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inseparably pertains to God Almighty, whose creatures and servants we are', yet He hath delegated this authority to His Son (Jn. V. 27). All the revelations of Scripture imply that the future Judgment will be transacted in a regular, public, and most solemn manner, in the face and audience of all the world, before angels and men. But the glorious presence of God we could not endure. He dwelleth in the light which no man can approach unto, so that no man hath seen nor can see Him (1 Tim. vi. 16). Thou canst not see My face, said He to Moses : for there shall no man see Me and live (Exod. xxxiii. 20). As, then, the only-begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father (Jn. i. 18), alone ever declared, or manifested Him to His creatures, so to Him God hath delegated the universal and ultimate judgment of mankind, that “as in our nature He performed all that was requisite to save us, as in our nature He was exalted to God's right hand to rule and bless us, so He shall in our nature appear to judge us?”
6. Because He is the Son of Man, therefore, is He decreed and determined by God to be our Judge (Jn. V. 27). For this high office He unites proprieties which could not be found in any other, even the highest archangel. For not only, as the Gospel records assure us, is He our Redeemer and endued with perfect equity of mind, and immutable love of right; not
1 See Barrow's sermon On the Circumstances of the Future Judgment.
2 Barrow's Sermons. Compare also Pearson On the Creed, Art. VII.
“ The Father, who is only God, and never took upon Him either the nature of man or angels, judgeth no man (and the same reason reacheth also to the Holy Ghost), but hath committed all judgment to the Son, and the reason why He hath committed it to Him is, because He is, not only the Son of God, and so truly God, but also the Son of Man, and so truly Man; because He is that Son of Man who suffered so much for the sons of men."
only has He the divine faculty of searching men's hearts, so that He knows all matters of fact that ever were, and can discern the right in every case; but He alone from experience of human life can possess that “exact temperament of affection toward men, which is requisite to the distribution of equal justice towards them, according to due measures of mercy and severity?."
7. Summary. This, then, is the sum of the second part of the Christian Faith, "wherein is contained the whole story of our redemption by Jesus Christ?,” His Incarnation, His sufferings under Pontius Pilate, His Death, His Burial, His descent into Hades, His Resurrection on the third day, His ascent into heaven, His session at the right hand of God, His future coming to judge the quick and the deads.
THE EIGHTH ARTICLE.
I believe in the Holy Ghost, 1. I believe. Having confessed our faith in God the Father, “who hath made us and all the world,” and in God the Son, “who hath redeemed us and all mankind,” we now proceed to confess our faith in God the Holy Ghost,“who sanctifieth us and all the elect people
2 Nowell's Catechism. 3 After the words to judge both the quick and the dead, the Nicene Creed adds the clause Of whose kingdom there shall be no end, which is said to have been directed against the opinion of those who taught that, at the Day of Judgment, the Word would return into the bosom of the Father, whence He came forth, and cease to have a distinct personal subsistence, and by consequence a distinct personal reign." Heurtley, pp. 139, 140.
of God.” Before this Article we repeat again the first word of the Creed, I believe, because of the many particulars concerning the Son and His work of Redemption which have intervened.
2. I believe in the Holy Ghost", then, or Holy Spirit, is the Eighth Article of the Creed, or, as it is more fully expressed in the Nicene Creed, I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Lordand Giver of Life, Who proceedeth from the Father and the Son, Who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified, Who spake by the Prophets 3.
3. The Holy Ghost a Person. By these words we profess our belief that the Holy Ghost is “not a virtue, nor a gift, but a Person4.” And this may be proved from Scripture. For He is called by our blessed Lord the Comforters (Jn. xiv. 26); He is said to come
i From A.-S. gást, G. geist, i.e. spirit, breath, opposed to body. Hence the expression in the Catechism“ ghostly enemy" '= our "spiritual enemy."
2 That is, the Lord God and the Giver of Life, tò Kúplov και το ζωοποιόν. These words were added to the Nicene Creed at the second General Council of Constantinople; see Pearson On the Creed, Art. VIII., and the notes.
Compare the statements in the Athanasian Creed, and the words of the Fifth Article, The Holy Ghost, proceeding from the Father and the Son, is of one substance, majesty, and glory, with the Father, and the Son, very and eternal God.
