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Vermin, that had cunningly twisted them. have remember'd that I told you I saw so selves into the business under the shadow much of your Falshood and Tricks, and so of Cavaliers.
many innocent People daily sacrific'd, to Man. Pray, what Opinion had the support a Society of lewd, debanch'd, imWorld of the Prisoner when he first came pertinent, and withal imperious Cannito be known in England?
bals, that I thought it my best way to quit Pasthope. The same that it has of him your Fraternity, and pack off with that now: all wise men look'd upon him as a little I had got, and leave you to manage Cheat, and a dangerous Spark to be let your mathematical Balls, &c. by your loose in publick among our English Youth: self. and indeed I have heard a great many so. Man. I suppose, Sir, you will ask him ber men pass very sharp Censures upon no more Questions, and so we'll call anothe Wisdom of the Court for intrusting ther Witness. him with a Royal Authority.
Lottery. No, Sir, I have done with Man. What kind of Censures were they him. that they past ? do you remember any of Man. Call Squire Frivolous, the Counem particularly ?
sellor : Sir, do you know Squire Lottery, Past. Yes, I remember several things the Prisoner ? that I am almost ashamed to mention, I Frivolous. I have been acquainted with have heard 'em often reflecting what an him several years, to my great Cost and intolerable Same and Scandal it was, that Damage. The first time I had the mis, a whole Kingdom should be sacrificed to fortune to know him, was at an Act at the Interest of two or three Courtiers, and Oxford about twenty years ago; where three or four scurvy mercenary Patentees; among abundance of other young Fools that so many thousand Families should be that he entic'd to sell their Books for ruin'd, and no notice taken of it; that so Money to play with him, &c. I was one. , many Wives should be seduc'd to rob and Man. What, I hope, he was not so barbetray their Husbands, so many Children barous as to decoy the poor young Genand Servants their Parents and Masters, tlemen out of their Books ? and so many horrid Mischiefs transacted Frivolous. Yes, out of every thing they daily nnder the shadow of this pretended had, and out of the College to boot : For Royal-Oak Lottery, and no manner of my own part I have reason to curse him, means used to suppress it.
I'm sure; He flatter'd me up with so 2d Man. But, Captain, did you never many Shams and false Pretences, and dehear of any Person that got money of the luded me with so many chimerical Prisoner in the main ?
Notions and cunning Assurances, and Past. Not one. I defy him to produce urg'd me so long from one deceitful Proone single person that's a Gainer, against ject to another, till at last he had trick. a hundred ihousand he has ruin'd. I'm me out of all I had in the world, and then confident I have a Catalogue by me of turn’d me over to the scorn and laughter several thousands that have been utterly of my Friends and Acquaintance. undone by him, within the compass of my Man. Can you give the Bench any own Experience.
particular Names of Persons he has Man. What does the Town in general ruin'd? say of him?
Frivolous. I have a Collection of Past. The town, here-a-late, is grown Names in my Pocket, which I'm sure he so inveterate and incens'd against him, can't object against, that have lost foura that I am very well assur'd that if he had teen or fifteen thousand Pound per Annot been call'd to account in the very num, within my own Knowledg and nick, the Mob would have speedily taken Acquaintance. him into their correction.
Man. That's a round Sum: But, pray, Man. Well, Sir, you hear what the Wit- Mr. Frivolous, for the satisfaction of the ness has said against you; will you ask Jury, mention a few of their Names. him any Questions?
Frivolous. I suppose, Squire Lottery, Lottery. Only one; and leave the rest you must remember the Kentish Squire till I come to make my general Defence. in the Blue Coat, that you won the six Sir, I desire to know whether you was not hundred Pound per Annum of, in less than one that was turn'd out upon the last five months. You reinember the Lord's Renewal of the Patent?
