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fear, honour to whom honour (Rom. xiii. 7), and of subjection to the higher powers (Rom. xiii. 1iii. 1; 1 Pet. ii. 13). Rightly, therefore, does the Catechism hold that the Fifth Commandment teaches us “to honour and obey the queen and all that are put in authority under her, to submit ourselves to all our governors, teachers, spiritual pastors and masters, and to order ourselves lowly and reverently to all our betters.'

CHAPTER II.
TIIE SIXTH COMMANDMENT.
Sixtı COMMANDMENT. DUTY TOWARDS OUR NEIGI.

BOUR.
Thou shalt do no murder.

My duty towards my Neighbour is... To hurt no body by word nor deed... To bear no

malice nor hatred in my heart. 1. Right of Personal Security. The previous Commandment treated of our duty towards superiors, the five following treat of our duty towards all men alike, whether superiors, inferiors, or equals. And first, we are taught our duty respecting the life of our fellowman, that he possesses a right of personal security', and that we may not deprive him of his life, or commit wilful murder.

2. Murder. In accordance with this precept the wilful shedder of man's blood met with no compassion from the Mosaic code. The original law at Sinai and the subsequent repetition of ito made death the inevitable penalty of murder, even as it had been in the days of Noah; Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed (Gen. ix. 6).

3. The Sermon on the Mount. But as inter1 Whewell's Elements of Morality, 1. 40.

Comp. Ex. xxi. 12–14, with Deut. xix. 11–13.

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preted by our Lord, we see that this Commandment has a deeper application than the mere committal of murder. Yehave heard, said He, that it was said to them of old time, Thou shalt not kill; and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment. But I say unto you, that whosoever is angry with his brother without a causeshall be in danger of the judgment; and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the Council; but whosoever shall say Thou fool4, shall be in danger of hell fires (Mtt. v. 22).

1 The Greek tols åpxalous is better rendered to them than by them of old time.

2 The received Version adds here eikñ= without a cause, but the word is wanting in many MSS. and is omitted by Tischendorf.

3 Raca rempty, brainless, a term of contempt. See Tholuck's Sermon on the Mount, p. 178.

4 In Greek uwpè=either (1) thou fool (comp. Mtt. xxiii. 17, 19); or (2) =

=a Hebrew word signifying rebel (comp. Hear now, ye rebels, Num. xx. 10); or (3)=ă eos, atheist. Tholuck, p. 180. “He addresses himself,” says Luther, “not to the hand, but to the whole person. Hence it is that Thou shalt not kill, expresses as much as if He had said, Whatever members you have, and however you may kill, whether by hand, or heart, or tongue, or gesture; whether you look fiercely, and refuse with your eyes to let your neighbour live, or whether you mean with your ears to kill, and hate to hear him praised, all is condemned; for then is your heart and all within you so disposed as to wish him dead."

There were among the Jews three well-known degrees of guilt, coming respectively under the cognizance of the local and the supreme courts (See Deut. xvi. 18); and after these is set the yćevva Toû ar vpós, the end of the malefactor, whose corpse, thrown out into the valley of Hinnom, was devoured by the worm or the flame (comp. 2 Kings xxiii. 10; Jer. vii. 31). Similarly in the spiritual kingdom of Christ, shall the sins even of thought and word be brought into judgment and punished, each according to its degree of guilt, but even the least of them before no less a tribunal than the judgment-seat of Christ.” Alford On Mtt. v. 22.

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Whence it is clear that while the letter of this precept forbids only the act, the spirit of it forbids all those vindictive passions, which tend to murder, revenge, envy, hatred, provoking words, malice, and illwill. (See Eph. iv. 26, 31.)

4. The Positive Duty. But while, in the words of the Catechism, the precept thus forbids our hurting anybody“ by word or deed,” or bearing any “malice or hatred in the heart,” it also enforces the positive duty of cultivating a forgiving disposition', of praying for and relieving the wants of our enemies“, of contributing to the necessities of those in need", and generally of being merciful even as our Father in heaven is merciful (Lk. vi. 36).

CHAPTER III.

THE SEVENTH COMMANDMENT.

SEVENTH COMMANDMENT. DUTY TOWARDS OUR NEIGHThou shalt not commit

BOUR. adultery.

