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with the wheat? (Mtt. xiii. 26), but for two chief reasons, first, in respect to its Author, and secondly, in respect to the object for which it was founded. It is Holy in respect to its Author, because it was founded by, is united to (Eph. V. 29—32), receives life from (Jn. xv. 5), is ruled by (Heb. iii. 6), and is the mystical Body of Christ, who is the Holy one (Mk. i. 24; Acts iii. 14). Again, it is Holy, in respect to the object for which it was founded, viz. to put down evil, to exhibit a pattern of, to beget and to increase in the world, holiness (1 Cor. i. 2; 2 Tim. i. 9), and to form a community of persons showing forth the praises of Him, who ha!h called them out of darkness into His marvellous light (1 Pet. ii. 9).

7. Catholic. But in the Creed the Church is called not only “Holy" but also “Catholic?." This terin, indeed, is nowhere to be found in Scripture, but, as used by early Christian writers, it denotes “universal,” i. e. "extending to all mankind 3.” This the Jewish Church was not. It consisted only of one nation. Its sacrifices could be offered only in one temple, and in one place,

Corner Stone, and as continuing steadfastly in the doctrine of the Apostles. See Acts ii. 42; Eph. ii. 20; and the Collect for SS. Simon and Jude's Day.

1. Our Lord also compares it to a Threshing Floor containing Grain and Chaff (Mtt. iii. 12); to a Fold with Sheep and Goats in it (Mtt. xxv. 32); to a Net enclosing good and bad fish (Mtt. xiii. 47, 48); to a Vine with fruitful and unfruitful branches (Jn. xv. 1–6).

2 From the Greek adjective kalolekos=universal, which is derived from the adverb kablov=throughout, and that from κατά and όλος = whole. .

3 “And I believe that this holy Church is Catholic, that is to say that it cannot be coarcted or restrained within the limits or bonds of any one town, city, province, region, or country; but that it is dispersed and spreads universally throughout the whole world.” The Bishops' Book, Oxfd. Ed. p. 54,

Jerusalem. But our blessed Lord bade His Apostles go forth into all the world (Mk. xvi. 15), and gather into His Church from every kindred and tongue and people (Rev. v. 9; comp. Acts x. 34, 35). Wherever, therefore, there is “a congregation of faithful men, in the which the pure Word of God is preached, and the Sacraments duly administered according to Christ's ordinance ?," there is a Branch of the one “Catholic,” or “Universal” Church, of which He is the Head, and which He intended should not be limited to one people, or confined to one nation, but should "be disseminated through all nations, extended to all places, propagated to all ages?"

8. The Church Militant. By the nature of the case, then, so long as we live a mortal life, “the holiness of the Church is not yet full and perfectly finished.” The Society of Christians, scattered over the world, forms a “Church Militant," whose mission is to be always in arms against sin and wickedness. But at the Last Day it shall be a Church Triumphant, "clothed with innocency and holiness, full and perfectly finished, as with a snowy white and most pure garment 3," and Christ, who purchased it with His own blood, shall present it to Himself a glorious Church, not having spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing (Eph. v. 25-27).

1 Art. XIX.

“As the main body of the sea being one, yet within divers precincts hath divers Dames; so the Catholic Church is in like sort divided into a number of distinct societies, every one of which is termed a Church within itself.” Hooker, E. P. III. i. 14.

2 See Pearson On the Creed, Art. ix. Hence the Church may be said to be Catholic in respect of time as well as of place.

3 Nowell's Catechism; Wordsworth's Theophilus Anglicanus, p. 14.

PART II.

THE COMMUNION OF SAINTS.

1. The First of the four great privileges of the Christian Church is The Communion of Saints, and though this clause was one of the latest additions to the Western Creed, yet it is “in no way inferior in relation to the certainty of the truth thereof 1."

