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Page person could have no imagines of his ancestors; and he could have 15 none of his own, for such imagines of a man were not made till after he was dead. He was called by the Romans “novus bomo.” The term novus homo was never applied to a patrician. Dict. Antiqq. 14. Virtutem, their virtuous energy, manly energy. Nobilitatem antevenire, to outstrip the nobility. The descendants of plebeians who had filled curule magistracies formed a class called Nobiles, or men “known,” who were so called by way of distinction from “ Ignobiles,” or people who were not known. The external distinction of the Nobiles was the Jus Imaginum (Right of Images). Dict. Antiqq. See also note on Homines novi, above, and pote on line 4, above. 15. Latrocinia, fraud, villany. 16. Imperia et honores, military commands and civic honors; military and civil offices. Proinde quasi, just as if. 18. Hujusce modi (= hujuscemodi), of this kind; gen. of description (quality). Sint, were (because were expresses a supposition in present time); subjunct. of condition with the conclusion omitted. A. & S. 263, 2; H. 506: B. 1277; A. 312. 19. Perinde – ut, just —— u8, cxactly

Sustinent, hold, fill. We should expect the subjunctive here, as eorum (= talium) refers to a class, and not to certain individuals. But Sallust frequently uses the subjunctive where other good writers of his time would have used the indicative. 20. Virtus, the merit. Altius, too deeply into this subject = too far. 21. Mo morum piget. A. & S. $ 229, Rem. 6; H. 410, III.; B. 805; A. 221, b. Me piget - I am pained, vexed. 24. Primum, in the first place. 25. Victoria, abl. of description or quality. 26. Primum, for the first time. 26. Superbiae — est = opposition was made to the arrogance of the nobility. A literal and verbal rendering of this and similar passages would be devoid of elegance, and would besides be questionable English. With intransitive impersonal verbs in the passive voice, like itum est, either (a) a personal subject should be supplied, or (b) such an impersonal subject should be used as the sentiment suggests. Thus, obviam itum est, a going to meet took place = opposition was made. Superbiae, dat. limiting obviam. A. & S. & 228, 1; H. 392 ; B. 870; A. 228, b. 28. Eo vocordiae, to that degree of mad folly. See references to note on line 19, p. 13. Studiis civilibus, to the party spirit of the citizens : dative. 29. Bellum, etc., (only) war, etc. Faceret, put : the subjunctive of result is generally translated like the indicative. 30. Expediam. Some MSS. read expedio. 31. Pauca — repetam, I will review a few things (mentioned) above = I will briefly review. Cognoscendum, understanding (them). ' 32. In aperto = clear; as

Page 15 in an open, clear field, where there are no obstacles. 33. Bello,

quo, ablat. of time when. 34. Post may be rendered during. 35. Maxume. See note on line 13, p. 14. 36. Cui fuit = who had: cui being dat. of the possessor. 37. Africano. What threefold construction is adinissible here? A. & S. 2204, Rem. 8 (a);

H. 387, 1 and 2; B. 632; A. 231, b, c. 38. Roi militaris, of war. 16 1-17. Magnum atque late valuit

= was powerful and extensive. The use of the predicate adj. and adverb together, though not common, is sanctioned by good authority (Virgil and Cicero). 2. Mann, lit. with his hand - by force, by hard fighting. 3. Regi, i. e. Masinissa. Dono, dat. of the end or purpose.

4. Order: sed finis ejus imperi vitaeque fuit idem; i. e. his sway over his augmented dominions ended only with his life, and the kingdom of Micipsa probably did not include the grants made by the Romans. 10. Pri. vatum, as a private person, without a share in the kingdom. Cultu, training. 11. Habuit, he kept. 12. Qui, he : the relative at the beginning of a sentence is generally best rendered as a personal pronoun. A. & S. 206, (17); H. 453; B. 701; A. 201, e. Ubi primum, as soon as. Viribus, abl. of specification denoting in what respect. 13. Facie. A. & S. & 211, Rem. 6; H. 428; B. 888; A. 251. Multo, by far: adverbial ablat. Maxumo with validus forms a superlative. A. & S. $ 127, 1; H. 170; B. 227; A. 89, d. 14. Luxu, old form of the dat. 15. Equitare, jaculari, he rode on horseback, he threw the javelin : these are historical infinitives

equitabat, jaculabat, and express repeated actions. A. & S. & 209 and Note 7; H. 545, 1; B. 1137; A. 275. 16. Cum, alihough, introducing a concession; hence followed by anteiret, excelled, subjunct. of concession. A. & S. & 263, 5, and Rem. 1 (a); H. 515, I.; B. 1282; A. 326. Gloria, in renown ; ablat. 17. Ad hoc, besides this, in addition to this. Pleraque tempora agere, he spent most of his time.

