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Sallust's error arose probably from his confounding this occasion 127 with that on which Manlius won the collar (torquis) from the Gaulish champion." M. 6. Cetera, the rest of. Obstat, i. e. tends to mitigate. 7. Famae, reputation, character. 9. Nisi iterum, unless (now) for the second time, "referring probably to the former abortive conspiracy of Catiline." 11. Loquar, the deliberative subjunctive. Quibus fuisset if they had ever had any (thing of) reflection. 13. Mehercule. See note on line 31, p. 73. 14. Peccato locus, lit. room for error on our part; but we cannot now afford to err. Ipsa re, by the event itself. 16. Faucibus urget, fastens on your throats, like a wild beast. Faucibus is ablat. denoting in what respect (specification). 18. Neque parari, etc., because, as he would intimate, members of the senate were implicated in the conspiracy. 20. Cum, whereas. 24. De confessis =on those that have confessed; to be connected with sumundum (esse), ought to be inflicted. 26. More majorum, i. e. to be strangled in prison; the ancient mode of execution in use before the abolition of capital punishment by the lex Sempronia. M. 27. Consulares, consulara, ex-consuls. 29. Increpantes agrees with alii. 32. Mihi fimits lubuit (libuit) in line 34. 35. Maxume in particular. 37. Contendisse. Supply eum (=populum Romanum), that they, for subject.

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1-38. Ante-fuisse had surpassed the Romans. 2. Agitanti, 128 reflecting. 3. Eoque (and from this) factum (est). 6. Rursus, on the contrary. 7. Sicuti -parente, the parent being, as it were, exhausted: "wie wenn eine Mutter durch viele Geburten geschwächt ist, so dass sie keine starken Kinder mehr zur Welt bringen kann." R. J. 8. Haud sane quisquam, certainly no one, in fact no one. 10. Moribus, characters. 11. Res, the subject. 15. Eis genus =their birth. 17. Alia alii, i. e. alia gloria alii, : a different kind (of renown); lit. another kind to the other. 19. Factus (erat). Severitas, austerity, an austere morality. 21. Nihil largiundo, by giving no largesses, to influence men's minds. 23. Illius facilitas, the obliging disposition of the former. 26. Quod has the force of dummodo id, provided it, and hence the subjunctive esset. A. & S. 2 264, 2; H. 513; B. 1280; A. 316. 28. Ubi ut ibi, hence posset, subjunct. of purpose. 30. Factione, in party spirit. 32. Abstinentia, in disinterestedness. 33. Quo minus eo magis the less the more. 36. Discessit = came over. 38. Triumviros, sc. capitales, magistrates elected by the people, the comitia being held by the praetor. It was their duty to inquire into all capital crimes, and to receive information


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128 respecting such. They enforced the payment of fines due to the state, had the care of public prisons, and carried into effect the sentence of the law upon criminals. Dict. Antiqq.

2-39. Tullianum. A dungeon added to the prison by Servius Tullius, and named after him. Varro tells us that the Tullianum was also named "Lautumiæ," from some quarries in the neighborhood (see Plan of the Forum). In later times the whole building was called the "Mamertine," though this name is found in no classic author. In this prison tradition represents St. Peter to have been confined. Dict. Antiqq. 3. Ascenderis, i. e. within the carcer. 4. Humi, into the ground. 5, Camera-juncta, a vaulted roof composed (lit. joined) of stone arches. 6. Incultu, from want of care, neglect. 8. Vindices, the punishers, executioners acting under the orders of the triumviri. 17. Pro numero. Implying that the cohorts had not the full number of men. 18. Ex sociis, from among his accomplices. 20. Numero, with the (full) number. 21. Cum, although. Milibus is here ablat. governed by amplius. 27. In-vorsus (=versus), towards Gaul. 31. Cujus, sc. generis. An exceptional construction, but not without example among good writers. 33. Rationibus, plans, views. Videri, sc. eum, that he should seem. 39. Illexerat, from illicio. 2-37. Eo consilio, with this design, purpose, view. 6. Rerum of his (Catiline's) situation. Eadem is the object of agitare. 8. Sub ipsis, close to the very. 11. Utpote qui, inasmuch as he. The relative, here strengthened by utpote, introduces a clause expressing a reason: hence sequeretur, subjunct. of cause. Exercitu. The ablat. of accompaniment often omits cum before words denoting military and naval forces, when limited by an adjective. 12. In fuga, (Catiline) in his flight. 19. Compertum — habeo = I have discovered. 22. Animo, dative. Cf. Cat. 20: cui virile ingenium inest. 29. Quoque modo: et quo modo. 30. Nequiverim, I have been unable. 31. Loco, condition. 32. Ab, in the direction of, on the side of. 33. Maxume, in the highest degree. 34. Ferat, impelled (us). 37. Memineritis, that you shall remember perf. subjunct. after ut, with the meaning of the present. 131 2-38. Metu, the earlier form of the dative, metui. 10. Po



