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brief and simple (comp. Acts viii. 37), but, as the Church spread more widely, it became necessary, in consequence of false teaching, to make them more precise and definite, and so they were gradually enlarged, and assumed their present forms.

5. The Apostles' Creed. The Creed, which is treated of in the Catechism as containing the Articles of the Christian Faith, is commonly called the Apostles' Creed. It is so called, not because it was drawn up by the Apostles, but because it contains the doctrines taught by them, and is in substance the same as has been used in the Church ever since their times 2.

6. The Nicene Creed. Besides the Apostles' Creed there are also the Nicene and Athanasian Creeds. The Nicene Creed was first drawn up at the Council of Nice in Bithynia, A.D. 325, and afterwards enlarged at the Council of Constantinople, A.D. 3813. It was chiefly designed to meet the opinions of those who taught that our Lord Jesus Christ was not the only-begotten Son of

Roman soldiers, a sign or watchword whereby Christians were distinguished from heathens and unbelievers. Comp. the Catechism of Edward VI. Q.“Why is this abridgement of the faith termed a symbol? Answer. A symbol is, as much as to say, a sign, mark, privy token, or watchword, whereby the soldiers of the same camp are known from their enemies." For other derivations see Bp. Browne On the Articles, Art. VIII.

1 See Article viII. of the Church of England.

2 Another able reason why it was so called is because the form most nearly like it is the Roman or Italian Creed found in the exposition of Rufinus of Aquileia. Now as the Church of Rome was the only Church in the West, which could certainly claim to have been founded by an Apostle, its See was called the Apostolic See, and its Creed the Apostolic or Apostles' Creed. Bp. Browne on Article VIII.; Heurtley's Creeds of the Western Church, p. 26.

3 The latter part was not formally added to the Creed till the Council of Chalcedon A.D. 451.

God, and therefore not God, and that the Holy Ghost was a creature. Hence it treats fully of the Godhead of the Son and of the Holy Ghost.

7. The Athanasian Creed, or the Creed of St Athanasius, a great bishop of Alexandria in the fourth century, is so called, not because it was drawn up by him (for it was not composed till 100 years after his death), but because it asserts those great truths which he spent his life in defending. These were the doctrines of the Holy Trinity and of the union of the Godhead and Manhood in our Lord Jesus Christ. It was drawn up in Latin, probably in Gaul, as some think, by Hilary of Arles, A.D. 429, or, as others, by Victricius, bishop of Rouen", A.D. 401.

CHAPTER V.

THE THIRD BAPTISMAL VOW, AND THE OBLIGATION TO KEEP OUR VOWS.

1. The Third Vow. Our third Baptismal Vow is to keep God's holy will and commandments, and to walk in the same all the days of our life, or, in one word, it is a Vow of Obedience.

2. The Ten Commandments. The Commandments are Ten in number, whence their name “Decalogue,” or the Ten Words. They are contained in the twentieth chapter of the Book of Exodus, and were uttered by God Himself in the hearing of the Israelites, when, after their delivery from Egypt, they were encamped before Mount Sinai (Ex. xix. xx.).

3. The occasion of their delivery. Their delivery marks a most momentous epoch in the history of the world. At a time when men were falling more and more away from God, were worshipping and serving the

i See Waterland on the Athanasian Creed, ch. VIII.

creature rather than the Creator (Rom. i. 25), and forgetting the dictates of the Law written in their hearts (Rom. ii. 15), it pleased Him solemnly to republish the Law of Nature. Out of the midst of fire and cloud and thick darkness, with thunderings and lightnings and voices (Deut. v. 22), He uttered the Ten Commandments, and afterwards caused them to be inscribed in visible characters on two Tables of Stone, and delivered them to Moses to be kept from age to age (Exod. xxxii. 15, 16; 2 Cor. iii. 7, 13).

4. The Moral Law not done away. By these Commandments God has Lorne a fixed and unalterable testimony against sin, and shown us the path of duty towards Himself and one another, in which He would have us walk. Hence Christ Himself came not to destroy the Law but to fulfil it (Mtt. v. 17), and He has tauglit us how its precepts reach not only to the outward acts, but to the thoughts and intents of the heart? From obedience, therefore, to the Moral Law "no Christian man whatsoever is free ?." Even as the Son of God came down from heaven not to do His own will, but the will of Him that sent Him (Jn. vi. 38), so must we learn to walk in the narrow way that leadeth unto life, marked out for us by God's commandments.