2. Saints. The word "saints?" or "holy persons” is often applied in the New Testament to the whole body of baptized Christians in a city or district, just as the Israelites are frequently called by the prophets a “holy nation 3,” that is, a people separated from the rest of the world and dedicated to God's service. Thus we read of the Apostle Peter passing through all quarters, and coming down to the saints which dwelt at Lydda (Acts ix. 32). Thus the Apostle Paul speaks of the collection for the poor saints at Jerusalem (Rom. xv. 26), and writes to all the saints in Achaia (2 Cor. i. 1), to all the saints in Christ Jesus at Philippi (Phil. i. 1), to the saints at Ephesus (Eph. i. 1). Thus too the Apostle Jude speaks of the faith once delivered unto the saints (Jude 3). In each of these places the term is applied to all who profess the name of Christ, and who are therefore called to walk in

1 Pearson On the Creed, Art. x.; Heurtley, p. 145. 2 Sanciti, contracted into sancti=set apart.

$ “The penmen of the Old Testament do often speak of the people of Israel as of an holy nation, and God doth speak unto them as to a people holy unto Himself; because He had chosen them out of all nations of the world, and appropriated them to Himself. Although, therefore, most of that nation were rebellious to Him which called them, and void of all true inherent and actual sanctity; yet because they were all in that matter separated, they were all, as to that separation, called holy." Pearson On the Creed.

holiness. But as they were not all Israel, which were of Israel (Rom. ix. 6), and as not every one that saith Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven, but he that doeth the will of the Father which is in heaven (Mtt. vii. 21), so the term "saints” is also-applied in a more restricted sense to such as knowing that God hath called them unto holiness (1 Thes. iv. 7), seek, so far as is possible in this mortal life, to live up to their high vocation, and to be holy even as He who called them is holy (1 Pet. i. 15).

3. The Communion of Saints. Now the truo members of the Church “militant here in earth,” may be, and are, scattered and sundered from one another by divers and far distant times and places. But “in what nation soever, or in what land soever they be?," we believe that they have communion or fellowship with the Father, with the Son?, with the Holy Ghost', and with the Holy Angels", who take delight in ministering for their benefit (Heb. i. 14). Again, wo believe that, however scattered and sundered they may be now, they are knit together in communion and fellow

1 Nowell's Catechism; Cranmer's Catechism, p. 124.
2 1 Jn. i. 3, And truly our fellowship is with the Father.

3 1 Jn. i. 3, And truly our fellowship is...with His Son Jesus Christ. Comp. also Jn. xiv. 23, If a man love Me, he will keep My words; and My Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him. Com. pare also Jn. xvii. 20—23; 1 Cor. i. 9; Rom. vi. 3—8.

4 The communion of the Holy Ghost be with you all, 2 Cor. xiii. 14. Comp. Phil. ii. 1.

5 Comp. Heb. xii. 22, But ye are come to mount Sion, and unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to an innumerable company of Angels. Compare also Mtt. xviii. 10, and the Collect for St Michael's Day. “Of angels we are not to consider only what they are and do in regard of their own being, but that also which concerneth them as they are linked into a kind of corporation amongst themselves, and of society or fellowship with men.” Hooker, E. P. 1. iy. 2.

ship’ one with another. They are all members incorporate in the same mystical Body, they are all united to the same Head (Eph. iv. 15, 16), and they have all one Faith, one Baptism, and one Hope of their calling?

4. The Saints departed. But the term “Saints” also includes those who have departed this life in the true faith and fear of God, and who having finished their course (2 Tim. iv. 7), have been “delivered from the burden of the flesh, and are in joy and felicity3." Now the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews says to the believers, to whom he was writing, that they were come to the general assembly and Church of the first-born, which are enrolled 4 in heaven, to the spirits of just men made perfect. Hence we infer that the communion and fellowship, which the members of the Church have with their common Lord and with one another", is not broken up by the death of any. Death, which is no more than the separation of the soul from the body, does not separate the departed from the love of God (Rom. viii. 39), unto whom all live (Lk. xx. 38), or from the love of Christ, who does not cease to be their Head, because they are removed from our sight. As we have communion with the Father, and the Son, so have they; as we look earnestly for the adoption, to wit, the redemption of our body (Rom. viii. 23), so do they, fellow-members of the same mystical body, long

1 See the Collect for All Saints' Day, and the Prayer in the Post-Communion Service.

2 There is one body, and one Spirit, even as ye are called in one hope of your calling; one Lord, one faith, one baptism (Eph. iv. 4, 5).

3 See the Prayer in the Burial Service.
4 See Heb. xii. 23, margin.

8 The earliest writers who mention this Article of the Creed especially “understood it of the Communion which the saints on earth have with the saints departe Heurtley, p. 146; Pearson On the Creed, Art. ix. note

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