My duty towards my Neighbour is... To keep my body in temperance, soberness, and

chastity. 1. The relation of Husband and Wife. As the last Commandment proclaimed the sanctity of human life, so the present proclaims the sanctity of marriage.

1 If ye forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you : but if ye forgive not men their tres. passes, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses (Mtt. vi. 14); forgiving one another, even as God for Christ's sake hath forgiven you (Eph. iv. 32).

Pray for them which despitefully use you and persecute you (Mtt. v. 44). If thine enemy hunger, feed him; if he thirst, give him drink (Rom. xii. 20).

3 Whoso hath this world's goods, and seeth his brother have need, and shutteth up his bowels of compassion from him, how dwelleth the love of God in him? (1 Jn. iii. 17).

The institution of marriage, the parent of civil society, is “an honourable estate” ordained by God Himself?, “adorned and beautified 3” by the presence and first miracle of His blessed Son, and declared by St Paul to be a type of "the mystical union that is betwixt Christ and His Church 4."

2. Adultery. All offences, therefore, against so honourable an estate are of a very heinous character, and the sin of adultery has in all ages and amongst all nations been severely punished. In the Mosaic code it ranked next to murder, and the punishment for both parties was death by stoning.

3. Duty of Purity. But like the last, this Commandment also has been explained by our Lord. Ye have heard, said He, that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not commit adultery : but I say unto you, That whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her, hath committed adultery with her already in his heart (Mtt. v. 27, 28). From which we learn that this Precept goes far beyond the mere act of adultery, and forbids the dominion of sensual desires and the indulgence of every kind of wantonness in act, speech, or thought 6.

4. Specially incumbent on Christians. Hence the Catechism traces to this Commandment the positive

1 Cicero calls marriage Principium Urbis et quasi seminarium reipublicæ. De Of. 1. xvii. 54.

2 Gen. ii. 24, quoted by Christ Mtt. xix. 4, 5; Mk. x. 6–9.

3 Jn. ii. 1–11. See the Marriage Service.
4 Eph, v. 23–32. See the Marriage Service.
5 Comp. Levit. xviii. 20; xx. 10; Deut. xxii. 22.

6 See Gal. v. 19, where St Paul classes adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness among the works of the flesh, and Eph. v. 3, where he declares that fornication and all uncleanness ought not to be once named amongst Christians, neither filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting, which are not convenient. Comp. also 1 Cor. vi. 9; Col. iii. 5.

duty of keeping the body in temperance?, soberness, and chastity. For every other sin that a man doeth is without the body (1 Cor. vi. 18), but he that is impure sinneth against his own body which is a temple of the Holy Ghost (1 Cor. vi. 19), and if any man destroy the temple of God, him shall God destroy (1 Cor. iii. 17).

CHAPTER IV.

THE EIGHTH COMMANDMENT.

EIGHTH COMMANDMENT.
Thou shalt not steal.

DUTY TOWARDS OUR NEIGI

BOUR. My duty towards my Neighbour is... To be true and just in all my dealing... To keep my hands from picking and stealing.

1. Rights of Property. Besides his right to lise and personal security, every man has a just title to somewhat which he may call his own, whether his title ariseth by just acquisition, or inheritance, or gift, or contract?.

1 Or as St Paul expresses it, 1 Cor. ix. 27, keeping under. υπωπιάζω μου το σώμα και δουλαγωγώ, literally, I beat my body black and blue and lead it about as a slave,

3 Temperance (Acts xxiv. 25; Gal. v. 23; 2 Pet. i. 6) has lately assumed almost exclusively the meaning of moderation in the matter of drink; its original sense was that of self-restraint (Gr. Éykpatela, Latin temperantia) or self-control. Comp. Latimer, Rem. p. 378, “Doctor Barnes, I hear say, preached this day a very good sermon, with great moderation and temperance of himself ;” also Bacon's Essays, v. 17, “The vertue of prosperitie, is temperance, the vertue of adversity, is fortitude." The Bible Word-Book, p. 478. 3 Nicholson On the Catechism, p. 137.

“The Right of Property is requisite as a condition of the Free Agency of Min.” Whewell's Elements of Morality, 11, 22,

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