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115 The relation of patron and client existed not only between individuals, but also between an individual and a province, colony, or foreign state. Dict. Antiqq. 24. Conjurationis, for the conspiracy. 30. Motus, commotion. 31. Cuncta simul, “everything at once, as madmen might do." 35. Ex, in accordance with. 36. Causa cognita, their case having been investigated after examination.




2-39. Constituerant. Plural, agreeing with the plural idea Lentulus cum ceteris. A. & S. 209, Rem. 12, (6); H. 461, 4; B. 645. 5. Invidiam, the odium. 6. Proxuma, i. e. on the night after the giving of the signal. 8. Ea, sc. negotia, implied in negotium. Divisa, sc. esse. 13. Alius-alium besides, (that one should attack one), another another. 19. Corrumpere, were wasting. 20. Facto, consulto, of action, of deliberation: perf. participles used as nouns. 26. Conveniunt, meet with have an interview with. 27. Jusjurandum, i. e. in writing. 28. Quod perferant ut id perferant. 38. Fac (ut) cogites = take care that you consider. A. & S. ? 262, Rem. 4; H. 493, 2. 39. Rationes, plans.

1-38. Infimis, i. e. slaves. 2. Judicatus sit, subjunct. in oratio obliqua, after cum, causal. 3. Quo consilio, lit. with what view why. Repudiet, shall he reject: subjunct. in a question of appeal (dubitative subjunct.), i. e. the verb was subjunct. also in oratio recta. A. & S. 260, Rem. 5; H. 486, II.; B. 1180; A. 268. 4. (Ea) quae. 7. Cuncta. A. & S. 231; H. 374; B. 734-5; A. 239, c. 11. Gratia, on account. Order: permittit (ut) ita agant cetera uti sit opus facto (of being done of acting). 14. Id loci (partitive gen.) eum locum. 19. Multa earnestly, neut. accus. pl. as adverb. Prius, first. 26. Dedit may come either from do or dedo. 27. Porro autem, lit. but farther on but still. 29. Oneri, a burden of odium. 30. Perdundae - fore would tend to the destruction of the commonwealth; the genitive of the gerundive used to express purpose or tendency. A. & S. 2 275, III., Rem. 1, (5); H. 563, 5; B. 1330. 37. Manu tenens, leading by the hand, as a mark of honor. M. 38. Concordiae. See Plan of the Forum. Her symbol was two hands joined together and a pomegranate.

1-39. Frequentia, assemblage: ablat. absol. 5. Quid ―habuisset quid consilii aut qua de causa id habuisset. 6. Alia, i. e. other things than the truth. 7. Fide publica = on the public faith being pledged for his safety. 10. Solitum (esse). 13. Praeter, besides. 14. Ex libris Sibyllinis. These were certain volumes containing predictions regarding the destinies of the republic, and


were in the custody of special officers called Quindecimvirs. They 118 sometimes proved a powerful engine in affairs of state. 15. Tribus Corneliis, to three Cornelii, i. e. members of the gens Cornelia. 16. Antea, sc. fuisse. 17. Urbis. Look for potior in the index of your grammar, and thus find the rule for this genitive. 19. Haruspices. See note on line 17, p. 57. 21. Signa, seals. 22. In liberis custodiis, in free custody, under the care of the magistrates, instead of being kept in prison. 24. Aedilis. The curule aediles were two in number, as were also the aediles plebeii. 25. C. Caesari. This was C. Julius Caesar. 32. Agitabat they gave loose to, indulged in. 35. Quippe cui erant because they had. 36. Usu, cultu, use, clothing. 39. Retractum (esse).

5–39. Qui nuntiaret ;ut is nuntiaret, and hence the subjunct. 119 of purpose. 6. Lentulus - deprehensi, equivalent to the arrest of Lentulus, etc. 7. Eo, for this reason. 9. Illi, they, i. e. Lentulus, etc. 13. Tanta vis=the great power. Leniunda = lenienda. 14. Plerique, a great many, as a third and distinct class. Ex, on account of. 15. Obnoxii, under obligations to, Crassus having probably loaned them money. 16. Referatur, sc. ad senatum, the matter shall be laid before the senate. See note on line 28, p. 108. 17. Consulente, i. e. Cicero, as consul and presiding officer, consulting, asking their advice or opinion. 19. Neque faciundam (esse), and that no further opportunity should be afforded him to make disclosures. 22. Machinatum (esse): here used passively. 23. Per-periculi, through his participation in the danger. 25. Immissum (esse), had been instigated. 30. Neque — gratia, neither by a bribe nor by their influence. 32. Falso indicates very plainly Sallust's belief in the innocence of Caesar. 34. In repetundarum, in a trial for extortion. See note on line 26, p. 102. 36. Ex petitione, on account of his application (for). 37. Aetate, ablat. of quality. Usus, having enjoyed. 39. Is, Caesar.