19–38. In primis here is among the first. 20. Quibus rebus, on account of these things ; rebus being ablat. of cause after laetus. 21. Existumans for existimans; an instance of Sallust's fondness for the older forms of the language. Regno, gloriae. A. & S. 227; H. 390, I.; B. 848; A. 233. 23. Exacta — liberis, his own age being well advanced, and his children small (=young): ablat. absolute. 24. Crescere, in the sense of to become great, popular. Negotio, fact, circumstance. 25. Multa volvebat = he pondered niuch; cum, in. In animo would imply a fixed intention. M. 26. Avida imperi, eager for power. A. & S. & 213; H. 399; B. 765; A. 218, a. Praeceps, hurrying on. 27. Explendam, gratifying. What

Ne qua

Page is the principle governing the construction of the gerundive? 16 A. & S. 275, II., and Rem. 2; H. 562; B. 1322; A. 296. Opportunitas, the favorableness. 29. Transvorsos (= transversos), astray. Studia accensa, the kindled ardor. 30. In, for. Ex quibus (i. e. studiis, in consequence of which. 31. Interfecisset, he should kill; subjunctive by the principle of oratio obliqua : Micipsa thought, si interfecero. For the tense, see A. & S. 2 266, 2, Rem. 4; H. 533, 4.

nequa, lest any. 33. Circumventus, beset, embarrassed. 35. Popularibus, to his countrymen. Manu promptus, prompt with the hand (as a symbol of energy,

but used here with special reference to valor in battle). 38. Bello Numantino. Numantia was taken and destroyed by Scipio the younger after a siege of fifteen months. Cum, when.

1-19. Saovitia, by the fiercenes8 = by the fierce valor. 2. Eum 17 occasurum (esse), that he would fall in battle. Numidis. A. & S. 8 224; H. 386; B. 826; A. 228. 5. Acri ingenio, (of) acute mind. 6. Romanis, dat. limiting imperator erat = imperabat. 8. Obviam eundo = by going to encounter. Periculis, dat. limiting obviam. A. & S. 228, 1; H. 392, I.; B. 870; A. 228, b. 9. Brevi, 8c. tempore, in a short time. 10. Nostris, sc. militibus; dat. lim. iting carus. Numantinis, dat. of the object (or person); terrori, dat. of the end, after esset. A. & S. 2 227; H. 390, I.; B. 848; A. 233. 11. Esset, he was (not, might be); subjunct. of result after ut. A. & S. & 262; H. 489; B. 1218; A. 319. Sane, indeed, In primis (among the first things) = particularly. 12. Proelio, ablat. of specification. A. & S. $ 250, 1; H. 429; B. 889; A. 253. 13. Quorum alter, one of which. A. & S. & 212; H. 396, III. ; B. 771; A. 216. 14. Adferre, to generate. Plerumque, for the most part, generally. 15. Asperas, difficult. 16. Agere, performed (did), historical infinitive, = agebat. So also habere (he regarded him), and amplecti (he honored, loved). In dies (=indies), from day to day. 17. Quippe - erat, because neither any plan nor any undertaking of his was unsuccessful. Observe (1) that cujus must be rendered as a personal pronoun, (2) that ullum belongs both to consilium and inceptum, and (3) that this being a relative clause expressing a reason (strengthened also by quippe), the verb erat would, in the best Latin prose, be esset, subjunct. of reason. A. & S. & 264, 8, (1) and (2); H. 519, and 3, 1); B. 1251 and 1253;

18. Huc accedebat, to this there was added. Munificentia, generosity. 19. Ingeni, of intellect. Quibus rebus = by means of which.

22-39. Novi atque nobiles, self-made and ennobled men, comes,

A. 320, e.

Page 17 perhaps, as near a literal rendering of these words as their peculiar

meaning admits of; but see note on imagines, line 4, p. 15, and on homines novi, line 13, p. 15. Bono honestoque = than the good and honorable = goodness and honor; the abstract for the concrete. 23. Domi, i.e. in Rome. 25. Pollicitando. Notice the force of the frequentative. 26. Si Micipsa — venalia esse. These words are in oratio obliqua, the word of saying is implied in pollicitando. See references, line 5, p. 15. Occidisset, should die; in oratio recta (si Micipsa rex) occiderit, fut. perf. See references, line 31, p. 16. Fore, it would come to prer: used impersonally. Imperio. A. & S. & 245, I.; H. 419, I.; B. 880; A. 249. 28. Romae. A. & S. $ 221, 1; H. 421, II.; B. 932; A. 258, c; G. 412. Numantia, ablat. absolute. 29. Revorti, the older spelling, for reverti. 31. Pro concione, before an assembly. Praetorium was the name of the general's tent in the camp, and was so called because the name of the chief Roman magistrate was originaily praator, and not consul. The officers who attended on the general in the Praetorium and formed his council of war, were called by the same name. Dict. Antiqq. 33. Quibus, on (to) any : indef. pron. 34. A, from. Emi. Supply id as its subject

