form of the superlative of adverbs and adjectives, 14 in ume and umus, was passing into disuse in the time of Sallust, who, however, always uses it. A similar remark applies to the form cupiunda (for cupienda), as shown in gerunds, gerundives, and fut. pass. participles of many verbs of the third and fourth conjugations. 14. Tempestate, time. A. & S. & 253; H. 426; B. 949; A. 256.
15. Quibus is fuit =who have had it (i. e. civic honor). But the reading of the MSS. varies much. 16. Eo, on that account : abl. of cause. 17. Parentes, lit, those who obey = subjects ; from pareo, not the noun parens.
18–38. Possis, corrigas, subjunct. of possibility (independently of quamquam). A. & S. & 260, II. (and Rem. 4); H. 485; B. 1177; A. 311, a. 21. Neque quaerere, and not to gain. 22. Extremae est= is extreme folly: dementiae being a predicate genitive after est. A. & S. & 211, Rem. 8, (3); H. 401; B. 780; A. 214, d. Quem=one, any one. 23. Potentiae, to the power ; dat. limiting gratificari =to surrender, to sacrifice. Observe that suam belongs cqually to decus and libertatem, though it agrecs only with the latter. 26. In primis (=imprimis), lit. among the first things = in particular, particularly. Magno usui = of great advantage : dat. of the end. A. & S. & 227, and Rem. 2; H. 390, II. 2; B. 848 and 853; A. 233; G. 350. Memoria — gestarum, lit. the narration of things transacted = the narration of events. 27. Virtute, the excellence. 28. Praetereundum. The expression written in full is, praetereundum esse mihi I ought to pass over it. Fer insolentiam, from vanity: to be connected with extollere. 29. Studium moum, my own profession. 30. Fore, sc. eos, that there will be those : 008, subject accus. of fore; depending on credo. A. & S. § 272; H. 551, I.; B. 1135; A. 272. 31. Re publica, public affairs; or, the affairs of the commonwealth. 32. Labori. A. & 8. § 224; H. 386; B. 826; A. 228. Imponant, will apply: subjunct. of result. A. & S. & 264, 6; H. 501, I.; B. 1227; A. 320. 2. Certe commonly means, at least ; certo, certainly. Quibus, 8c. ii imponent, those to whom, etc. 33. Salutare plebem. The candidate saluted and took by the hand (prensavit) the citizens whoso votes he solicited. M. Conviviis, ablat. of means. When Crassus sued for the consulship, he feasted the whole Roman people at ten thousand tables. 34. Gratiam, popularity, favor with the people. Qui si, if these. The relative is often best rendered as a demonstrative. A. & S. 206, (17); H. 453; B. 701: A. 201, €. Reputaverint, will consider: fut. perf. indic. 35. Quibus, from qui, because it is used adjectively with temporibus. Adeptus
Page 14 sim, subjunct. of indirect question. A. & S. & 265; H. 525; B. 1182 ;
A. 334. 36. Quales viri. Sallust here probably alludes to Cato, who about this time was an unsuccessful candidate for the praetorship. 37. Quae genera, etc. The allusion is to the foreigners, soldiers, and unworthy characters thrust into the senate by Antony. 38. Existumabunt. The old form, for existimabunt. Merito, on good grounds, though usually called an adverb, is properly an ablat.
of cause from meritum. 15 1-13. Rei. Dative of advantage, limiting the expression com
modum venturum (advantage will accrue). 2. Venturum, 8c. esse, which is very often omitted (especially in Sallust) in the fut. inf. act., and in the perf. inf. pass. Q. Maximum, Quintus Fabius Maximus, surnamed Cunctator, the opponent of Hannibal in the second Punic War. 3. P. Scipionem, the elder Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, who defeated Hannibal in the battle of Zama. 4. Solitos, 8c. esse. Imagines. These images were figures with painted masks of wax, made to resemble the persons whom they represented. They were kept in the Atrium of the house, accompanied with tituli or names of distinction which the deceased had acquired. The masks were worn in funeral processions. Dict. Antiqy. Only the nobiles (i.e. those whose ancestors had filled a curule office, or who had themselves filled such an office) enjoyed the right of having such images (Jus imaginum). 5. Intierentur, subjunct. in oratio obliqua (and probably would be subjunct. in oratio recta, after cum in narration ; but the former principle takes precedence). A. & S. & 266, 2; H. 530, I., and 531; B. 1295, (2), and 1296, A, E; A. 336; G. 653. Sibi, though properly a dative of advantage, is best rendered their. 6. Scilicet is contracted from scire licet (it is permitted to know)=one may well suppose ; and this resolved force accounts for the infin. with subject accus. (ceram illam, etc.) which follows. 8. Egregiis viris. See note on line 5 above, in fin. 9. Neque sedari, and is not diminished. 10. Adaequaverit, has equalled : subjunct. of time and purpose. A. & S. § 263, 3; H. 521, II. ; B. 1241; A. 327. 11. Omnium, partitive gen. Eis moribus, amid these morals, i. e. the corrupt morals of the day; ablat. absolute. (Moribus may, however, be regarded as ablat. of quality.) Quin (i. e. qui + non) = qui non, who (does) not. Divitiis, ablat. specification (denoting in what respect). A. & S. $ 250, 1; H. 429; B. 889; A. 253. 13. Contendat. A. & S. § 262, Rem. 10; H. 498 and 2; B. 1230; A. 268; G. 635.
13-38. Homines novi, new men. A plebeian who first attained a curule office was the founder of his family's Nobilitas. Such a