tuistis nonnulli, some of you were able. 11. Alienas of others. 13. Haec, these things, the part which we have chosen. 14. Voltis

vultis. Pace bellum =war for peace. 16. Avorteris =the later averteris. 23. Circumvenire, sc. nos. Queat. "Dietsch observes that this word, rarely used by other good writers, occurs six times in Sallust." 25. Cavete (ne). 26. Capti, (after) having



been taken prisoners. 29. Signa, the signals. 32. Animus am-131 plior, greater courage. 33. Pedes, on fool: nom. sing. Pro, in accordance with. 34. Sinistros, on the left. Et - aspera, and a craggy rock on the right hand, rupe being ablat. absol. 36. Reliquarum, sc. cohortium. Signa, the standards, i. e. the men ranged under them. In subsidio, in reserve. Artius arctius. 37. Evocatos. Veterans discharged or entitled to their discharge, but continuing to serve, or returning to service, with higher pay and peculiar privileges. 38. Optumum quemque = all the bravest. 1-39. Parte wing. 2. Libertis, i. e. his own freedmen. If 132 Sallust had been speaking of the class of men, he would have written libertinis. See note on line 14, p. 120. Colonis, i. e. the veterans of Sulla settled in colonies. Propter, near. 4. Ex, on. Parte, side. 5. Aeger, lame. 7. Tumultus is particularly applied by Latin writers to a war in Italy or to an invasion by the Gauls. 13. Amplius. Observe that this comparative does not here influence the case of annos. 15. Plerosque ipsos most of them personally. Noverat, he knew. 20. Ferentariis. These light-armed troops were so named because they carried what they threw. M. however thinks the word is of doubtful origin. 25. Vorsari (=versari), was active, busied himself. 26. Laborantibus, those hard pressed. 30. Contra ac contrary to what. Magna- tendere, exerts himself with great power. 31. Cohortem praetoriam, i. e. a select body of troops forming the general's bodyguard. 32. Alios alibi: =some here, some there. 33. Utrimque, i. e. from both sides of his own troops, who attacked the inner flanks (ex lateribus) formed by the breaking of the centre. 34. In-cadunt, may mean either, fall fighting among the foremost, or, fighting fall among the first. The former is doubtless the sense intended here. 35. Fusas (esse). 39. Cerneres you might have seen. Potential subjunct. A. & S. 2 260, II., Rem. 2; H. 486, III. 4; B. 1177-9; A. 311, a; G. 252, Rem.; Z. 527, Note 2.

1-20. Vis animi Catilinae, the power of Catiline's mind. 2. Vi-133 vus=when living. 4. Medios placed in the centre. 5. Divorsius: more scattered. Advorsis, in front. 10. Ingenuus, freeborn, and born of free parents. 12. Pepercerant, from parco. 17. Hostilia=of the enemy. Amicum-pars, some, a friend ; others, etc. 20. Agitabantur = prevailed.

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A., an abbreviation of the praenomen Aulus.

A, Ab, Abs, prep. with the abl., from, of. Before the agent of a passive verb, by. Denoting position, on, at, in. Denoting order of time, after.

Abdico, āre, āvi, ātum, tr., to disown, lay down, resign, renounce, abdicate; to disinherit. Abditus, a, um, part. and adj. from abdo, hidden, concealed, remote, retired, unknown.

Abdo, ĕre, didi, ĭtum, tr. (ab + do), to hide, conceal, secrete,


Abdüco, ĕre, xi, ctum, tr. (ab+ duco), to lead away, withdraw, draw off, remove, lead aside. Abĕo, īre, ii and īvi, ĭtum, irr. intr. (ab+eo), to go away, depart, escape, withdraw. Praeceps abire, to plunge headlong into crime. Integer abire, to come off safe, unharmed. Abjectus, a, um, part. and adj. from abjicio, downcast, disheartened, desponding; low, mean, abject, worthless. Abjicio, ěr, jeci, jectum, tr. (ab jacio), to throw away, cast down, prostrate; to degrade, humble. Abjüro, āre, āvi, ātum, tr. (ab + juro), to deny anything on oath, to abjure; to forswear. Abnão, ĕre, ui, tr. (ab + nuo), to refuse by a nod or motion of the



head, to deny, refuse, decline.

