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.... 62 · 45.


We walked along the pathway of a field,

Mean Temperature
Which to the east a hoar wood shadowed o'er,
But to the west was open to the sky :
There now the sun had sunk; but lines of

August 10.
Hung on the ashen clouds, and on the points
Of the far level grass and nodding flowers, This is the festival day of St. Lawrence.
And the old dandelion's hoary beard,
And, mingled with the shades of twilight lay

On the brown massy woods : and in the east
The broad and burning moon lingeringly

Old Anthony Munday, the pleasant

continuator of Stow's “Survey,” renBetween the black trunks of the crowded trees, ders this day remarkable by a curious While the faint stars were gathering overnotice.



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This is an exactly reduced fac-simile and secretary to the Persian ambassadour, representation of the wood-cut in Stow, with whom he and his sonne came over. and the following is Anthony Munday's He was aged forty-four, and buried the story :

tenth of August, 1626 : the ambassadour “This monument, or that of which this is himselfe, young Shawsware his sonne, a shadow, with their characters engraven and many other Persians (with many exabout it, stands in Petty France, at the pressions of their infinite love and sorrow) west end of the lower churchyard of St. following him to the ground betweene Botolphes, Bishopsgate, (not within, but eight and nine of the clocke in the mornwithout the walls, the bounds of our con- ing. The rites and ceremonies that (with secrated ground,) and was erected to the them) are done to the dead, were chiefly memory of one Coya Shawsware, a Per- performed by his sonne, who, sitting sian merchant, and a principal servant crosse-legged at the north end of the


The peo

grave, (for his tombe stands north and measure the electrical fluid ; indeed elec souh,) did one while reade, another while tricity is now so generally admitted as an sing; his reading and singing intermixt agent in all the great operations of nature, sighing and weeping: and this, with that it is no wonder to find the formation other things that were done in the grave of clouds attributed to it; and this has in private (to prevent with the sight the accordingly been given by Beccaria as the relation).continued about halfe an houre. cause of the formation of all clouds what

“But this was but this dayes businesse : soever, whether of thunder, rain, hail, or for, as this had not beene enough to per- snow. forme to their friend departed, to this But whether the clouds are produced, place and to this end (that is, prayer, and that is, the atmospheric vapours rendered other funerall devotions) some of them visible, by means of electricity or not, it came every morning and evening at sixe is certain that they do often contain the and sixe, for the space of a moneth to- electric fluid in prodigious quantities, and gether; and had come (as it was then many terrible and destructive accidents imagined) the whole time of their abode have been occasioned by clouds very here in England, had not the rudenesse highly electrified. The most extraordinary of our people disturbed and prevented instance of this kind perhaps on record, their purpose."

happened in the island of Java, in the East Indies, in August, 1772. On the

eleventh of that month, at midnight, a NATURALISTS' CALENDAR.

bright cloud was observed covering a Mean Temperature ..

mountain in the district called Cheribou, 63• 69.

and several reports like those of a gun
were heard at the same time.
ple who dwelt upon the upper parts of

the mountain not being able to fly fast August 11.

enough, a great part of the cloud, eight

or nine miles in circumference, detached Dog Days end.

itself under them, and was seen at a disCLOUDS.

tance, rising and falling like the waves of

the sea, and emitting globes of fire so Clouds are defined to be a collection of luminous, that the night became as clear tapours suspended in the atmosphere, and as day. The effects of it were astonishrendered visible.

ing; every thing was destroyed for twenty Although it be generally allowed that miles round; the houses were demolished; clouds are formed from the aqueous va- plantations were buried in the earth; and pours, which before were so closely united iwo thousand one hundred and forty peowith the atmosphere as to be invisible, it ple lost their lives, besides one thousand is not easy to account for the long con

five hundred head of cattle, and a vast tinuance of some very opaque clouds number of horses, goats, &c. without dissolving; or to assign the reason why the vapours, when they have once begun to condense, do not continue to do