Steward that lost an Estate of his own of Past. No, Sir, I was not. You might three huudred Pouna per Annun, and run
four thousand Pound in Arrears to his the arraigned defended himself as folLord beside. You remember, I suppose, lows :the West-India Widow, that lost the Car- Lottery. Sir, I intend to spend as little go of two Ships, valued at fifteen hundred of your time as I can : I perceive, that, Pound, in less than a month. I know let me say what I will, you are prepar'd you can't forget the honest Lady at St. to over-rule it, and so I'll only say a few James's, that sold all her Goods, Plate, words, and call three or four Witnesses to and China, for about seven hundred prove my reputation, and then leave the Pound, and paid it all away to you, as good Men and true of the Jury, upon near as I remember, in three mornings. I whose Verdict I must stand or fall, to use know you can't forget the three Merchants' me as they shall best judg the nature of Daughters that play'd away their whole my Case deserves. Fortunes, viz. fifteen hundred Pounds I know, Gentlemen, the tide of Prejuapiece in less than two months. You re- dice runs very fierce against me; so that member the Silkman from Ludgate-hill; let me say what I will, I'm satisfy'd it the young Draper in Cornhil ; the Coun- will be all to very little purpose; an ill try Parson; the Doctor of Physick's Name to a Person in my condition is cerDaughter; the Lady's Woman ; thé Mer- tain Death, which indeed makes me a chant's Apprentice; the Marine Captain; little more indifferent in making my dethe Ensign of the Guards; the Coffee- fence. man's Neece; the old Justice's Nephew; But, Gentlemen, look upon me, I am and abundance of others, which I have in the very Image of some of you, a married my Catalogue, that you have cheated out Protestant; upon which account I'm conof large Sums, and utterly ruin'd. fident I may rely upon a little of your
Lottery. I desire that he may be ask'd, Justice, if not your Favour. what it was that influenc'd him at first to The Crimes I am charged with are inmake such a Catalogue ?
deed very great, and, what's worse, there's Man. He desires to know upon what some of 'em I can never expect to evince. account it was that you made, this Collec- But then, Gentlemen, I hope you'l consition of Names?
der, that whatever I did, was purely in Frivolous. I had once a design to have the prosecution of my occupation; and him call’d to an Account, and forc'd to a you know withal what Authority I had Restitution ; in which case I thought the for it; so that if by chance, in this long Names of these Persons might be of some tract of time, every thing should not be so
nicely conformable as you expect, I hope Man. What Method did you propose you'l take care to lay the Saddle upon the to your self to bring him to a Restitu- right Horse. tion ?
You all know that Covetousness and Frivolous. I had a Notion, that if I Cheating are the inseparable Companions drew up the Case, and got it recom- of a Gamester; divide him from them, mended to the Honourable House of Com- and he's the most insignificant Creature in mons, they would have thought the Pris- Nature. And, Gentlemen, I appeal to oner worth their correction : But this he your selves, if a little useful lying and got intelligence of, and employ'd one of falshood be not (in some cases) not only his Agents to make up the matter with tolerable, but commendable.
you will agree with me in this, that if ali Man. What, I suppose you mean he the Knaves and Cheats of the Nation brib'd you with a Sum of Money to de- were ca!ld to the Bar and executed, there cline the Prosecution?
would only be a few Fools left to defend Frivolous. Truly you have hit of the the Commonwealth. very thing; he knew that I was poor, and But, Gentlemen, as I told you before, I he was guilty, and so compounded with won't spend your time, and therefore I'll me for a few Guineas to let the thing fall: call myWitnesses. Call Captain Quondam. And indeed, if I am not misinform’d, his Cryer. Call Capt. Quondam. Art of Bribing, &c. has guarded him so Lottery. Sir, I desire you would give long from the Punishments which the the Court an account what you know of Laws of the Land, and common Justice, me, as to Life and Conversation. have provided for such notorious Of Quoʻrdam. I have known the Prisoner fenders.
for several years, and have been often in Other witness as having been called, his company upon particuiar occasions,
use to me.
I dare say
and never saw any thing that was rude or After other witnesses called in his be. unhandsome by him.
half, whose testimony, however, tended Man. Pray, noble Captain, what Coun- to inculpate Squire “ Royal Oak,” the tryman are you?
evidence was summed up. Quondam. Sir, I am a West-Country, “ Then the jury withdrew to consider
of their verdict, and afterwards they reMan. An English West-Country, or a turned into the court, and the prisoner West-India Man? or what?
was brought again to the bar and found Quondam. I am a West-Countryman guilty, according to the indictment, and of his Majesty's own Dominions, of the afterwards received sentence, together Kingdom of Ireland, in the County of with Mr. Auction and Dr. Land-Bank, Cork, and Parish of Durrus in the Barony who were both tryed, convicted, and conof West-Carbury, near the great Bogg of demned; and their trials will be pubLonguar, Gent.
lished with all possible speed. Finis." Man. You're a West-Countryman with There is no
to doubt, that a Witness. And, pray, how long have the representations in the preceding satire you been in England ?
are substantially correct. Private and Quondam. Ever since the last year of fallacious lotteries were at this time bemy Soveraign Lord King James.
come so general, not only in London, Man. And, pray, how long bave you but in most other great cities and towns been a Captain ?
of England, whereby the lower people Quondam. I was born so; my Father, and the servants and children of good my Grandfather, great Grandfather, and families were defrauded, that an act of most of my Kin, were all Captains before parliament was therefore passed 10 and
11 William III. c. 17, for suppressing Man. You say you have been often in such lotteries; even although they might the Prisoner's Company; pray where be set up under colour of patents or grants have you been in his Company, and upon under the great seal. Which said grants what account?
