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beral species," soon became objects of or embroidered, on his coat. And such depravity and unbridled licentiousness. . member as shall not daily wear this fool, of a totally different nature also, and him shall and may any one of us, as often analagous only in quaintness of appella-' as he shall see it, punish with a mulct of tion, were the societies established by three old great tournois, (livres tournois, men of letters in various parts of Italy, about four-pence halfpenny,) which three such as the society of the “ Insensate," tournois shall be appropriated to the at Perugia, of the “Stravaganti,” at Pisa, relief of the poor in the Lord ! and the “ Eteróclyti,” at Pesaro. Nor “ Further, will we fools yearly meet, and can I allow myself to sass over in silence hold a conventicle and court, and assemon the present occasion the order or ble ourselves, to wit-a: Cleves, every year society of Fools, otherwise denominated on the Sunday after Michaelmas-day; “* Respublica Binepsis," which and no one of us shall depart out of the founded towards the middle of the four- city, nor mount his horse to quit the teenth century by some Polish noblemen, place where we may be met together, and took its name from the estate of one without previous notice, and his having Psomka, the principal instigator, near defrayed that part of the expenses of the Leublin. Its form was modelled after court which he is bound to bear. And that of the constitution of Poland ; like none of us shall remain away on any prethis, too, it had its king, its council, its tence or for any other reason whatsoever chamberlain, its master of the hunt, and than this, namely, that he is labouring various other offices. Whoever made under very great infirmity; excepting himself ridiculous by any singular and moreover those only who may be in a foolish propensity, on him was conferred foreign country, and at six days' journey an appointment befitting it. Thus he, from their customary place of residence. who carried his partiality to the canine · If it should happen that any one of the species to a ridieulous extreme, was cre- society is at enmity with another, then ated master of the hunt; whilst another, must the whole society use their utmost who constantly boasted of his valorous endeavours to adjust their differences and achievements, was raised to the dignity of reconcile them; and such members and field marshal. No one dared to refuse all their abettors shall be excluded from the acceptance of such a vocation, unless appearing at the court on the Friday be wished to become a still greater object morning when it commences its sitting at of ridicule and animadversion than before. sun-rise, until it breaks up on the same This order soon experienced so rapid an Friday at sun-set. increase of numbers that there were few “And, we will further, at the royal court at court who were not members of it. At yearly elect one of the members to be the same time it was expressly forbidden king of our society, and six to be counthat any lampooner should be introduced sellors; which king with his six counselamongst them. The avowed object of lors shall regulate and settle all the conthis institution was to prevent the rising cerns of the society, and in particular generation from the adoption of bad habits appoint and fix the court of the ensuing and licentious manners; and ridiculous year; they shall also procure, and cause as was its outward form, is not its design to be procured, all things necessary for at least entitled to our esteem and vene- the said court, of which they shall keep ration?

an exact account. These expenses shall

be alike both tu knights and squires, and Patent of Creation of the Order of Fools.

a third part more shall fall upon the lords “We all, who have hereunto affixed our than upon the knights and squires; but seals, make known unto all men, and de- the counts shall be subject to a third part clare, that after full and mature consider- more than the lords. ation, both on our own behalf and on “ And early on the Tuesday morning account of the singular goodwill and during the period of the court's sitting) friendship which we all bear, and will all of us members shall go to the church continue to bear towards one another, we of the Holy Virgin at Cleves, to


for bave instituted a society of fools, accord- the repose of all those of the society who ing to the form and manner hereunto may have died; and there shall each subjoined

bring his separate offering. “Be it therefore kuown, that each mem " And each of us has mutually pledged ber shall wear a fool, either made of silver, his good faith, and solemnly engaged to

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i fulfil faithfully, undeviatingly, and invio- “ nursery treasures" to see all that could lably, all things which are above enume- · be seen. Here the calculator looked for rated, &c.

patronage and encouragement. “Mr. Mer“Done at Cleves, 1381, on the day of riman," a young man with his face and St. Cunibert."

clothes duly coloured, à la Grimalá, H. W. S.* raised laughter by his quaint retorts, by

attempts at tumbling to prove he could

tumble well, and by drilling with a bugleSTAGE ACCIDENT,

horn a dozen volunteer boys in many : On the evening of Friday the 1st of whimsical exercises, truly marvellous to