The height of the clouds is not usually so till they at last fall to the ground in the great : the summits of high mountains form of rain or snow,

&c. It is now known that a separation of the latent heat being commonly quite free from them, as

many travellers have experienced in passa from the water, of which vapour is com- ing these mountains. It is found that the posed, is attended with a condensation of

most highly electrified clouds descend that vapour in some degree; in such case lowest, their height being often not more it will first appear as a smoke, mist, or

than seven or eight hundred yards above fog ; which, if interposed between the sun

the ground; and sometimes thunder

1 and earth, will form a cloud ; and the clouds appear actually to touch the ground same causes continuing to operate, the with one of their edges ; but the genecloud will produce rain or snow, It is

rality of clouds are suspended at the however abundantly evident that some height of a mile, or little more, above the other cause beside mere heat or cold is

earth. concerned in the formation of clouds, and the condensation of atmospherical vapours. This cause is esteemed in a great The motions of the clouds, though often directed by the wind, are not always so, often so powerful as to destroy the grass especially when thunder is about to ensue. and other tender vegetables. In the more In this case they are seen to move very secret operations of nature too, where the slowly, or even to appear quite stationary electric fuid is concerned, the clouds for some time. The reason of this pro. bear a principal share; and chiefly serve bably is, that they are impelled by two as a medium for conveying that fluid from opposite streams of air nearly of equal the atmosphere into the earth, and from strength; and in such cases it seems that the earth into the atmosphere : in doing both the aërial currents ascend to a con- which, when electrified to a great degree, siderable height; for Messrs. Charles they sometimes produce very terrible and Robert, when endeavouring to avoid effects; an instance of which is related a thunder cloud, in one of their aërial above.* voyages with a balloon, could find no alteration in the course of the current,

NATURALISTS' CALENDAR. though they ascended to the height of

Mean Temperature ... 63. 35. four thousand feet above the earth. In some cases the motions of the clouds evi. dently depend on their electricity, inde

August 12. pendent of any current of air whatever. Thus, in a calm and warm day, small

K. GEORGE IV. BORN. clouds are often seen meeting each other On the twenty-fifth of August, 1761, in opposite directions, and setting out the princess Charlotte of Mecklinburgh from such short distances, that it cannot Strelitz, embarked with her attendants

at be supposed that any opposite winds are Cuxhaven, on board the royal yacht, under the cause.

Such clouds, when they meet, the salute of a squadron destined to coninstead of forming a larger one, become vey her to England, as the affianced bride much smaller, and sometimes quite vanish; of his majesty George III. On the a circumstance most probably owing to twenty-eighth, she sailed, and after that the discharge of opposite electricities into day, no despatches were received until she each other. And this serves also to arrived at Harwich, on the sixth of Septhrow some light on the true cause of the tember. formation of clouds; for if two clouds, The court was in some concern lest the the one electrified positively, and the tediousness of her voyage might have afother negatively, destroy each other on fected her health; but her highness, during contact, it follows that any quantity of her tedious passage, continued in very good vapour suspended in the atmosphere, while health and spirits, often diverting herself it retains its natural quantity of electricity, with playing on the barpsichord, pracremains invisible, but becomes a cloud tising English tunes, and endearing herwhen electrified either plus or minus. self to those who were honoured with the

care of her person. She had been twice

in sight of the British coast, and as often The shapes of the clouds are probably driven off by contrary winds; one day ia owing to their electricity; for in those hopes of landing on English ground, and seasons in wbich a great commotion has the next in danger of being driven to the been excited in the atmospherical electri- coasts of Norway. Her arrival, therefore, city, the clouds are seen assuming strange was a desirable évent; but as it was night and whimsical shapes, that are contin- when she came to Harwich, her highness ually varying. This, as well as the meet- slept on board, and continued there till ing of small clouds in the air, and vanish- three in the afternoon the next day, duing upon contact, is a sure sign of thunder. ring which time her route had been set

tled, and instructions received as to the The uses of the clouds are evident, as

manner of her proceeding to St. Jarnes's.

