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horring the adoration of all idols and images, we are to worship Him in spirit and in truth; the third how with the mouth we are to honour His holy Name and His word; the fourth how we are to consecrate His Day and so all days to His service?

SECTION II.

Our Duty towards our Neighbour.

CHAPTER I.
THE FIFTH COMMANDMENT,

BOUR.

FIFTH COMMANDMENT. DUTY TOWARDS OUR NEIGHHonour thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be My duty towards my Neighlong in the land which the bour, is to love him as myself, Lord thy God giveth thee. and to do to all men, as I

would they should do unto me : To love, honour, and succour my father and mother: To honour and obey the Queen, and all that are put in authority under her: To submit myself to all my governors, teachers, spiritual pastors and masters : To order myself lowly and reverently to all my

betters. 1. Our Neighbour. From the Commandments which teach us our Duty towards God, we pass on to those which teach us our Duty towards our neighbour', i.e.,

1 Nicholson, p. 91 ; Hammond's Catechism, p. 184.

2 “Our Neighbour is every one, with whom we have at any time any concern, or on whose welfare our actions have any influence. For whosoever is thus within our reach, is in the most important sense near to us, however distant in other respects. Secker's Lectures, II. p. 1. “Our neighbour is that part of the universe, that part of mankind, that part of our country, which comes under our immediate notice,

all men with whom we have to deal. This Duty is thus generally described, My duty towards my neighbour is to love him as myself, and to do to all men as I would they should do unto me. . Here our own selves are set for the rule towards our neighbour, and as no man hateth his own flesh, but nourisheth it and cherisheth it (Eph. v. 29), sol with that “truth of love" are we to love our neighbour, and do to all men, according to our Lord's golden rule, as we would they should do unto us (Mtt. vii. 12).

2. Parental Authority. The word “neighbour," then, including all men with whom we have to deal, comprehends superiors as well as equals, and as parental authority is the origin and type of all authority, the Fifth Commandment is placed at the head of the second Table, and treats of the honour due to Father and Mother.

3. Enforced in the Mosaic Law. The duty of showing honour to parents, as the authors of our being, which natural reason teaches, was strongly enforced in the Mosaic Law. Reverence for parents is the first duty after that appertaining to God Himself, and is the first and the only commandment to which a promise of long life and continuance in the Promised Land is definitely attached (Ex. xx. 12; Eph. vi. 2). The Mosaic Law, in

aoquaintance, and influence, and with which we have to do." Bp. Butler Upon the Love of our Neighbour.

1 The adverb sicut, “as,' is not a note of parity, but similitude, and shows not the quantity, but the quality of our love. For no man is bound to love another equally, or so much as himself, but with that truth of love that he loves himself; the love then of man to man ought to be true, and not false; real, and not feigned nor adulterate. A man would be loath that other men should dissemble with him, neither may he then dissemble with them; let love be without dissimulation (Rom. xii. 9). Nicholson On the Catechism, p. 124.

deed, did not invest the father with the same boundless power as the Greek and Roman Laws, but it made the act of smiting father or 'mother a capital offence', and directed that unnatural and disobedient children should be put to death?

4. And by Christ and His Apostles. The duty of obedience of children towards their parents is also sanctioned by Christian teaching. For not only did our Lord go down with His earthly parents to Nazareth and live in subjection unto them (Lk. ii. 51), but when He hung upon the Cross, He commended His mother to the care of His favourite disciple St John (Jn. xix. 26). lle also found great fault with those amongst the Jews who made this Law of none effect by certain traditions and exemptions (Mtt. xv. 3), and St Paul afirms obedience to parents to be at once right (Eph. vi. 1), and well-pleasing unto the Lord (Col.iii. 20), while he classes disobedience to them among the signs of perilous times (2 Tim. iii. 2).

