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Page is best to omit it. Translate, all men to strive (endeavor). In 93 like manner sese is subject accus. of praestare, but it is best to omit it in translating. 2. Animalibus, dat. limiting the compound prae-stare, the prep. prae retaining its force in the compound (lit. to stand before). A. & S. § 224, and Note 1; H. 386 ; B. 826 and 827; A. 228. Summa ope, with all their power. Ne transeant, that they should not pass through = in English idiom, not to pass through. Transeant, subjunct. of (negative) purpose after ne = That not. A. & S. 262, and Rein. 5: H. 489 and 191; B. 1205-07; A. 317. Vitam is governed by trans in composition. 3. Silentio, i. e. doing nothing that merits the commendation of our fellowmen : ablat. of manner. 4. Ventri = to the animal appetites. Obedientia, an adj. 5. Imperio, the empire, the directing power. A. & S. $ 245, I.; H. 419, I.; B. 880; A. 249. 6. Alterum, alterum, the one - - the other. 7. Quo, on which account, wherefore: ablat. of cause. 8. Ingeni = ingenii. Sallust always employs this contracted form of the genitive in -ii. Virium, of the bodily powers. 11. Formae, of beauty. 12. Habetur, is possessed

=18 a possession. The meaning " is exteementseems quite admissible. 13. Mortales homines. Vine, i. e. vi, and we interrogative. Virtute, energy, vigor. 14. Procederet, succeeded: subjunct. of indirect question. d. & S. 2265; II. 525 ; B. 1182: A. 334. In translating the subjunctive mood, use those auxiliary verbs (when such are needed) which best convey the real meaning. Very frequently the subjunctive requires to be rendered by the indicative. A. & S. § 260, I.; H. 486, III. 2; A. 112, b.; G. 247.

15-26. Incipias, you begin : subjunct, of time and purpose. A. & S. & 263, 3 ; H. 52), II.; B. 1241; A. 327. Consulto (lit. of its being deliberated), of deliberation : a perf. part. used as a noun in the ablat. limiting opus. A. & S. 243, and Rem. 1 ("); H. 419, V. 3, 1); B. 923, 926; A. 243, e. Mature facto (of its being done quickly), of early action. “’T were well it were done quickly." 16. Utrumque, sc. est. 17. Auxilio. A. & S. $ 250, 2, (2): H. 419, III.; B. 907; A. 243. 18. Igitur, then ; with a resumptive rather than an illative force. Initio, ablat. of time when. 19. Divorsi, not “different” but (lit.“ turned in different directions ") pursuing different courses. Pars — alii, some -- others : in partitive apposition with reges. 21. Sua, his own affairs, what each one had. Cuique =him. 22. Cyrus, the elder. 24. Lubi. dinem = the later form libidinem. Habere, to regard, consider. 25. Maxumam = the later forin maxi zm. 26. Periculo, by proof, experiment. Compertum est=the discovery was made :

Page 93 impersonally, i. e. withjut an expressed subject, the subject and

verb being apparently contained together in a single form. In such cases it is often best to form a subject out of the substantive iden

(discovery, disclosure, etc.) implied in the verb. 94 1-17. Plurumum posse =was the most powerful. Quod si =

but if. 2. Virtus, energy. Ita ut = a8 as. 3. Valeret – haberent, subjunct. of condition (in protăsis and apodosis). A. & S. & 261, 1; H. 502-4; B. 1267; A. 308; G. 599. 4. Aliud — ferri =one thing carried in one direction, another in another; a thought whose explanation is found in the following clause. 6. Artibus, means, practices, qualities. 7. Pro, in place of. 8. Invasere, Poreve made inroads. 10. Optumum quemque the best, the most deserving. A. & S. 2 207, Rein. 35 (6); H. 458, 1; B. 1052; A. 93, c. 11. Quae — arant. An odd espression; meaning the ploughing that men do. What Sallust here gains in conciseness he loses in clearness. Virtuti, energy. 13. Sicuti peregrinantes, i. e. merely as spectators, without taking part in the real duties of life, or promoting the welfare of their fellow-men. 14. Quibus — voluptati. A. & S. § 227; H. 390; B. 848; A. 233. 16. Juxta, equally, i. e. I make no account of either. 17. Siletur sic lence is maintained. See note on compertum est, line 26, p. 93.