5. Duty of keeping our Vows. Such, then, are our Baptismal Vows of Renunciation, Faith and Obedience, and we must remember that as the privileges then signed and sealed to us are real gifts flowing from God's free grace, and that He will “surely keep and perform" His part of the Covenant, so the Vows we make on our part are binding upon us in the most solemn

Promises made to our fellow-creatures are

manner.

i See His Comments in the Sermon on the Mount on the Sixth and Seventh Commandments (Mtt. v. 21, 22; 27, 28).

3. See Article vii. of the Church of England.

meant to be kept, much more those made to Him in whom we live and move and have our being (Acts xvii. 28).

6. Need of Divine Grace. Hence in the Catechism we say, “we verily think we are bound to believe and to do” as was promised for us at our Baptism, and declare that by God's help we will so believe and do. We say by God's help, for in the lifelong battle we promise to wage "we have no power of ourselves to help ourselves?." Through “the weakness of our mortal nature" we can do no good thing without God's merciful aid, but He is “ the strength of all them that put their trust in Him?,” and by the help of His grace He can enable us to keep His commandments, and walk in the laws which He hath set before us (Jn. xv. 5; Phil. ii. 13; iv. 13).

7. Thankfulness for privileges. Momentous, therefore, are the Vows we have undertaken, and we should ever remember that it is an inestimable privilege to have been brought into covenant with God through Jesus Christ. Thus to have been placed in a state of salvation3 calls for hearty thanksgiving to our heavenly Father, and for earnest prayer that He will give us His grace that we may not fall away from, but continue in the same, and “daily increase in His Holy Spirit until we come unto His everlasting kingdom 4” (Eph. iii. 1419; Phil. i. 9-11; iv. 8). i Collect for the Second Sunday in Lent.

Collect for the First Sunday after Trinity. 3 That is, “on the road to and in process of salvation.” A state of salvation does not imply a state, in which we are certain to be saved, but a state in which we are being saved. Compare the expression tous owSouévous in Acts ii. 47.

4 See the Prayer of Confirmation, and compare the Col. lect for Christmas Day; “ Almighty God, who hast given us thy only-begotten Son to take our nature upon him, and as at this time to be born of a pure Virgin; Grant that we being regenerate, and made thy children by adoption and grace, may daily be renewed by thy Holy Spirit; through the same our Lord Jesus Christ, who liveth and reigneth with thee and the same Spirit, ever one God, world without end. Amer

PART II.

THE CREED.

SWER.

CATECHIST. Rehearse the Articles of thy Belief.-AN

I believe in God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth: And in Jesus Christ his only Son our Lord, Who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, Born of the Virgin Mary, Suffered under Pontius Pilate, Was crucified, dead, and buried, He descended into hell; The third day he rose again from the dead, He ascended into heaven, And sitteth at the right hand of God the Father Almighty; From thence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead. I believe in the Holy Ghost; The holy Catholic Church; The Communion of Saints; The Forgiveness of sins; The Resurrection of the Body; And the Life everlasting. Amen.

QUESTION. What dost thou chiefly learn in these Articles of thy Belief?-ANSWER. First, I learn to believe in God the Father, who hath made me, and all the world. Secondly, In God the Son, who hath redeemed me, and all mankind. Thirdly, In God the Holy Ghost, who sanctifieth me, and all the elect people of God.

CHAPTER I.

SUMMARY OF THE CREED.

1. The Creed, which we are taught in the Catechism to rehearse, is the Apostles' Creed, as being the most simple and elementary, and in most frequent2 use amongst us.

2. The Articles it contains are Twelve in number, and though the first word I believe occurs but twice in the Creed, it really belongs to each of these Articles, and to every part or single truth contained in them 3.

i From the French rehercer (re again, and herce a harrow) =lit. to harrow again, thence to repeat, recite. Comp. Judg. y. 11; 1 Sam. xvii. 31.

. As (1) in the Baptismal Services, (2) the Visitation of the Sick, (3) at Morning and Evening Prayer.

3 See Pearson On the Creed, Art. 1.

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