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85 amicitia expressed being in the ablat. 30. In quo, i. e. the great

distance between them. Minumum, sc. est. 31. (Et in quo est)
gratia par (as much faror), etc. Parentes (from pareo), subjects.

39. Illam, i. e. fortunam.
86 6-38. Pro, “in excuse for.” 8. Expulerit (subjunct. in oratio

obliqua), he had expelled, might, with equal propriety, have been
expulisset. Expulerit conforms to the form of facit (a present),
expulisset would conform to its meaning (as an historical present).
13. Copia, the opportunity, of sending ambassadors. 30. Sine
decore, i. e. “ without the ensigns of their office as ambassadors.”
32. Pro praetore = 118 commander, “as acting commander-in-chief."
In the earliest times, the title of the chief magistrates was not
consules, but praetores; characterizing them as the commanders
of the armies of the republic, or as the officers who stand at the
head of the state. Dict. Antiqq. See also note on line 3, p. 40,
34. Avaritiae Romanorum, of the Romans for avarice.
itives limit famam. 36. Largitio, i. e. with a view to bringing
over to one's wishes the parties receiving the largess. 37. Nisi-
volens (unless equally desiring it), i.e. who did not equally desire
to be so, from a kindly and generous spirit. 38. In=in the light

of, as the result of,
87 3–34. Benevolentiae, (proofs) of his good will: poss. pred. gen.

So R. J.; M. makes it dative, implying object or intention, and translates, “either advantageous to the Romans, or likely to conciliate their favor.” 7. Quo intenderat (=to which he had applied himself) is to be explained by an ellipsis of animum, to which he had directed his mind. 15. Scilicet, of course, to be sure. - 16. In advorsa=the opposite. 20. Cum tum maxume= both- and especially. 23. Deprecati sunt, " they urged in excuse deprecandi causa dixere. 26. Delicti gratiam, pardon for his fault. 30. Consuleretur =measures might be taken: impersonally, and subjunct. of result, following cujus=ut ejus. 32. Iere=ivere

iverunt. 34. Neque - atque, and no less with these than. 88 1–39. Vero, than the truth, than they really were. 2. Intendere =they stood on the alert. M. takes it in the sense

to prepare their weapons," which, however, is implied in arma — temptare. 3. Timor, sc. erat eis; with the latter word victoribus agrees. 8. Praesidio, dat. of the end or purpose. 11. Incerto, with an uneasy, perplexed. 15. Totiens = toties.

18. Quam – parceret, than (he would) be sparing of them, betrayed (as he regarded them) by a shameful flight to a life uncertain and perhaps destined after a short time to perish by diseuse. 27. Ante =in advance of. 80. Manu

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66

Page vindicandum (esse), that punishment should be inflicted immediately. 88 Manu here seems = - brevi manu = immediately. M. translates it “ with arms.” Apud illum in illo

in his case.

36. Quanto tanto the -- the. 39. Nudum - caecum the unprotected and blind part of: the back.

1-35. Faceret. The subjunct. refers the thought to Sulla. A. & S. 89 2 266, 3; H. 520, II.; B. 1255; A. 340. 5. Videlicet, no doubt. 8. Suo, i. e. Volux's. Credere, sc. se. 19. Orator, as his ambassudor = legatus. 23. Multa bona, the many good qualities. 25. Ante, previous, with the force of an adj. 28. Consulta - habere=that he had kept unbroken (inviolate) all the matters deliberated upon with him. 30. Quo- gereretur, i. e. the presence of the ambassador would enable them more successfully to deceive Jugurtha; for Bocchus and Sulla could make their own secret arrangements notwithstanding. To have dismissed Jugurtha's representative would have been to arouse Jugurtha's suspicions. Hence nam - nequivisse, it had been impossible otherwise, etc. Many editors however regard the passage as corrupt. 32. Magis – fide, with more than Punic (i. e. bad) faith. “A proverbial expression applied to the Moors and Numidians as well as to the actual Carthaginians.” M. 34. Attinuisse, had detained = hud amused. 35. (Utrum) Jugurtham, etc.

1-39. Congressi (sunt), i. e. Sulla and Bocchus. 3. (Utrum) 90 pacem, etc. Agitaturus foret (=agitaturus esset), he meant (intended) to pursue. 4. Decumum decimum. 10. Sanctus = upright. Ex sententia, lit. to the mind=acceptable. 14. Gratiam deberem, I should owe a favor= I should be under obligation. Mehercule. See note on line 31, p. 73. 16. Id imminutum (esse). 17. Fuerit mihi, let it have been mine, grant that it has been mine : subjunct. of concession. A. & S. 260, II., Rem. 3; H. 516, II., and 1; B. 1282; A. 266, c. 19. Licet, sc. tibi,

you may. 22. Gratiam, that the favor. Putaveris, think, = noli putare : subjunct. of request, entreaty. 30. Voltis the later vultis. 36. Multis, 8c. verbis, =at large. 39. Non – habituros (esse), would not regard (18 a favor.