At her landing, she was received by the from them proceeds the rain that refreshes the earth, and without which, according mayor and aldermen of Harwich, in their to the present state of nature, the whole usual formalities. About five o'clock she surface of the earth must become a mere

came to Colchester, and stopped at the desert. They are likewise useful as a house of Mr. Enew, where she was rescreen interposed between the earth and the scorching rays of the sun, which are


* Dr. Hutton.

ceived and waited upon by Mrs. Enew daughters as bride-maids ; her train and Mrs. Pebow; but captain Best at- was supported by the daughters of six tended her with coffee, and lieutenant earls, and she was preceded by one bunJohn Seaber with tea. Being thus re- dred and twenty ladies in extremely rich freshed, she proceeded to Witham, where dresses, who were handed into the chapel she arrived at a quarter past seven, and by the duke of York. The marriage cestopped at lord Abercorn's, and his lord- remony was performed by the archbishop ship provided as elegant an entertainment of Canterbury. The duke of Cumberland for her as the time would admit. During gave the prir.cess's hand to his majesty, supper, the door of the room was ordered and, immediately on the joining of their to stand open, that every body might have hands, the park and tower guns were the pleasure of seeing her highness, and fired. There was afterwards a public on each side of her chair stood the lords drawing-room; but no one was presented. Harcourt ana Anson. She slept that night The metropolis was illuminated, and there at his lordship's house.

were the utmost public demonstrations A little after twelve o'clock next day, of joy. her highness came to Romford, where the On the following day, the ninth of Serking's coach and servants met her; and tember, there was the most brilliant court after stopping to drink coffee at Mr. Dut- at St. James's ever remembered. ton's where she was waited upon by the On the fourteenth, the lord mayor, king's servants, she entered the king's aldermen, and common council of Loncoach. The attendants of her highness don, waited on their majesties and the were in three other coaches. In the first princess dowager of Wales, with their were some ladies of Mecklenburgh, and in addresses of congratulation. On the same the last was her highness, who sat for- day the chancellor and university of Camward, and the duchess of Ancaster and bridge presented the university address, Hamilton backward.

and in the evening, about a quarter after On the road she was extremely court- six, their majesties went to Drury-lane eous to every body, showing herself, and theatre in chairs, and most of the royal bowing to all who seemed desirous of fainily in coaches, to see the “Rehearsal;" seeing her, and ordering the coach to go they were attended by the horse guards. extremely slow through the towns and The theatre was full almost as soon as villages as she passed, that as many as the doors were opened. Of the vast multiwould might have a full view of her. The tude assembled, not a fiftieth part gained carriages were attended by an incredible admission. Never was seen so brilliant a number of spectators, both on horse and house; the ladies were mostly dressed in foot, to Straiford-le-Bow and Mile-end, the clothes and jewels they wore at the where they turned up Dog-row, and pro- royal marriage. secuted their journey to Hackney turnpike, then by Shoreditch church, and up Old-street to the City-road, across Isling- On the twelfth of August, 1762, at ton, along the New-road into Hyde-park, twenty-four minutes after seven, an heir down Constitation-hill into St. James's park, and then to the garden-gate of the George IV., was born. The archbishop

apparent to the throne afterwards king palace, where she was received by all the of Canterbury was in the room, and royal family. She was handed out of the certain great officers of state in a room coach by the duke of York, and met in adjoining, with the door open into the the garden by his majesty, who in a very queen's apartment.