4 Pearson On the Creed, Art. VIII.; Nicholson On the Catechism.
5 IIapákantov, the Paraclete. This word strictly denotes an Advocate, and in this sense it is used in 1 Jn. ii. 1, We have an Advocate (Trapákıntov) with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous. But as an advocate is one, who being summoned to the side of the accused or imperilled man, stands by to aid and encourage, so the word also means the Comforter, that is, the Strengthener, and Supporter, from the late Latin comfortare (Fr. conforter from con and fortis= strong)= to strengthen. The idea of strengthening and supporting has been lost sight of in the modern usage of the word, which now signifies to console. But when Wiclif first to men (Jn. xvi. 7), to speak to men (Acts X. 19, 20; xiii. 2), to bid men do things for Him (Acts xiii, 2, 4), to give gifts unto men (1 Cor. xii. 8—11), to intercede for men (Rom. viii. 26), to love men (Rom. xv. 30), to be griered by the actions of men (Eph. iv. 30); and these expressions imply that He is a Person.
4. And proceedeth from the Father and the Son. Moreover while the Scriptures ever speak of the Son of God as begotten of the Father, so they speak of the Holy Ghost as coming forth or proceeding from the Father and the Son. He proceeds from the Father, for He is called the Spirit of the Father (Mtt. x. 20), He is described as sent by the Father (Jn. xiv. 26), as given by the Father (Jn. xiv. 16), and in express words as proceeding from the Father (Jn. xv. 26). Again, He proceeds from the Son”, for He is called the Spirit of Christ (Rom. viii. 9; Gal. iv. 6), He is described as sent by the Son (Jn. xv. 26), and as given by the Son? (Jn. xx. 22).
used the word, he intended it in the sense of strengthening or supporting. Thus he renders Phil. iv. 13, “I may allo thingis in him that comfortith me” = strengtheneth me. Again, he renders Isai. xli. 7, “and he comfortide hym with nailes, that it shoulde not be moved,” where our present Version translates “and he fastened it with nails.” Com. pare also Latimer's Sermons, p. 25: “Now cometh he forth and comforteth them, and teacheth them to be bold, and to play the men, and fight manfully...My brethren, saith (the Apostle), be ye comforted, be ye strong." See Hare’s Mission of the Comforter', pp. 521–527; The Bible Word-Book, p. 116.
1 The words Filioque," and from the Son,” are not in the Nicene Creed, but were gradually adopted in the West. They first appear in the acts of an assembly of Bishops at Braga, A.D. 412. Their use gave rise to the great schism between the East and the West, A.D, 1053; the Eastern Church refusing to use an expression which had not been sanctioned by a General Council. Bp. Browne On the Articles; Hardwick's Middle Ages, pp. 195, 298, and the notes.
2 See Pearson on the Creed.
5. Is God. But while proceeding from the Father and the Son, He is “of one substance, majesty, and glory with them, being very and eternal God 1.” For the Scriptures ascribe to Him the attributes of Deity. He is eternal (Heb. ix. 14); He is omniscient (1 Cor. ii. 10); He is omnipotent (Lk. i. 35); He was associated with the Son in the act of creation (Gen. i. 27; He knoweth the deep things of God (1 Cor. ii. 10); to sin against Him is to sin against God (Acts v. 3, 4); and into His Name we are baptized (Mtt. xxviii. 19). Hence in the Nicene Creed is He truly termed “the Lord,” that is, “the Lord God.”
6. The Giver of Life. But in the same Creed He is called not only “the Lord,” but also the “Giver of Life.” For we read that at the creation of the world the Spirit of God brooded over the face of the waters (Gen. i. 2), and awoke order out of chaos, and life out of death, and again at the new creation of the world, when the Saviour rose triumphant from the tomb, He is said to have been quickened by the Spirit (1 Pet. iii. 18). Moreover, He is the Author and Giver of intellectual life. To Him is ascribed all supernatural wisdom and knowledge (Ex. xxxi. 3 ; 1 Cor. xii. 8); He in old times “spake by the prophets,” and as they were moved and inspired by Him, so they wrote (2 Pet. i. 21). He, on the day of Pentecost, came from heaven upon the Apostles, like a mighty rushing wind (Acts ii. 2), to teach them and to lead them into all truth, "giving them both the gift of divers languages, and also boldness with fervent zeal constantly to preach the Gospel unto all nations, and He afterwards strengthened them
i Comp. Article v.
? See the proper Preface in the Communion Service for Whitsunday. Some derive Whitsunday from the Teutonic forms Pfingsten-tag and Whingsten, i. e. Pentecost-day. Others derive it from Wytsonday, i. e. wit or Wisdom-Day,