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origin of the “ dagger" in the city arms. maior, to use in his office of maioralty as On this subject Maitland and other his- occasion should require. This new seale torians have taken so much only from seemeth to be made before William WalStow as seemed to them to suit their pur- worth was knighted, for he is not there pose ; what that author relates, therefore, intituled Sir, as afterwards he was : and is here extracted verbatim. He introduces certain it is, that the same new seale then it by saying, “ In the year 1381, William made, is now in use, and none other in Walworth, then maior, a most provident, that office of the maioralty; which may valiant, and learned citizen, did by his ar- suffice to answer the former fable, with rest of Wat Tyler, (a presumptuous rebell out showing of any evidence sealed with upon whom no man durst lay hands,) de- the old seale, which was the crosse, and liver the king and kingdome from the dan. sword of Saint Paul, and not the dagger ger of most wicked traitors, and was for of William Walworth.” his service knighted in the field as before On a partial citation of the preceding hath been related." In opposition to a extract, in Maitland, it is observed by notion which prevailed in his time, and S.G., that “the seal at present in use was prevails at present, that the “ dagger” in made in pursuance of the order above the civic shield was an augmentation of cited, may be deduced from the seal the city arms upon occasion of Wal- itself. In the centre, within a large and worth's prowess in Smithfield, Stow says, square compartment, are the effigies of “ It hath also been, and is now growne Peter and Paul. The former has a mitre to a common opinion, that in reward of or tiara on his head, and is attired in the this service done by the said William pall as bishop of the catholic church, and Walworth against the rebell, that king holds a crosier in his left hand.' The Richard added to the armes of this city latter saint is known by his usual attri(which was argent, a plaine crosse gules) bute, the sword, which he sustains in his a sword, or dagger, (for so they terme it) right hand : above each of these saints is whereof I have read no such record, but a rich canopy. Beneath the compartment to the contrary. I finde that in the fourth just described is a shield, bearing the yeere of king Richard the second, in a present arms of the city, a cross, with a full assembly made in the upper chamber dagger in the dexter quarter, supported of the Guildhall
, summoned by this Wil. by two lions. It appears to have been liam Walworth, then maior, as well of surmounted with a low pointed arch. aldermen as of the common councell in The centre compartment is flanked by every ward, for certain affaires concern- two niches, with rich canopies and plinths; ing the king, it was there by common in each is a demi-figure bearing a mace, consent agreed and ordained, that the and having on its head a triangular cap; old seale of the office of the maioralty of these figures, according to the above dethe city being very small, old, unapt, and scription, are intended to represent two uncomely for the honour of the city, sergeants at arms. The canopies to these should be broken, and one other new niches terminate in angular pedestals, seale bee had; which the said maior sustaining, kneeling statues in the act of commanded to be made artificially, and paying adoration to the Virgin Mary, honourably, for the exercise of the said whose effigy, though much effaced, apoffice therafter, in place of the other. In pears in the centre niche at the top of the which new seale, besides the images of seal. From these representations on the Peter and Paul, which of old were rudely seal before us, little doubt can remain engraven, there should be under the feet that it is the same which has been in use of the said images a shield of the arms of from the time of sir William Walworth the said city, perfectly graven, with two to the present day. The canopies and lyons supporting the same, and two ser stall work are of the period in which it is geants of arms: in the other part, one, supposed to have been made, and are of and two tabernacles, in which, above, similar design with those fine specimens should stand two angels, between whom which ornamented the late front of West(above the said images of Peter and Paul) minster-hall, and the screen to the chapel should be set the glorious Virgin. Thiś of Saint Edward the Confessor in the being done, the old seale of the office was abbey, and which are still to be seen in delivered to Richard Odiham, chamber- the restored portion of Westminster-hall, lain, who brake it, and in place thereof as well as the plaster altar-screen lately was delivered the new seale to the said set up in the abbey church."
As Wat Tyler's insurrection was in speaks of it as a common opinion," 1381, the fourth year of Richard II., when he wrote, that upon Walworth's and as that was the year wherein the striking Wat Tyler with his dagger old mayoralty seal was destroyed, and Richard II. therefore " added a sword, or the present seal made, our obliging cor. dagger, for so they terme it,” he says, to respondent, S. G., deems it “a very rea the city arms; "whereof,” he adds,“ I sonable opinion, which many authors have read no such record, but to the conhave entertained on the subject, that the trary.” Then he takes pains to relate dagger in the city arms was really granted why the ancient seal was destroyed, and at that period, in commemoration of having stated the reasons already cited, Walworth having given Tyler the blow he says, “ this new seale," the seal now with that instrument, which was the pre- before us, “ seemeth to be made before lude to his death.” He says it is also William Walworth was knighted, for he further confirmed by the act of the as is not there intituled Sir, as he afterwards sembly [the common council], which Afterwards comes Stow's concluMaitland quotes [after Stow], inasmuch sion upon the whole matter : “ Certaine it as one reason which appears to have been is,” he says, “ that the same new seale urged by them for destroying the old seal then made, is now in use, and none other was on account of the same, at that time, in that office of the maioralty : which," being unbecoming the honour of the city, mark his words," which may suffice to which, no doubt, referred to the addi answer the former fable, without shewing tion of the dagger, which had then lately of any evidence sealed with the old seale, been made to the arms : and it likewise which was the crosse, and sword of St. goes on further to state, in reference Paul, and not the dagger of William thereto, “ that beside the images of Walworth.” What Stow here calls the Saint Peter and Paul, was placed the “ former fable," was the “common opishield of the arms of the said city well nion” stated by himself,“ that king engraved."