October, 1736, during the performance of simpering misses and their companions. : an entertainment called Dr. Faustus, at The next performer was a short man with Covent-garden theatre, one James Todd sharp features, sunburnt face, and shrill who represented the miller's man, fell goat-like voice :-he tumbled in a clever, from the upper stage, in a flying machine, but, I think, dangerous manner. Then by the breaking of the wires. He frac- Mr. Merriman's “imitations" followed; tured his scull, and died miserably; three not to say any thing of those inimitable others were much hurt, but recovered. imitators, Mathews, Reeve, and Yates, Some of the audience swooned, and the he suited' his audience to the very echo of whole were in great confusion upon this the surrounding skeletons in brick and sad accident.t

mortar. The tumbler then reposed by

putting a loose coat over his partyMOUNTEBANKS AND MR. Merriman.

coloured habit, and playing a pandeidpipe while “ Mr. Merriman

sat on 3 For the Every-Day Book.

piece of carpet spread on the ground, and Little inferior to Mr. Punch, Mr. Mer- tossed four gilt balls in the air at the same riman has stood eminently high at fairs, time, to the variations of the music. A figured in market-places, and scarcely a drum was beat by a woman about forty, village green in England, that has not felt with a tiara on her head, who afterwards the force of his irresistible appeals. He left the beating art and mounting the does not often approach the over-grown slack-wire, which was supported by three metropolis ; his success here is less cer- sticks, coned at each end to a triangle; tain, and the few patrons that remain, she danced and vaulted à la Gouffe. A love to feast their eyes and risible faculties table was put on the wire, which she without sparing a modicum from their balanced, and bore a glass full of liquor pockets: the droll simpleton might crack on the rim as she twirled it on her finger. his jokes without finding the kernel. This was the acme of the display. Ticcash,

kets at one shilling each were now handed A company of mountebanks, however, round with earnestness and much promise, appeared on a green, north of White Con- for a lottery of prizes, consisting of tea -duit-house, several evenings last week, pots, waiters, printed calico, and two On Saturday the performance commenced sovereigns thrown on the grass instead of at five o'clock in the afternoon. The per- a sheep. These temptations held out to formers consisted of the master, a short, many a Saturday night labourer the middle aged person, with a florid complex- hope of increasing his week's wages. ion, dressed in decent half mourning He The “conductor" of his company do possessed a sound pair of lungs, fair elo- doubt profited by the experience of quence, and a good portion of colloquial which he was possessed. Many tickets ability. By the assistance of a little whip were sold; expectation breathed_fancy he kept in order a large ring, formed of pictured a teapot-or some token of forboys, girls, and grown persons of both tune's performance. The decision made,

His eye, gray as , a falcon's, the die cast, now the laughing winner watched the reception he received, and walked hurriedly away, hugging his prize, seemed to communicate with his mind's 'while the losers hid their chagrin, and eye,” as to his subscribers. The rosy- were quietly dispersed by the“ blank" infaced maid servants, glad of the oppor- fluence, with secret wishes that their tunity of gazing at the exhibitors, were money was in their pockets again. rejoiced by the pretence of holding the

When I reflect upon this kind of amuse

- ment for the labouring classes, I see 1 Gentleman's Magazine.

nothing to prevent its occasional appeare

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From Dr. Aikin s Athenæum.

ance. The wit scattered about, though only three horses, but he performed the in a blundering way, is often smart. task on two, in one hour, thirty-seven • In spite of decorum, of my better in- minutes, and twenty-two seconds. The struction in gentility, and Chesterfield's horses through whom the wager was won, axioms, I love to stand and shake my were both killed by the severity of the human system, if it be only to remind me feat.* of past observation, and to see the children so hapry, who ring out music, in NATURALISTS' CALENDAR. every responsive applause of the tricks so

Mean Temperature . 53. 75. plausibly represented to their view. While i Mr. Merriman" does not invade the

October 3. peace of society, I hope he will be allowed his precarious reign, as he promised “that

EXTRAORDINARY HORSE. he would forfeit fifty guineas if he came into the parish again at least for a twelve- gelding belonging to Mr. Richard Fendall


On the 3d of October, 1737, a cartmonth." It is within my remembrance when accidental cut in his knee with a garden

of the Grange, Southwark, died by an former mountebanks distributed packets mellon bell-glass; which is taken notice instead of blanks, containing nostrums of, because this gelding was forty-four against toothache, corns, bunions, warts,

years in his possession. It was bought witchcraft and the ague.