17-39. Verum enimvero = yes truly, in truth. 18. Negotio, ablat. of cause. 19. Artis, profession, talent. 20. Aliud alii iter, one road to one, another to another. 23. Bene dicere, to speak well, to be gifted as an orator: absolutely. Pace, ablat. of time when. 24. Clarum agrees with the implied subject (se, one) of fieri. 25. Mihi limits videtur. 27. In primis (=imprimis), especially. 28. Res gestas = history, historical events. Dictis, by the words. manner of expression, style: ablative. The facts must be fairly and fully represented. 29. Quae delicta = ea delicta quae. 30. Reprehenderis, perf. subjunct. (of possibility). Dicta (esse). 31. Virtute – gloria, the merit and the renown. Memores, you make mention. Subjunct. of condition, ubi being here nearly the same as si. “A clause introduced by a relative conjunction (when, since, and the like), may be considered as equivalent to a conditional clause." A. & S. & 261; Rem. 2; H. 513; A. 309, a. 32. Factu, to do. The supine in u may be used either actively or passively. Aequo animo = with composure, i. e. he does not question them. 33. Supra ea = = beyond that, i. e. what he can do himself. Veluti ficta, like things (really or professedly) fictitious. 35. Ibique, i.e. in my political career. Page 37. Quae = these things. A. & S. & 206, (17); H. 453; B. 701; A. 94 201, e. 39. Artium, practices, limits insolens. A. & S. & 213; H. 399; B. 765; A. 218; G. 373.

1-20. Corrupta agrees with aetas. Cum, although ; hence 95 followed by concessive subjunct. dissentirem. A. & S. & 263, 5; H. 518, I.; B. 1282; A. 326. 2. Nihilo minus nevertheless, nihilo being ablat. of specification. 3. Quae ceteros, sc. vexabat. Fama -- invidia, on account of the abuse and envy (to which it gave rise) : ablat. of cause. The reading of the MSS. is various. 6. Requievit, found rest, and bad leisure for reflection. Mihi, dat. of the agent after habendam (esse). A re publica, from public affairs, public life. 8. Bonum otium, my fair leisure. 9. Colendo, a gerund in the dat. governed by intentum (which agrees with me understood). Servilibus officiis. The sentiment here expressed shows the degeneracy and luxury to which the Romans were tending. The earlier Romans delighted to remember that Cincinnatus, when invested with the dictatorship, was guiding the plough. 10. Studio, pursuit. 12. Carptim, in detached portions. “From this passage of Sallust, it appears that the history of Catiline's conspiracy vas his first literary production.” An. Ut quaeque, as they ceverally, according as each. 13. Eo, on this account, for this reason : ablat. of cause. 14. Partibus, the political parties ; or, the party spirit. 17. In primis (=imprimis), particularly, especially. 18. Novitate, on account of the strangeness, unusual nature . ablat. of cause. Cujus = this, of this. 19. Moribus, character. Prius and quam, though often written priusquam, are really separate words (prius = 800ner, quam = than). 20. Faciam, I make: subjunct. A. & S. § 263, 3; H. 521, II.; B. 1241; A. 327; G. 579.

21-39. Genere = family. A. & S. § 246; H. 425; B. 918; A. 241, a. Vi, ablat. of quality. A. & S. & 211; Rem. 6; H. 428; B. 888; A. 251. 24. Grata. In what gender and number? A. & S. $ 205; Rem. 2, (2); H. 439, 2, 3); B. 654; A. 187, b. Ibique = et in eis, and in these. 26. Supra 27. Cujus lubet (libet) = cujuslibet, from quilibet. 28. Alieni, of (for) what belonged to others. Sui, of what was his own. From suus. 29. Satis, sc. ei erat = he had. 30. Vastus, his insatiable, prodigious. 31. Luci = Lucii. 32. Rei -- capiundae, of seizing the govern

33. Adsequeretur, indirect question. Dum, provided; hence pararet, subjunct, of condition. A. & S. § 263, 2; H. 503, I.; B. 1259, in fin.; A. 314. 34. Quicquam — habebat, did he

= more.


Page 95 at all regard, lit. did he have anything of concern. 35. In dies,

from day to day. 36. Rei familiaris = of property. Quae utraque, both of which. 37. Artibus, means. 39. Divorsa inter

se, inconsistent with one another, contrary the one to the other. 96 1-16. Res, the subject. 2. Tempus, the occasion. Supra repe

tere, to review, to take a review, “ to trace from a higher source.” M. 3. Paucis, 8c. verbis, in a few words -= briefly. 4. Habuerint, they managed, conducted. Indirect question. 5. Ut, hou, hence followed by facta sit (became), subjunct. of indirect question. Order : et ut paulatim immutata facta sit pessuma ac flagitiosissuma ex (=from being) pulcherruma. 9. Sedibus, abodes, homes. 11. Solutum, unrestrained. 12. Dispari genere, of dissimilar origin. 13. Alius – viventes, living, one in

one way, another in another= living in different ways. 14. Quam, how. 15. Res eorum, their stute. 16. Sicuti — habentur =