Richard added to the arms of this city Our correspondent, S. G., will not (which (in the notion of those who enterconceive offence at a notion which varies tained the opinion] was argent, a plain from his own opinion; and probably, cross gules) a sword, or dagger.” That on reperusing the quotation from Stow the city arms before the time of Richard and the following remarks, he may see II. was merely “ argent a plain cross some reason to abate his present persua- gules,” Stow clearly treats as a vulgar sion.
assumption, “whereof," he
“ I have As a reason for the old seal, in the read no such record, but,” and these folfourth year of Richard II., having been lowing words are most notable, “ BUT to ordered by the common council to be the contrary." This, his declaration “ to broken, Stow says it was very small, the contrary", being followed by his parold, unapt, and uncomely for the honour ticulars, just laid before the reader, conof the city.”. His description seems to cerning the present seal, Stow says, “ may set forth its diminutive size and age, its suffice to answer the former fable, with “ being very small, old," and “ unapt,” out showing of any evidence sealed with as the ground whereon they deemed it the old seale:” that is, without showing “ uncomely for the honour of the city," or producing any document or writing and therefore caused the old seal to be “ sealed with the old seale, which," to destroyed, and a new one to be made. clench the matter, he positively affirms, So far this appears to have been Stow's was the crosse, and sword of St. Paul, view of the matter; and should his autho- and not the dagger of William Walrity be regarded, our friend S. G, may worth." appear to have too hastily assumed that The cathedral church of the city of the common council order for the de London is dedicated to St. Paul, who struction of the old seal, as “unbecoming suffered martyrdom by the sword, and the honour of the city, no doubt referred “ the old seale,” related by Stow to have to the addition of the dagger which had been destroyed, he says, “was the crosse, then lately been made to their arms." and sword of St. Paul.” It therefore Unless Stow's testimony be disputed, it represented the present shield of the city may not only be doubted, but positively arms, which, on Stow's showing, existed denied, that the dagger “ had then lately before the time of Wat-Tyler's insurrecbeen added to the city arms.” Stow tion, and are therefore “ the crosse, and
sword of St. Paul, and not the dagger of written in 1561 to the council of Gorlitz William Walworth."
at Breslau : it is sealed in three places
with beautiful red wax. There are two To the communication with which the letters in 1563 from count Louis of Nasliberty of differing has been taken, in
sau to the landgrave William IV.; one furtherance of its object to elucidate the dated March 3, is sealed with red wax, arms of the metropolis, our respected the other, dated November 7, is sealed
with black wax. In 1566 are two letters correspondent S. G. adds,“ The origin of the seal may no doubt be traced to the to the rheingrave Frederick von Daun, source from whence sir Henry Englefield, from his steward Charles de Pousol, in in his walk through Southampton, derives Picardy, dated respectively September the seal of the city of Winchester ; in the 2d, and September the 7th ; another speaking of which his opinion appears to from Pousol to the rheingrave, dated be,that it was tirst used in consequence ofan Paris, January 22, 1567, is sealed with act passed for the benefit of merchants, in red wax of a higher colour and apparently the reign of Edward I., which was after- of a coarser quality. On the 15th of May, wards greatly extended by the statute of 1571, Vulcob, a French nobleman, who Staples, passed in the 27th year of the the year before had been ambassador from reign of Edward III., whereby it was
the king of France to the court of Weyenacted that the commerce of wool, lea- mar, wrote a letter to that court sealed ther, and lead should be carried 'on at with red wax; he sealed nine letters of a
From an certain towns, called Staple towns, of prior date with common wax. which several are not seaports—but to old expense book of 1616, in the records each of these inland Staples a port is as
of Plessingburg,“ Spanish wax, and signed for entries. It was also further other writing materials, were ordered from enacted, that in each Staple there should a manufacturer of sealing-wax at Nurembe a seal kept by the mayor of the Sta- burg, for the personal use of Christian, ple."
margrave of Brandenburg.