1-35. Publice, publicly, in his public capacity, while aedile. 120 Maxumis muneribus, by reason of the grandest shows, which he exhibited while aedile. An exhibition of gladiators was in particular called munus. 5. Illi, against him, Caesar. 6. Usque eo, to such a degree. 9. Mobilitate, by the excitability. 14. Liberti. Roman freemen were either ingenui (free-born) or libertini. Libertini were those persons who had been released from legal servitude. A manumitted slave was libertus (that is, liberatus) with reference to his master; with reference to the class to which he belonged after manumission, he was libertinus. Libertus and libertinus may therefore both be used in reference to the same person. Dict.


120 Antiqq. 17. Partim some of them; used here as a nominative. Duces multitudinum, the leaders of mobs. 19. Familiam, his slaves. Familia sometimes denotes the slaves belonging to one master. 23. Refert lays before them the question. 32. Pedibus-se, that he would go over to the opinion of Tiberius Nero; lit. would go with his feet, etc. The majority of votes always decided a question, and was ascertained either by numeratio or by discessio, in which the members who voted on the same side joined together, and thus separated from those who voted otherwise. Dict. Antiqq. 33. Referundum (esse) that the matter should be postponed. 35. Hujusce modi intimates that merely the substance and spirit of Caesar's speech, not the exact words, are given. The speech " is a perfect masterpiece of its kind; cool, argumentative, specious, and breathing apparently a spirit of patriotism, which was calculated to carry with it the opinions and feelings of a large majority of his hearers." An.



2-39. Lubidini et usui, passion and interest. 4. Magna — est I have ample means. 5. Qui, what: adj. pron. 14. Injuriae, of injury inflicted on the Romans. 15. Cum, although. 17. Per occasionem, on opportunity, when opportunity offered. 18. Talia, the like, i. e. retaliated. 22. Neu consulatis, and that you may not take counsel (of). 23. Pro, for befitting, suitable to. 24. Novum, the unusual, novel; that of putting citizens to death without the order of the people. 25. Ingenia, the imaginations. Eis utendum that use should be made of those punishments. 31. Pati (ea) quae. 35. An uti, etc. What ellipsis is to be supplied? (Had it any other object, or that it might make you, etc.) A. & S. 198, II., Rem. (d), and 2 265, Rem. 2; H. 346, II. 2; B. 1107–8; A. 211, b. 36. Scilicet, no doubt, doubtless; ironical. 39. Gravius aequo == more deeply than (is) just. 122 1-38. Alia-est there is one kind of liberty of action to one, another kind to another; some things are permitted to one, which are not permitted to another. 4. Imperio, ablat. of means. (Its dependence on praediti by a special rule is altogether unnecessary.) In excelso in high stations, in positions of eminence. 7. Minume, least of all. 8. In imperio, (in those) in power. 12. Postrema what happens last; e. g. the execution of the murderer, not the murder of his victims. In, in the case of. 14. Fortem, a fearless; referring to moral courage. 16. Neque illum, and that he (does) not. 21. Metus, i. e. for what the conspiracy might yet do; injuria, i. e. the wrong done to the state in the existence of the conspiracy. 24. Cum praesertim, especially as. 26. Id

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habet = what the subject itself suggests, lit. that which the subject 122 has (in it). 28. Ultra-esse. Caesar here avows his disbelief in a future state of existence. The same opinion was held by many of the more intelligent Romans. 30. In sententiam, to your opinion. 31. Animadvorteretur punishment should be inflicted.

36. Levius est, i. e. being punished with stripes before execution. Qui convenit, how is it consistent. 37. Timere, to stand in awe of to regard. 38. At enim may be translated, but then. A formula for meeting a supposed objection. "But some one will say." M. 1-38. Tempus, dies, fortuna, sc. reprehendent. Lubido, caprice. 123 10. Pessumum quemque, all the bad. 11. Ea, in these things. The ablat. is more usual with laetor. 13. Lubidinose, at their pleasure, wantonly. Malo, by the misfortune. 23. Dabat operam

he took care. 25. Trahebantur, were dragged away to execution. 27. In, in the case of. 34. Consili, in prudence. 35. Illis obstabat, quo minus=stand in their way, so that (they should) not. 38. Insignia magistratuum. Such, perhaps, as the trabea, or white robe bordered or striped with purple, worn by the consuls and other magistrates; the curule chair, the fasces, and the lictors. M.