or patents,” says the preamble Quondam. I have been in his Company against the common good, welfare, and at Epsom, Tunbridge, Lambeth, Islington; peace of the kingdon, and are void and and at several other places both in Town against law." A penalty therefore of and Country:
five hundred pounds was laid on the proMan., Well, but you ha'n't told what prietors of any such lotteries, and of was the occasion that brought you so oft twenty pounds on every adventurer. in into his Company
them. Notwithstanding this, the like disQuondam. He desired me to go along position to fraud and gaining prevailed with him to help him to divert and enter- again, till fresh laws were enacted for their tain his Guests, especially the Ladies that suppression.* us'd to visit him.
Man. I suppose you're one of his Dependents : had you never no salary from It is observed, that if the lottery office him?
keepers of the present century could be Quondam. I have had several Favours credited, their adventurers enjoyed greater from him, and I must own I love him very gaming privileges than the world ever well; and, by my Shoul, I believe he's a produced; and yet it is an indubivery honest Man, and a good Christian. table fact, that in the early state lotteries
Man. Who's your next evidence? the advantages offered were . eminently
Lottery. I desire Mr. Scamper may be superior to those of recent times. call'a.
The Post Boy of December 27 says, Cry. Call Mr. Scamper.
“We are informed that the parliamentary Lottery. Pray, Mr. Scamper, give the lottery will be fixed in this manner :Court an Account what you know of me, 150,000 tickets will be delivered out at as to my manner of living and behaviour 101. each ticket, making in all the sum of in the World.
1,500,0001. sterling; the principal whereof Scamper. You know, Squire Lottery, is to be sunk, the parliament allowing your Acquaintance and mine is but of a nine per cent. interest for the whole during late Date; I never saw you till last May the term of thirty-two years, which at Lambeth Wells, and then 'twas but by accident too.
terest is to be divided as follows: 3750 and 10th of December, 1713. When the tickets will be prizes from 1000l. to 5l. tickets were drawn, they were exchanged per annum during the said thirty-two for standing orders, and thus rendered years; all the other tickets will be blanks, assignable by endorsement; all the blanks so that there will be thirty-nine of these were repaid the 10l. per ticket at one to one prize, but then each blank ticket payment, in the order their course of will be entitled to fourteen shillings a year payment happened to fall, and they bore for the term of thirty-two years, which is an interest of four per cent. from Michael better than an annuity for life at ten per mas 1713. The prizes were payable in cent. over and above the chance of getting the same manner: the first drawn ticket a prize.” Such was the eagerness of the had 500l.; the last 1000l. besides the public in subscribing to the above pro- general chance ; 35,000l. per annum was Gtable scheme, that Mercers-hall was payable weekly from the Exchequer to literally crowded, and the clerks were the paymaster for the discharge of the found incompetent to receive the influx principal and interest, and the whole of names. 600,0001. was subscribed funds of the civil list were chargeable January 21; and on the 28th of February for thirty-two years for 35,0001. per the sum of 1,500,000l. was completed. annum.*
One of the schemes which preceded The rage for lotteries reigned uncon- the bubbles of 1720 was an insurancetrolled ; and the newspapers of the day office for lottery tickets, opened at Merteemed with proposals issued by every cers-hall; and 120,0001. was actually ravenous adventurer who could collect a subscribed on the following terms : for few valuable articles; and from those, every ninety-six tickets insured, the proshopkeepers took the hint, and goods of prietors agreed to allow to the company every description were converted into (after the tickets were drawn) 168. per prizes, even neckcloths, snuff-boxes, tooth- ticket, and five per cent. on such prizes pick-cases, linen, muslin, and plate. The as occurred to the ninety-six tickets, the prices of tickets were generally sixpence, company returning the tickets, and in a shilling, half a crown, &c. At the latter
case the prizes did not amount to 2881. end of the year just mentioned, the ma- valuing the prizes at par; the company gistrates, being alarmed, declared their to make up the money 31. for every ticket. intention of putting the act of William For every forty-eight tickets the proand Mary in force, which levied a penalty prietors agreed to allow 198. per ticket, of 5001. on the proprietor, and 201. on and five per cent. on the prizes as above; each purchaser.
the company making up the tickets 1441. Maithew West, a goldsmith, of Clare- or 31. per ticket, and so on down to twelve street, Clare-market, appears to have been tickets. The proprietors of the tickets to the man who first divided lottery tickets advance no money for this security; but, into shares. He advertised, in 1713, that when drawn, to allow as above; the he had sold 100 tickets in the million and tickets to be deposited with the company, an half lottery in twentieths, and pur- and placed by them under seal in the posed pursuing his plan, which was well bank of England; if not called for in received.