It has been conjectured that, as the In relation to this seal, Maitland sadly oldest seals came from England and blunders. He says,
“ The ancient seal France, and as the invention is called of this city having been laid aside in the
“ Spanish wax," it originated with the fourth of Richard II., the present, whereof Spaniards; but this is doubted. The first the annexed is a representation, was made notice of sealing-wax occurs in a work by in the same year, 1381." Then he annexes Garcia ab Orto, or Horto, entitled “ Arohis “ representation," purporting to be of matum et simplicium aliquot historia, &c.” this seal
, which Stow so accurately de- first printed in 1563, and afterwards at scribes, but, strange to say, he substitutes Antwerp in 1574, 8vo., in which latter the “ representation" of a seal wholly edition it is mentioned at p. 33. The different. (See his History of London, oldest printed receipt for sealing-wax is edit 1772, vol. ii. p. 1193.) It is astonish in a work entitled “ Neu Titularbuch, ing that Maitland should have so erred, &c., Durch Samuelen Zimmerman, burger for (in vol. i. p. 138.) he describes the seal zu Augspurg 1579," 4to. p. 112. The folalmost in Stow's words, and sufficiently lowing is a at length to have saved him from the pal
Translation. pable mistake.
“ To make hard sealing-wax, called Spanish wax, with which if letters be
sealed they cannot be opened without Sealing-Wax.
breaking the seal.-Take beautiful clear Our present common sealing-wax for resin, the whitest you can procure, and letters was not invented till the sixteenth melt it over a slow charcoal fire. When century. The earliest letter in Europe kuown it is properly melted, take it from the fire, to have been sealed with it, was written and for every pound of resin add two from London, August 3, 1554, to the ounces of cinnabar pounded very tine, rheingrave Philip Francis von Daun, by stirring it about. Then let the whole cool, his agent in England, Gerrard Herman. or pour it into cold water. Thus you will The wax is of a dark red, very shining, have beautiful red wax. and the impression bears the initials of “ If you are desirous of having black
the writer's name, G. H. The next seal wax, add lamp black to it. With smalt, • known in the order of time is on a letter or azure, you may make it blue ; with
white lead, white ; and with orpiment, in common use.” It should be observed, yellow.
however, that every black pigment inixed “ If instead of resin you melt purified with gum or size can be soon and easily turpentine, in a glass vessel, and give it washed out again with water. any colour you choose, you will have a harder kind of sealing-wax, and not so brittle as the former."
It is not purposed to make this a “ReIn these receipts there is no mention of ceipt Book," yet, as connected with this gum lac, which is at present the princi- subject
, two or three really good receipts pal ingredient in sealing-wax of the best may be of essential service, at some time quality. The name “Spanish wax," pro artists, and other individuals who require
or other, to many readers. For instance, bably imports no more than “ fies,"
"" Spanish gum,” and several other it, may easily manufacture a black pig“ Spanish" commodities; for it was for
ment in the following manner, with a cermerly the custom to give all new things, tainty of its being genuine, which can particularly those which excited wonder, scarcely be placed in the article sold at or excelled in quality, the appellation of most shops. “ Spanish."*
A pure Lamp Black. Dutch sealing-wax, or wax with“ brand well en vast houd," burn well and hold plate, having above it a pipe to convey
Suspend over a lamp a funnel of tin fast, impressed on each stick, was former- from the apartment the smoke which es. ly in great repute; but the legend having capes from the lamp. Large mushrooms been constantly forged was no security of a very black carbonaceous matter, and against imposition. The“ best Dutch exceedingly light, will be formed at the sealing-wax” usually sold in the shops of summit of the cone. This carbonaceous London, is often worse than that which part is carried to such a state of division inferior manufacturers stamp with the
as cannot be given to any other matter names of many stationers, who prefer a large profit to a good reputation. It is This black goes a great way in every kind
by grinding it on a piece of porphyry. not an easy matter, in 1826, to get a stick of painting. It may be rendered drier of sealing-wax that will “ burn well and by calcination in close vessels ; and it hold fast.
should be observed that the funnel ought Wafers.
to be united to the pipe, which conveys The oldest letter yet found with a red off the smoke, by means of wire, because wafer was written in 1624, from D. Krapf, solder would be melted by the flame of at Spires, to the government at Bayreuth, the lamp.* Wafers are ascribed, by Labat, to Genoese
Receipts for Ink. economy. In the whole of the seven
Chaptal the eminent chemist, after nuteenth century they were only used by private persons ; on public seals they com- ink, concludes, that the best ingredients
merous experiments regarding writing mence only in the eighteenth century.t
and proportions are the following, viz: Writing Ink.