=as is the case generally with human affairs, lit. as most of human affairs are possessed (i. e. subject to the envy of those less prosperous). 18–39. Temptare=temptabat (=tentabat); esse=

=erant: the historical infinitive. A. & S. $ 209; Rem. 5, and Note; H. 545, 1; B. 1137; A. 275. 19. Auxilio, a help, dat. of the end or purpose, the dat. of the person illis, being understood. A. & S. & 227 and Rem. 2; H. 390, and 2; B. 848 and 853; A. 233. 20. Aberant, kept aloof. 21. Alius alium = one another. Hostibus, dat. limiting obviam. A. & S. & 228, 1; H. 392, II.; B. 870; A. 228, b. 22. Parentes may mean either parents or subjects' (from pareo). The former sense seems better adapted to the context, as referring to the earlier days of the republic. 24. Portabant. Notice the force of the tense- the imperfect of completed actions repeatedly performed. 26. Legitumum, regulated (restricted) by law, not absolute. 29. Curae militudine, by reason of the similarity of their care, i. e. to that of a futher for his family. 31. Conservandae libertatis instrumental in preserving liberty. Grammarians explain this construction differently. Some supply causa or negotium. “ The gerund and gerundive after the verb sum are sometimes found in the genitive denoting a tendency or purpose, with no noun or adjective on which they can depend." A. & S. $275, III. (5); H. 563, 5; B. 1330; A. 298, R. 33. Binos, two, in twos, two consuls for each year. Notice the force of the distributive. 34. Posse. Its subject is animum. 36. Se extol. lere, to (endeavor to) raise himself to distinction. 37. In promptu habere, to display publicly, openly. 38. Regibus, dat. 39. Ali. ona virtus, merit in others.

Page 1–39. Memoratu, to relate. Adopta, here passively. 2. Brevi, 97 8c. tempore, 3. Patiens, capable of enduring. 6. Habebant. Notice the change in the number of the verb. Such freedom, though sanctioned by the usage of good Latin authors, is not allowable in English. 10. Se is subject accus. of ferire, etc., to give prominence to the subject, “that he before others might strike down." Its use after properare is unusual. 12. Las, eam, here agree with the predicate instead of the antecedent. 17. Parva manu, with a small force. 18. Ni, if -- not. 21. Ea, she, i. e. fortuna. Ex, according to. 23. Satis, quite. 24. Aliquanto, though usually considered an adverb in this and similar places, is properly ablat. of degree of difference (measure of excess). A. & S. & 256, Rem. 16, and (2); H. 418; B. 929–30; A. 250. 24. Feruntur, they are reported. 29. Populo, etc. Translate, the Roman people werer had, etc. 30. Copia, opportunity, advantage; excellent writers. Prudentissimus quisque = all the prudent, thoughtful, wise. A. & S. § 207, Rem. 35, (b); H. 458, 1; B. 1052; A. 93, c. So optumus quisque (=all the best men), line 32. 36. Jus bonumque, justice and probity, right and good. 39. De virtute. Observe how the preposition gives definiteness and prominence to the idea (which might have been expressed, though more faintly, by the ablat. alone).

1-38. Su; pliciis, the worship. The word literally means a kneel- 98 ing down, either (1) in supplication, or (2) to receive punishment. 5. Vindicatum est=punishment was inflicted. 8. Loco, ablat. of separation depending on cedere. A preposition (de, ex) is often expressed. 10. Accepta injuria has the force of a condition (if an injury were received). 12. Crevit, in English idiom, has the force of the pluperf. (after ubi). A. & S. 259, Rem. 1, (d); B. 1094; G. 563. 15. Ab stirpe =utterly (lit. from the root). 16. Saevire, to grow cruel. 18. Optandae agrees with divitiae, the nearest noun. 19. Aliis, dat. of the agent. 20. Ea, these, the two things just mentioned. 22. Artes, qualities. 25. Falsos, deceitful, insin

Aliud - aliud, one thing - another thing. 27. Ex re, in accordance with the actual facts (i. e. of their real value or the contrary). 28. Voltum — bonum, a good face than an honest heart. Voltum=the later vultum. Bonum belongs equally to voltum ani ingenium (=what is inborn, from in + genitum). 29. Vindi. cari = they were punished. 30. Quasi, like.

Invasit, came on, rushed in. 31. Ex=from being. 34. Propius virtutem, nearer to virtue.

and pro.cime, from prope, are also used as prepositions with the accusative." Mg. & 172, Obs. 4; A. & S. 238,



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