Doctor Bolus strutted and fretted his hour upon

Michaelmas, 1693, at Uxbridge, was the

never sick nor lame all the time, and stage, and gave as much wit for sixpence within the fifteen years preceding, drew as kept the village alehouse in a roar for his owner and another in a chaise, fifty many weeks. But, I suppose, the mounte- miles in one day.t bank profession, like every other, feels the changes of the times, and retrenchment cries,

BIRDS AND Mists. “ Ubi vos requiram, cum dies advenerit?”

It is observed that_“ Among the mis

cellaneous events of October, one of the September 29, 1826.

most striking and curious is the interPlease to make the following correc. change which seems to take place between tion, page 1270; for “ he shaking,” read our country, and the more northern as the shaking.”

well as the more southern ones, in regard to the birds. The swallow tribe now all

quit us: the swift disappeared wholly, NATURALISTS' CALENDAR, more than a month ago; and now the Mean Temperature ...52 · 85. house swallow, house martin, and bank

or sand martin, after congregating for

awhile in vast flocks about the banks of October 2.

rivers and other waters, are seen no more EXTRAORDINARY WALKING. as general frequenters of the air. If

one or two are seen during the warm October 2, 1751, a man, for a wager of days that sometimes occur for the next twenty guineas, walked from Shoreditch two or three weeks, they are to be looked church, to the twenty mile stone near upon as strangers and wanderers; and Ware, and back again, in seven hours !*

the sight of them, which has hitherto been

so pleasant, becomes altogether different EXTRAORDINARY RIDING.

in its effect: it gives one a feeling of de.

solateness, such as we experience on In October, 1754, lord Powerscourt meeting a poor shivering lascar in our having laid a wager with the duke of Or- winter streets. In exchange for this tribe leans, that he would ride on his own horses of truly summer visiters, we have now from Fountainbleau to Paris, which is great flocks of the fieldfares and redwings forty-two English miles, in two hours, for

come back to us; and also wood pigeons, one thousand louis d’ors, the king's guards snipes, woodcocks, and several of the cleared the way, which was lined with numerous tribe of water-fowl. crowds of Parisians. He was to mount

* Gentleman's Magazine. • Gentleman's Magazine.

*, *, P.

f Ibid

“ Now, occasionally, we may observe augmented, until they became a vast llock the singular effects of a mist, coming gra- which no man could easily number—thou. dually on, and wrapping in its dusky sands upon thousands, tens of thousands, cloak a whole landscape that was, the and myriads—so great, indeed, that the moment before, clear and bright as in a spectator would almost have concluded spring morning. The vapour rises visibly that the whole of the swallow race were (from the face of a distant river perhaps) there collected in one huge host. It was like steam from a boiling caldron; and their manner, while there, to rise from climbing up into the blue air as it ad. the willows in the morning, a little before vances, rolls wreath over wreath till it six o'clock, when their thick columns reaches the spot on which you are stand- literally darkened the sky. Their divi. ing; and then, seeming to hurry past you, sions were formed into four, five, ani its edges, which have hitherto been dis- sometimes six grand wings, each of these tinctly defined, become no longer visible, filing off and taking a different routeand the whole scene of beauty, which a one east, another west, another south, and few moments before surrounded you, is so on; as if not only to be equally disas it were wrapt from your sight like an persed throughout the country, to provide unreal vision of the air, and you seem food for their numerous troops ; but also (and in fact are) transferred into the to collect with them whatever of their bosom of a cloud."*

fellows, or straggling parties, might be

still left behind. Just before the respecte Swallows.

ive columns arose, a few birds might be

observed first in motion at different points, A provincial papert says, “It is a fact,

darting through their massy ranks—these which has not been satisfactorily ac appeared like officers giving the word of counted for by ornithologists, that the

command. In the evening, about five number of swallows which visit this island o'clock, they began to return to their staare not near so numerous as they formerly tion, and continued coming in, from all were ; and this is the case, not only in quarters, until nearly dark. It was here this neighbourhood, but throughout the that you might see them go through their country. The little that is satisfactorily various aerial evolutions, in many a sportknown concerning the parts to which

ive ring and airy gambol-strengthening they emigrate, and the many statements respecting their anuual migration, not their long etherial journey; while cons

their pinions in these playful feats for only serves to show that something re

tentment and cheerfulness reigned in mains to be discovered respecting these every breast, and was expressed in their interesting visiters, but perhaps prevents evening song by a thousand pleasing us from ascertaining the causes of the de- twitters from their little throats, as they crease in their numbers. In the month cut the air and frolicked in the last beams of September, 1815, great numbers of of the setting sun, or lightly skimmed the these birds congregated near Rotherham, surface of the glassy pool. The notes of previous to their departure for a more those that had already gained the willows genial climate. Their appearance was sounded like the murmur of a distant wavery extraordinary, and attracted much terfall, or the dying roar of the retreating attention. We extract some account of billow on the sea beach. this vast assemblage of the feathered race, « • The verdant enamel of summer had from an elegantly written little work, already given place to the warm and melpublished on the occasion, by the rev.