two parts of galls, in sorts, bruised, and The ancient writing ink was a viscid
one part of logwood chipped; these are
to be boiled in twenty-five times their mass like painter's colours, and therefore letters in ancient manuscript frequently hours, adding a little water from time to
weight of water for the space of two appear in relief. I Pliny's writing ink is mentioned by Dr. Bancroft
, according to time, according to the evaporation. The whom it consisted of the simple ingre- monly mark from 3 to 35 degrees upon
decoction so made, he says, will comdients in the following receipt. * Any the hydrometer of Beaumé, equal to person who will take the trouble of mixing pure lamp black with water, thickened At the same time a solution of gum ara
about 1022 of the common standard. a little by gum, may obtain an ink of no despicable quality in other respects, and bic is to be made with warm water, until with the advantage of being much less former. This solution will mark 14 or
the latter will dissolve no more of the liable to decay by age, than the ink now
15 degrees, equal to about 110. A solu
tion of calcined sulphate of iron is also + Fosbroke's Dict. of Antiquities Beckmann, * Fosbroke's Dict. of Antiquities.
to be made, and concentrated so that it more likely to render the ink corrosive. will mark 10 degrees, equal to about He regards guin as highly useful to retard 1071. And to this as much sulphate of the separation and subsidence of its copper is to be added as will be equal to black part, or compound of colouring one-twelfth part of the galls employed to matter and iron, previous to its applicamake the decoction. The several matters tion to paper, as well as to hinder it, when being so prepared, six measures of the used, from spreading and penetrating too decoction are to be mixed with four far. measures of the solution of gum; and to
Indelible Writing Ink. this mixture from three to four measures
M. Chaptal remarks, that, since the of the metallic solution are to be added, oxygenated muriatic acid had been found by a little at a time, mixing the several capable of discharging the colour of commatters each time by shaking. Ink so
mon writing ink, both from parchment made, will, he says, form no sediment; and paper, without injuring their texture, it and he estimates the proportions of solid had been fraudulently employed to efface matters contained in it to be five hundred particular parts or words of deeds, conparts of gums, four hundred and sixty- tracts, or other writings, for which others two parts of the extract of galls and log- had been substituted,
leaving the signawood, and four hundred and eighty-one tures untouched. In consequence of parts of metallic oxides.
these frauds, the commercial parts of Dr. Bancroft, who gives these particu• society, as well as governments, were lars from Chaptal, proposes the following, solicitous for the discovery of some comas being generally the most suitable pro• position, which might be employed inportions for composing the best and most stead of common writing ink, without lasting writing ink, viz:
its defects; therefore Chaptal, (being Take of good Aleppo galls, in sorts, then minister of the interior of France, coarsely powdered, twelve ounces, and of and possessed of great chemical science,) chipped logwood six ounces; boil these as might be expected, occupied him. in five quarts of soft water two hours, and self particularly with that subject; and strain off the decoction whilst hot; then he states, that up to the then present time, put to the residuum as much boiling the composition which had been found water as, when properly stirred, strained, most useful for this purpose, consisted of and added to the former, will suffice to
a solution of glue in water, with which a make the whole of the decoction equal to sufficient portion of lamp black and a one gallon; add to this five ounces of little sea salt were intimately mixed, by sulphate of iron, with the same quantity rubbing them together on marble. This of gum arabic, and two ounces of good composition was made sufficiently thin dry muscovado sugar; let these be all by water, to flow readily from the pen ; dissolved, and well mixed by stirring: and he describes it as being capable of
A calcination of the sulphate of iron, resisting the action, not merely of cold, which Chaptal, Proust, and some others but of boiling water, and also of acids, have recommended, Dr. Bancroft does alkalies, and spirit of wine ; and attended not regard as of much importance; for, with no inconvenience but that of abrahe says, though the ink may be thereby sion by being rubbed. made to attain its utmost degree of darkness, almost immediately, yet the strong disposition which ink has to absorb oxy It is observed by Dr. Bancroft, that gen from the atmosphere until saturated when lamp black has been incorporated therewith, will enable it, without such with common ink, by first rubbing the calcination, to attain an equal degree of former in a mortar with a mucilage of blackness, in a day or two, according to gum arabic, the writing done with it the temperature of the air, if the latter be could not be rendered invisible by the allowed free access to it. For reasons application of muriatic acid; and, doubtwhich he also states, he omits the sulphate less, such an addition of lamp black would of copper; though he observes that, if any hinder the letters from ever becoming portion of that metal were deemed bene- illegible by age, at least within any length ficial, he should prefer verdigrise to the of time which the paper and parchment sulphate, the latter containing a much could be expected to last. But ink made larger proportion of acid than even the with this addition would require to be sulphate of iron, and being, therefore, frequently shaken or stirred, as the lamp