, accus., and translate, that that (which belonged to many) would be purchased, etc. Multorum, possessive predicate gen. A. & S. & 211, Rem. 8, (3); H. 402, I.; B. 780; A. 214, c. 35. Artibus, practices (then assumed to be good). 36. Venturum (esse), would come; observe that the participle agrees only with the nearest subject. 37. Suamet pecunia, by means of his money itself. Casurum (esse). 38. Litteris, a letter. Quas redderet=ut eas redderet, which he was to deliver : hence the subjunct. of purpose. A. & S. & 264, 5; H. 500; B. 1205–7; A. 317. 39. Sententia, the

purport. 18 1-19. Notice that the letter (from Jugurthae to Masinissa) is

given in oratio recta. 2. Quam rem, a circumstance which. 3. Idem senatui, the same (i. e. deur) to the senate. A. & S. & 222, Rem. 7; H. 391, 3 ; B. 369; A. 234. 4. Summa ope

with all our power. 5. Pro = considering, in consideration of. Te, avo. A. & S. § 244; H. 419, IV.; B. 919; A. 245, a. 7. Ea, that those things ; subject accus. of esse. Fama acceperat, he had heard from rumor. 8. Cum - gratia, both by the worth and the popularity : Cum - tum= both and, or, not only - but also, tum generally serving to introduce a more important consideration. A. & S. & 277, Rem. 9; H. 587, I. 5; B. 1374; A. 208, d. 9. Flexit, he altered, changed (i. e. he did not now endeavor to expose Jugurtha to dangers). 10. Vincere ost, he endeavored. to win over. 13. Confectus, enfeebled. Cum,

Page -when, has a causal force; hence intelligeret, subjunct. of cause. 18 14. Coram, in the presence of. 17. Parvum ego, etc. This address is also given in oratio recta. 18. Existumans, the older spelling. 19. Liberis, 8c. meis: dat. limiting carum. Si genuissem (from gigno), if I should beget any: subjunct. by the principle of oratio obliqua; Micipsa's original thought was, si genuero (fut. perf.). A. & S. § 266, 2; H. 533, 4.

20-39. Ob beneficia, on account of my kindness. Falsum habuit=has (that circumstunce) deceived me. Habeo here has the force of an auxiliary verb with the perf. part. falsum = fefellit. See A. & S. 274, Rem. 4; B. 1358. 21. Ut omittam = to omit, to any nothing of. Egregia tua, noble deeds of yours. 22. Novissume, lately, recently. Numantia. A. & S. & 255, 1; H. 421, I. and II.; B. 941; A. 258, a. Que - que. These conjunctions rarely occur thus in prose, and only to connect single words, the first of which is a pronoun. Madvig, $ 435, Obs. 1. 23. Virtute, energy. 24. Ex = from being. 25. Nomen familiae, the renown of our family. 27. Mihi, though a dative of disadvantage, is best rendered my. 28. Per regni fidem, by the pledge of royalty =" by your kingly word.” M.

29. Genere, by birth : ablat. of specification (denoting in what respect). 30. Fratres sunt, (who) are your brothers. Neu malis, and that you may not be more willing. Neu is used as a continuative after ut and ne, and has the force of et ne after a preceding ut. See A. & S. 262, Note 4. 31. Alienos, strangers. Sanguine conjunctos, those allied to you by blood. 32. Praesidia, the safeguards. 33. Cogere, procure. 34. Queas, you can : subjunct. of modest or cautious statement (to soften an assertion). A. & S. & 260, II., Rem. 4; H. 485 and 486, I.; B. 1177-8; A. 311, 6. Officio et fide, by kind offices and fidelity. Quis, sc. est (is, i. e. by nature). 35. Frater fratri. This is the arrangement when words are repeated, and one is opposed to, or distinguished from, the other. A. & S. $ 279, 4; H. 596; B. 1396. Quem, what. 36. Tuis, sc. cognatis, to your own relations ? dat. of disadvantage, limiting the expression hostis fueris. 39. Dilabuntur, dwindle away, inelt away. 1-19. Ante, more than. Prior, superior (to them); or, the

19 rior. 2. Aliter, otherwise, i. e. than the tenor of my advice, which has been for concord and united strength. Ne quid eveniat, that nothing may happen. 3. Qui, he who. Opulentior, the more powerful. Accipit = he suffers. 4. Facere, sc. injuriam; because sympathy marshals itself on the side of the weak. 5. Observate, be attentive to, respect. 6. Talem hunc virum, this man, so excellent.


10 Sal.

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