1-38. Illorum - sua, them --- himself. A. & S. & 219 and Rem. 1 91 and 2; H. 406, III. and 408, 1, 2); B. 809; A. 222, and a. Retulisse, to have concerned. 9. Quis =quibus. 17. Condicionibus poni, (to be) closed on conditions (and not on unconditional surrender). 20. Cuncta, accus., as the object of a verb of teaching. 24. Frustra, because not ratified by the senate. 25. Ambobus consultum (esse). that the interests of both should be consulted,

an

Page 91 30. Neque=et non, and that not. 35. Saepe ipsao=often eveno

33. Habere, he treated them. 92 4-25. Voltu =vultu. 5. Scilicet, of course, one may be sure."

Tacente ipso has the force of a conditional clause, “ although he himself was silent.” 6. Patefecisse depends on dicitur. 10. Quaestore, i.e. Sulla. 11. Insidiantibus, dat. limiting facillumum, but may be rendered by those lying in wait. 16. Traditur, in B. C. 106, the year in which both Cicero and Pompey were born. 17. Per, during. 19. Quo metu through fear of which. Illimque, and from that time: the happy conjecture of Dietsch. The MSS. and editors generally read illique. 20. Habuere=hare held, been convinced. 22. Certari = that a content was carried on: impersonally. 23. Jugurtham. “It is said that when he was led before the car of the conqueror, he lost his senses. After the triumph, he was thrown into prison, where, while they were in haste to strip him, some tore his robe off his back, and others, catching eagerly at his pendants, pulled off the tips of his ears along with them. When he was thrust down naked into the dungeon, all confused, he said with a frantic smile, “Heavens! how cold is this bath of yours. There, having struggled for six days with extreme hunger, and to the last hour laboring for the preseravtion of life, he caine to such an end as his crimes deserved." Plutarch, quoted by An. 25. Kalendis. B. C. 104.

NOTES

TO THE

CONSPIRACY OF CATILINE.

INTRODUCTION.

The subject of the Catilina or Bellum Catilinarium is the conspiracy of Lucius Sergius Catilina against the city and goverpment of Rome, B. C. 63. The conspiracy embraced the murder of many distinguished Roman citizens, the burning of Rome, the proscription of persons and the confiscation of property, and, generally, the entire subversion of the existing order of things, with Catiline and his adherents at the head of affairs.

The life of the great conspirator was stained with the darkest crimes. In addition to other murders, he killed, with his own hand, his brother-in-law, and, according to some authorities, his brother also; while a well-grounded suspicion pointed to him as the murderer of his wife and son. His vicious nature seemed to find a congenial sphere in deeds of violence, and in urging on others, particularly the young, to crime.

Catiline, though a monster of wickedness, possessed great natural abilities, and filled several important offices : he had been quaestor in the army of Sulla; he was praetor in Rome in B. C. 68; propraetor of Africa in the following year; and even while engaged in maturing his conspiracy, was twice a candidate for the consulship. His great hope had been, as the first magistrate of the commonwealth, to use the arm of the government itself to execute his nefarious designs, and as both his applications for the consulship terminated unsuccessfully, he now resolved to throw off restraint and proceed to open violence. The conspiracy was matured toward the close of B. C. 63, and was an extensive one, em. bracing no less than eleven senators, four members of the equestrian order, besides many men of rank and influence in the provinces Magazines of arms were secretly formed, and troops were levied in various parts of Italy, especially in the neighborhood of Faesulae, under the direction of Caius Manlius, one of the veteran centurions of Sulla ; while agents were despatched to different parts of Italy to organize a general revolt of the slave population.

Fortunately for Romne, Cicero was one of the consuls for the year, and through Fulvia, mistress of Curius, one of the conspira. tors, wis promptly informed of all their proceedings. The senate declared Catiline and Manlius public enemies; directed the consuls to hold a levy with all speed; decreed that Antonius, Cicero's colleague in the consulship, should go forth to the war, and that Cicero should remain to guard the city.

Perceiving that his designs were now well known and that the consular army was moving upon him, Catiline led his forces, amounting to two legions, into the neighborhood of Pistoria, with the intention of crossing the Apennines and escaping into Gaul. But the disposition of the consular forces made escape impossible, and be therefore determined to trust to the hazard of an engagement. “The rebels fought with the fury of despair, and long kept at bay the veterans by whom they were assailed. Catiline, in this his last field, nobly discharged the duties of a skilful general and a gallant soldier; his eye and his hand were everywhere; he brought up columns to support those who were most hotly pressed; withdrew the wounded and weary, and supplied their place with the sound and fresh; few from rank to rank encouraging the combatants, and strove by repeated feats of daring valor to turn the fortune of the day. But at length, perceiving that all was lost, he charged headlong where the foes were thickest, and fell sword in hand, fighting with resolute courage, worthy of a better cause and a better

His body was found, after the struggle was over, far in advance of his own ranks, in the midst of a heap of his enemies; he was yet breathing, and his features in the agonies of death still wore their habitual expression of reckless daring. His adherents, to the number of three thousand, imitated the example of their leader. Each perished at his post, and not one free-born citizen was taken alive, either in the fight or in the pursuit. But the fortune of Rome prevailed, the gambler was ruined, and the state saved.” Smith's Dict. of Greek and Roman Biography and Myth

ology. Page

1-14. Homines, subject accus. of niti, following the impersonal verb decet. A. & S. 239 and 272 ; H. 375 (or 545) and 551, I.; B. 1135 and 1136; A. 272. In translating, the subject accus. is generally preceded by the conjunction that; sometimes, as here, it

man.

93

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