low tints of autumn, and the leaves were Thomas Blackley, vicar of Rotherham, now fast falling from their branches, containing 'Observations and Reflections

while the naked tops of many of the trees on this circumstance :« • Early in the month of September, lodged in the barns, and the reapers had,

appeared—the golden sheaves were safely 1815, that beautiful and social tribe of for ihis year, shouted their harvest home the feathered race began to assemble in -frosty and misty mornings now sucthe neighbourhood of Rotherham, at the ceeded, the certain presages of the apWillow-ground, near the Glass-house, pre. proach of winter. These omens were paratory to their migration to a a warmer understood by the swallows as the route climate; and their numbers were daily for their march; accordingly, on the Mirror of the Months.

morning of the 7th of October, their + Sheffield Mereury.

mighty army broke up their encampment,

debouched from their retreat, and, rising, markable for piety, mildness, and patient covered the heavens with their legions; industry.* thence, directed by an unerring guide, they took their trackless way. On the morn

NATURALISTS' CALENDAR. ing of their going, when they ascended Mean Temperature ... 54. 99 from their temporary abode, they did not, as they had been wont to do, divide into different columns, and take each a differ

October 5. ent route, but went off in one vast body, bearing to the south. It is said that they

NATURALISTS' CALENDAR. would have gone sooner, but for a con

Mean Temperature ...55. 12, trary wind which had some time prevailed; that on the day before they took their departure, the wind got round, and

October 6. the favourable breeze was immediately embraced by them. On the day of their

Sr. Faith. flight, they left behind them about a hun

Of this saint in the church of England dred of their companions; whether they calendar, there is an account in vol. i. were slumberers in the camp, and so col. 1362. had missed the going of their troops, or whether they were left as the rear-guard, it is not easy to ascertain; they remained,

SOMNAMBULISM. however, till the next morning, when the On Sunday evening, the 6th of October, greater part of them mounted on their 1823, a lad named George Davis, sixteen pinions, to follow, as it should seem, the and a half years of age, in the service of celestial route of their departed legions. Mr. Hewson, butcher, of Bridge-road, After these a few stragglers only re- Lambeth, at about twenty minutes after mained; these might be too sick or too nine o'clock, bent forward in his chair, young to attempt so great an expedition; and rested his forehead on his hands. In whether this was the fact or not, they did ten minutes he started up, fetched his not remain after the next day. If they whip, put on his one spur, and went did not follow their army, yet the dreary thence to the stable; not finding his own appearance of their depopulated camp saddle in the proper place, he returned to and their affection for their kindred, might the house, and asked for it. Being asked influence them to attempt it, or to explore what he wanted with it, he replied, to go a warmer and safer retreat."

his rounds. He returned to the stable, got on the horse without the saddle, and

was proceeding to leave the stable ; it was NATURALISTS' CALENDAR

with much difficulty and force that Mr. Mean Temperature ....50.00.

Hewson junior, assisted by the other lad, could remove him from the horse; his

strength was great, and it was with diffiOctober 4.

culty he was brought in doors. Mr. Hew

son senior, coming home at this time, sent CHRONOLOGY.

for Mr. Benjamin Ridge, an eminent On the 4th of October, 1749,* died at practitioner, in Bridge-road, who stood by Paris, John Baptist Du Halde, a jesuit, him for a quarter of an hour

, during who was secretary to father Le Tellier, which time the lad considered himself confessor to Louis XIV. Du Halde is stopped at the turnpike gate, and took celebrated for having compiled an elabow sixpence out of his pocket to be changed; rate history and geography of China from and holding out his hand for the change, the accounts of the Romish missionaries the sixpence was returned to him. in that empire ; he was likewise editor of the immediately observed, “ None of your “ Lettres edifiantes et curieuses,” from

nonsense—that is the sixpence again, give the ninth to the twenty-sixth collection,

me my change.” When threepence half. and the author of several Latin poems penny was given to him, he counted it and miscellaneous pieces. He was born

over, and said, “None of your gammon; in the city wherein he died, in 1674, re

that is not right, I want a penny more;"

A General Biographical Dictionary, (Hunt and Gentleman's Magazine.

Clarke,) vol. ii.


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