Aborigines, um, m. pl. (ab + origo), the Aborigines, the original inhabitants of a country; the first inhabitants of Italy, in Latium, under Saturn and Janus, the ancestors of the Romans. Absens, tis, adj. (abs + ens, obso

lete, pres. part. of sum), absent, abroad, in one's absence. Absolvo, ĕri, vi, ɔlūtum, tr. (ab

+solvo), to loose, unloose; to free, release, discharge, liberate; to despatch, finish, complete. Paucis absolvere to relate in a few words. Abstinentia, ae, f. (abstineo), ab

stinence, self-restraint, moderation, temperance; freedom from avarice.

Abstinĕo, ēri, ui, entum, tr. (abs

+teneo), to abstain from, to refrain from, to keep from. Abstrǎho, ĕre, xi, ctum, tr. (abs + traho), to draw, drag, tear, or pull away; to withdraw, remove, separate from. Absum, esse, fui, irr. intr. (ab+ sum), to be absent; to be distant; to stand aloof. Paulum abesse, to be not far from, to be on the point of. Absumo, ĕre, psi, ptum, tr. (ab + sumo), to take away; to ruin, consume, destroy, cut off. Absurdus, a, um, adj. (ab + surdus), harsh, rough, rude; ab224

surd, silly, senseless, stupid; in- | Accurro, ĕre, curri and cucurri, glorious. cursum, intr. (ad + curro), to Abundantia, ae, f. (abundans), run, run to, hasten to. abundance, fulness, plenty, pro- Accuso, āre, āvi, ātum, tr. (ad + fusior. causa), to accuse, arraign; to blame, find fault with, censure. Acer, cris, cre, adj., sharp, fine, piercing; violent, severe; vehement, passionate; subtle, acute, sagacious, shrewd; active, ardent, spirited, zealous; hasty, fierce.

Abunde, adv. (abundis, e, obsolete), abundantly, in abundance, sufficient y, amply, enough. Sometimes used as a subst. with gen. Abūto, i, ūsus, dep. (ab + utor),

to abuse, make an improper use of, misuse.

Ac, conj. (in class. lang. only be-
fore consonants), and also, and
bedes, and even, and; than or
as, after words expressing com-
parison, such as pariter, juxta,
secus, similis, alius. Ac si, as if.
Simul ac, as soon as.
Accedo, ĕre, cessi, cessum, intr.
(ad + cedo), to approach, draw
hear, come to; to accede; to at-
tack; to be added to. Huc acce-
debat, to this there was added.
Accendo, ĕre, endi, ensum, tr.
(ad+candeo), to set on fire, to
light up, kindle, burn; to in-
flame, incense, excite, rouse up.
Accensus, a, um, part. and adj.
from accendo, kindled, inflamed,
stimulated, excited; exasper-


Acceptio, onis, f. (accipio), a tak-
ing, accepting or receiving.
Acceptus, a, um, part. and adj.
(accipio), agreeable, acceptable,
welcome, grateful.
Accerso, ĕre. See Arcesso.
Accido, ĕre, cidi, intr. (ad + cado),
to fall, fall upon, come upon; to
befall, happen, occur.
Accio, ire, ivi, itum, tr. (ad +
cio), to call, summon, send for;
to bring on, produce.
Accipio, ĕre, epi, eptum, tr. (ad
+capio), to receive, accept, take;
to perceive, hear, learn; to bear,

Accurate, adv. (accuratus), carefully, exactly, accurately, diligently, attentively. Accuratissime with the greatest attention.

15 Sal.

Acerbe, adv. (acerbus), roughly,
harshly, sharply, bitterly, se-

Acerbus, a, um, adj. (acer), sour,
unripe; cruel; bitter, harsh,
rough; severe, hard, grievous;
austere, morose.
Acerrime or Acerrŭme. See Acri-

Acies, ēi, f., the edge, the sharp
edge, the point of a spear, etc.;
keen look, the sight of the eye;
the order of battle, battle-array;
an army drawn up in order of
battle; the line of soldiers; pri-
ma acies, the van-guard, van,
the first line; a battle; acute-
ness, insight, genius.
Acquiro, ère, quisīvi, quisitum,
tr. (ad quaero), to acquire,
gain, obtain, procure.
Acriter, adv., comp. acrius, sup.
acerrime or acerrime (acer),
sharply, keenly, vehemently,
vigorously, severely, cruelly.
Acta, ōrum, n. pl. (ago), acts, ac-
tions, deeds, exploits.
Actio, onis, f. (ago), an action, act;
an action at law, suit, process; an
accusation, charge, indictment.
Actus, a, um, part. from Ago.
Ad, prep. with accus., to, unto, at,
near, towards, in, about; against;
according to; besides, in addi-
tion to, in reply to; for, next to,
after; in regard to.
Adaequo, are, avi, ātum, tr. (ad
+aequo), to equal, to make
equal, to level with.

See Accurro.

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