The person who affectionate manner raised her up and sa- waited on the king with the news, reluted her, as she was going to pay her ceived a present of a five hundred pound obeisance, and then led her into the pa- bank bill. lace, where she dined with his majesty,

On this occasion, congratulatory adthe princess dowager, and the princess dresses flowed in on their majesties from Augusta. After dinner her highness was

every part of the kingdom. pleased to show herself with his majesty

The quakers' address was presented to in the gallery and other apartments front. his majesty on the first of October, and ing the park.

read by Dr. Fothergill, as follows: About eight o'clock in the evening, the procession began to the chapel-royal. Her highness was attended by six dukes'

• Gentleman's Magazine.


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To George. the Third, king of Great without briefs, till, in 1759, he drew a

Britain, and the dominions thereunto memorial in behalf of the East India belonging.

company against the claims of the Dutch, The humble address of his Protestant sub- which was deemed a masterpiece in lanjects, the people called Quakers. guage and reasoning, and brought him

into immediate notice. His able arguMay it please the king,

ments against general warrants obtained The satisfaction we feel in every event him high reputation, and he was engaged that adds to the happiness of our sove. in almost every great case.

He became reign, prompts us to request admittance successively recorder of Bristol, member to the throne, on the present interesting for Calne, and solicitor-general, which occasion.

office he surrendered on the resignation The birth of a prince, the safety of the of his friend lord Shelburne. When this queen, and thy own domestic felicity in- nobleman returned to power he made Mr. creased, call for our thankfulness to the Dunning chancellor of the duchy of LanSupreme Dispenser of every blessing; and caster, and a peer of parliament. At the to the king our dutiful and unfeigued bar he was a most eloquent and powerful congratulations.

orator, and in the house of commons a In the prince of Wales we behoid ano- distinguished opponent of the American ther pledge of the security of those ines, war. He is reputed to have been the timable privileges, which we have enjoyed soundest common and constitutional lawunder the monarchs of thy illustrious yer of his time.* house-kings, distinguished by their justice, their clemency, and regard to the

NATURALISTS' CALENDAR. prosperity of their people : a happy pre- Mean Temperature ... 62: 77. sage, that under their descendants, our civil and religious liberties will devolve, in their full extent, to succeeding genera

August 14. tions.

CHRONOLOGY. Long may the Divine Providence pre- August 14, 1794, died George Colman serve a life of so great importance to his the elder, an elegant scholar,, and drae royai parents, to these kingdoms, and to matist. He was born in 1733, at Florence, posterity; that formed to piety and virtue, where his father was appointed resident he may live beloved of God and man, and from Great Britain to the court of Tus. fill at length the British throne with a cany. He received his education at lustre not inferior to his predecessors. Westminster-school, and Christchurcha The King's answer.

college, Oxford, where he became acI take very kindly this fresh instance of quainted with Lloyd, Churchill, and Bonyour duty and affection, and your congra- latter he wrote “ the Connoisseur," which

nel Thornton. In conjunction with the tulations on an event so interesting to me and my family. You may always rely on

procured him many eminent literary my protection.

friendships. By the advice of lord Bath he went to the bar, but neglected its duties to

court the muses. His fame as a dramatist NATURALISTS' CALENDAR.

is maintained by the “ Clandestine MarMean Temperature . . . . .

64 · 35. riage,” the “ Provoked Husband," and

the « Jealous Wife.” He wrote several

other pieces for the stage, translated August 13.

Terence, and Horace's“Art of Poetry," and

became manager of Covent-garden theatre, CHRONOLOGY.

and afterwards the patentee of the little August 13, 1783.—The eminent lawyer, theatre in the Haymarket, which he Johu Dunning (lord Ashburton) died. managed till paralysis impaired his faculHe was the second son of an attorney at ties, and he sunk into a state of helplessAshburton, in Devonshire, where he was ness, from whence he never recovered. born, October 18, 1731, educated at the free-school there, and articled to his father.

NATURALISTS' CALENDAR. Preferring the principles to the practice Mean Temperature ...63 • 27. of the law, he obtained admission to the bar, and attended on the court and circuits

• General Biographical Dictionary, vol. i. p. 673.

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