ninety days after the drawing, to be The lottery for 1714 contained 50,000 forfeited.t tickets at 101. each, with 6982 prizes and 43,018 blanks; two of the former were 10,0001., with one of 5, another of 40001., In 1712, gambling prevailed in smaller a third of 3000l., and a fourth of 20001., private and unlawful lotteries, under the five of 10001., ten of 5001., twenty of denomination of sales of gloves, fans, 2001., fifty of 100l., four hundred of 501., cards, plate, &c.; also offices were opened and six thousand, four hundred, and nine for insurances on marriages, births, ty-one of 201.
christenings, services, &c. and daily adBesides the drawing for prizes and vertisements thereof were published in blanks, there was another for the course the newspapers. By an act of the tenth of payment, and each 1000 tickets was of queen Anne, keepers of these lotteries called a course. The payments to the receivers were on the 10th of November
and offices were subjected to a penalty of no other grounds, thinks he stands fairest 500l. In 1716, the spirit of adventure for the great lot, and that he is possessed was excited by the sale of chances and of what may not be improperly called the parts of chances of tickets, which occa- golden number. sioned parliament again to interfere: all I remember among the advertisements such practices, and all undertakings re- in the “ Post Boy" of September the 27th, sembling lotteries, or founded on the state I was surprised to see the following one : lottery, were declared illegal, and prohibited under a penalty of 1001. beyond the
This is to give notice, that ten shilling penalties previously enacted against over and above the market-price will be private lotteries.*
given for the ticket in the 15000001. Lottery, No 132, by Vath. Cliff, at the Bible
and Three Crowns in Cheapside. LUCKY NUMBERS.
This advertisement has given great The attention of “ the Spectator" was
matter of speculation to coffee house theo
rists. directed to the lottery mania prevailing at
Mr. Cliff's principles and converthis period. One of its writers observing, sation have been canvassed upon this on the predilection for particular numbers, occasion, and va ous conjectures made, ranks it among the pastimes and extrava- why he should thus set his heart upon gancies of human reason, which is of so N° 132. I have examined all the powers busy a nature, that it will exert itself
in those numbers, broken them into fracthe meanest trifles, and work even when it tions, extracted the square and cube root, wants materials. He instances, that when a divided and multiplied them all ways, man has a mind to adventure his money in but could not arrive at the secret till a lottery, every figure of it appears
equally about three days' ago, when I received alluring, and as likely to succeed as any
the following letter from an unknown of its fellows. They all of them have the hand, by which I find that Mr. Nathaniel
Cliff is only the agent, and not the prinsame pretensions to goodluck, stand upon the same foot of competition; and no
cipal, in this advertisement. manner of reason can be given, why a
« Mr. Spectator, man should prefer one to the other, before the lottery is drawn. In this case there. I would give ten shillings more than the
“I am the person that lately advertised fore, caprice very often acts in the place current price for the ticket No 132 in the of reason, and forms to itself some ground- lottery now drawing; which is a secret I less imaginary motive, where real and have communicated to some friends, who substantial ones are wanting. I know a rally me incessantly upon that account. well-meaning man that is very well You must know I have but one ticket, pleased to risk his good fortune upon the for which reason, and a certain dream Í number 1711, because it is the year of have lately had more than once, I was our Lord. I am acquainted with a tacker resolved it should be the number I most that would give a good deal for the num- approved. I am so positive I have pitched ber 134. On the contrary, I have been told of a certain zealous dissenter, who upon the great lot, that I could almost being a great enemy to popery, and be- lay all I am worth of it. My visions are lieving that bad men are the most fortun- that I have not only possessed the lot,
so frequent and strong upon this occasion, ate in this world, will lay two to one on but disposed of the money which in all the number 666 against any other number; probability it will sell for. This morning, because, says he, it is the number of the beast. Several would prefer the number I look upon to be the gayest in the town;
in particular, I set up an equipage which 12000 before any other, as it is the number the liveries are very rich, but not gaudy. of the pounds in the great prize. In short, I should be very glad to see a speculation some are pleased to find their own age or two upon lottery subjects, in which in their number; some that they have got a number which makes a pretty ap- and in particular
you would oblige all people concerned, pearance in the cyphers; and others, be
* Your most humble servant, cause it is the same number that succeeded
“ George Gosling." in the last lottery Each of these, upon
“P. S. Dear Spec, if I get the 120001. I'll make thee a handsome present."