5. Earthly Authority. But as the parental is the type and origin of all authority, and the family is the nursery of the State, the Catechism proceeds to include under the Fifth Commandment the duty not only of loving, honouring, and succouring 3 father and mother, but also of submission to all earthly authority. And this too is sanctioned by the teaching of Christ, who paid tribute (Mtt. xvii. 24—27), and enjoined others to render unto Cæsar the things that are Cæsar's (Mtt. xxii, 21), and of His Apostles, who taught the duty of rendering tribute to whom tribute is due, fear to whom

1 Ex. xxi. 15, 17; Lev. xix. 3, xx. 9. 2 Ex. xxi. 17; Deut. xxi. 18—21.

3 To succour, from Latin succurrere, Fr. secourir=(1) to run up to for the purpose of assisting ; (2) to help; (3) to support. Comp. 2 Sam. viii. 5, xxi. 17; 2 Cor. vi. 2; Heb. ii.

See Bible Word-Book, p. 464.

18.

fear, honour to whom honour (Rom. xiii. 7), and of subjection to the higher powers (Rom. xiii. 1-5; Tit. iii. 1; 1 Pet. ii. 13). Rightly, therefore, does the Catechism hold that the Fifth Commandment teaches us “to honour and obey the queen and all that are put in authority under her, to submit ourselves to all our governors, teachers, spiritual pastors and masters, and to order ourselves lowly and reverently to all our betters.'

CHAPTER II.
THE SIXTH COMMANDMENT.
SIXTH COMMANDMENT. DUTY TOWARDS OUR NEIGI.

BOUR.
Thou shalt do no murder.

My duty towards my Neighbour is... To hurt no body by word nor deed...To bear no

malice nor hatred in my heart. 1. Right of Personal Security. The previous Commandment treated of our duty towards superiors, the five following treat of our duty towards all men alike, whether superiors, inferiors, or equals. And first, we are taught our duty respecting the life of our fellowman, that he possesses a right of personal security', and that we may not deprive him of his life, or commit wilful murder.

2. Murder. In accordance with this precept the wilful shedder of man's blood met with no compassion from the Mosaic code. The original law at Sinai and the subsequent repetition of it? made death the inevitable penalty of murder, even as it had been in the days of Noah; Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed (Gen. ix. 6).

3. The Sermon on the Mount. But as inter-
1 Whewell's Elements of Morality, 1. 40.
2 Comp. Ex. xxi. 12–14, with Deut. xix. 11–13.

deed, did not invest the father with the same boundless power as the Greek and Roman Laws, but it made the act of smiting father or 'mother a capital offence', and directed that unnatural and disobedient children should be put to death.

4. And by Christ and His Apostles. The duty of obedience of children towards their parents is also sanctioned by Christian teaching. For not only did our Lord go down with His earthly parents to Nazareth and live in subjection unto them (Lk. ii. 51), but when He hung upon the Cross, He commended His mother to the care of His favourite disciple St John (Jn. xix. 26). Ile also found great fault with those amongst the Jews who made this Law of none effect by certain traditions and exemptions (Mtt. xv. 3), and St Paul affirms obedience to parents to be at once right (Eph. vi. 1), and well-pleasing unto the Lord (Col. iii. 20), while he classes disobedience to them among the signs of perilous times (2 Tim. iii. 2).

5. Earthly Authority. But as the parental is the type and origin of all authority, and the family is the nursery of the State, the Catechism proceeds to include under the Fifth Commandment the duty not only of loving, honouring, and succouring 3 father and mother, but also of submission to all earthly authority. And this too is sanctioned by the teaching of Christ, who paid tribute (Mtt. xvii. 24–27), and enjoined others to render unto Cæsar the things that are Cæsar's (Mtt. xxii, 21), and of His Apostles, who taught the duty of rendering tribute to whom tribute is due, fear to whom

3 To succour,

1 Ex. xxi. 15, 17; Lev. xix. 3, xx. 9.
Ex. xxi. 17; Deut. xxi. 18—21.

from Latin succurrere, Fr. secourir=(1) to run up to for the purpose of assisting ; (2) to help; (3) to support. Comp. 2 Sam. viii. 5, xxi. 17; 2 Cor. vi. 2; Heb. ii. 18. See Bible Word-Book, p. 464.

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