4-39. Animadvortebant in they punished. 10. Causam in 124 primis magnam, a particularly strong reason. Quo minus why (we should) not. 14. Bene parta = happily obtained from them. Placet, sc. mihi, is it my wish. 16. Minume, by no means. 17. Per, among. 18. Neu quis, and that no one. 23. Alius alii, one to one (senator), another to another. This does not imply that there were more than two different opinions expressed. Each senator either arose and gave his own opinion, or, retaining his seat, assented to that of some other senator. 27. Et cum. In English we say, from what it (my opinion) is when I reflect, etc. 28. Illi, some of the preceding speakers. 29. Aris atque focis. The best opinion seems to be that both these words refer to the citizens' private dwellings; the ara being the altar of the Penates, in the central court of the house (impluvium), the focus the hearth in the hall (atrium) around which the little images of the Lares were ranged. M. 30. Illis, the conspirators. 32. Tum, ubi, at the time when. Persequare, you may punish. 34. Judicia, the courts of justice. Nihil reliqui=nothing is left. 36. Tabellas, &c. pictas, paintings. Pluris, of more value. 37. Cujuscumque, of whatever.

1-38. Capessite — publicam, take the commonwealth in hand. 125 Non agitur de=the question does not turn on. 6. Ea causa, on that account. 7. Qui mihi, etc., I who have (lit, had) never allowed


125 myself and my own mind indulgence for any fault, would not easily pardon, etc. Fecissem is subjunct. of cause after qui cum ego. The pluperfect may be explained as referring to a resolution formed by Cato long previously. Condonabam is the imperf. of habitual action. 9. Parvi, of little importance. 10. Opulentia — tolerabat, her (the state's) resources bore (her up in spite of) your neglect. 11. Id agitur=this is the question. 14. Order: sed utrum haec, cujuscumque modi (of whatever kind) videntur, futura sint (are to be, shall be) nostra, an nobiscum (futura sint) hostium (our enemies'

the prey of our enemies). Futura sint, future subjunct. of indirect question. 18. Largiri is here the subject. 19. Eo, therefore. An. and M. make it agree with extremo. In-est=“is reduced to extremity." 20. Sint sane, by all means let them be. 22. In, in the case of. 24. Composite, elegantly. 26. Credo, I suppose, is thrown in parenthetically, and hence does not influence the construction. Inferis, the lower world, the infernal regions. 27. Order: malos diverso itinere (in a different direction) a bonis (apart from the good) habere (inhabit) loca, etc. 30. Videlicet, no doubt. 31. A-conducta, by a hired mob. 34. Plus possit, is more powerful. 38. Eo-me, on that account the more does it con

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126 2-38. Quanto tanto the― the. 4. Jam, immediately. 6. Ex =from being. 11. Quæ nulla: =none of which. 12. Liber, unbiassed, unfettered. Neque obnoxius=biassed neither by (a sense of) guilt nor by passion. 19. Hic, i. e. in the senate. 20. Gratiae, to popularity, influence. Servitis, you are slaves. Eo fit, therefore it happens. Vacuam, the unprotected. 24. Supra-est, lit. is over our head (like the sword of Damocles) "is at our very doors." "A phrase implying imminent, impending danger." M. 26. Hostibus, dative. A. & S. 3 250, 2; Rem. 3. Misereamini, sc. ut. 28. Ne (or nae, the Greek vai), yes. 29. Ceperint, shall (again) have taken up. 31. Immo vero maxume, nay indeed, most exceedingly (do you fear it). Immo signifies no, but with this peculiarity, that something stronger is put in place of the preceding statement which is denied. 32. Alius alium=one another. 37. Prospera cedunt=turn out well. 38. Tradideris, perf. subjunct. (in apodosis), ubi (when) having the force of if at any time; implores, you will implore. A. & S. ? 261, 2; H. 509; B. 1265; A. 309, a; 322; G. 591, 3.


1-37. A. Manlius Torquatus. So nearly all the MSS. give the The correct name however was Titus Manlius Torquatus. Bello Gallico. Other writers refer the act to a war with the Latins.


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