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length, being much exhausted with the burden of several hundred weight, they loss of blood, from the number of wounds tie cords to it, by which the soldiers hold which he had received, he slackened his fast and swim, or are drawn across the pace, and became quite calm and serene, river. In battle, a heavy iron chain is as if-determined to meet his approaching sometimes fastened to the end of their end. The horsemen, seeing him weak trunk, which they swing about with and slow, dismounted, and with their such rapidity, as renders it impossible swords commenced a furious attack on for an enemy to approach them. Anothe tendons of his hind tegs, which were ther service which these animals perform soon divided, and the operation com- in war, consists in forcing open the gates pletely disabled the poor animal from of besieged towns or fortresses. This proceeding any further : he staggered, they do, by stemming themselves with and then fell without a groan.

Thé their haunches against the gates, and hatchet-men now advanced, and began to moving from side to side till they have cut away his large ivory tusks, while the broken the hinges, and forced open the norsemen and soldiers in the most unfeel- gate. In order to prevent this, the being manner attacked the dying creature sieged have generally large nails fixed with their swords. We can readily be- in the gates, and projecting to a considerlieve the writer, when he says the sight able length. was very affecting. The noble animal Elephants are also employed for transtill breathed, and breathed without a sporting heavy ordnance over mountains, groan. He rolled his eyes in anguish on in doing which they show a singular the surrounding crowd, and, making a degree of ingenuity. When oxen or last effort to rise, expired with a sigh, horses are harnessed to a piece of ord

nance, it requires the exertion of all their Before gunpowder was invented, ele. strength to draw it up an ascent. The phants were used by the nations of Asia elephant, in such cases, pushes the car. and Africa for the purposes of war, and riage forward with his forehead, and after the kings of Ceylon, Pegu, and Arracan, every push, stems his knees against the have from time immemorial employed wheels, whereby he prevents it from them for this use. Sharp sword-blades rolling back. were fastened to their trunks, and upon their backs were fixed small wooden Wild elephants were caught and trained castles, containing five or six men, armed at an early period; since we find Arrian, with javelins, and other missile weapons. who flourished about the 104th year of The Greeks and Romans, however, soon Christ, giving us the following account of learnt the best method of defence against the manner of taking elephants in India. these enormous warriors. They opened The Indians enclose a large spot of their ranks to let them pass through, and ground, with a trench about twenty feet directed their whole attack against their wide, and fifteen high, to which there is riders. But since fire-arms have become access but in one part, and this is a the principal instruments of war, ele- bridge, and is covered with turf; in order phants, who are terrified both by the fire, that these animals, who are very subtle, and the noise of their discharge, would may not suspect what is intended. Of be of more detriment than advantage to the earth that is dug out of the trench, a the party that should employ them. kind of wall is raised, on the other side of Some of the Indian kings, however, still which a little kind of chamber is made, use armed elephants in their wars. In where people conceal themselves in order Cochin, and other parts of Malabar, all to watch these animals, and its entrance the soldiers that do not fight on foot are is


small. In this enclosure two or mounted upon elephants. This is also three tame female elephants are set. The the case in Tonquin, Siam, and Pegu, instant the wild elephants see or smell where the use of fire-arms is but little them, they run and whirl about so much, known. The leader of the elephant sits that at last they enter the enclosure ; astride upon his neck, and the combat- upon which the bridge is immediately ants sit or stand upou other parts of his broken down, and the people upon the body. The elephants also prove very watch fly to the neighbouring villages for serviceable in passing rivers, and carry help. After they have been broken for a the baggage over on their backs. When few days by hunger and thirst, people their leaders have loaded them with a enter the enclosure upon the tame ele

phants, and with these they attack them. coming up and examining him narrowly, As the wild ones are by this time very declared he was the very elephant that much weakened, it is impossible for them had made his escape. to make a long resistance. After throw. Confident of this, he boldly rode up to ing them on the ground, men get upon him, on a tame elephant, and ordered him their backs, having first made a deep to lie down, pulling him by the ear at the wound round their necks, about which same time. The animal seemed quite they throw a rope, in order to put them taken by surprise, and instantly obeyed to great pain in case they attempt to stir. the word of command, with as much Being tamed in this manner, they suffer quickness as the ropes with which he was themselves to be led quietly to the houses tied permitted; uttering at the same time with the rest, where they are fed with a peculiar shrill squeak through his trunk, grass and green corn, and tamed insen- 'as he had formerly been known to do; by sibly by blows and hunger, till such time which he was immediately recognised by as they obey readily their master's voice, every person who had ever been acquaintand perfectly understand bis language.

ed with this peculiarity.

Thus we see that this elephant, for the In a description of the process of catch- space of eight or ten days, during which ing wild elephants, related by John Corse, he was in the haddah, and even while he Esq. in the “ Asiatic Researches," he was tying in the outlet, appeared equally interests the reader by an account of the wild and fierce as the boldest elephant escape of one which had been tamed, and then taken; so that he was not even susof his submission to his keeper when he pected of having been formerly taken, till was recaptured. He says, in June, he was conducted from the outlet. The 1787, Jåttra-mungul, a male elephant moment, however, he was addressed in a taken the year before, was travelling in commanding tone, the recollection of his company with

some other elephants former obedience seemed to rush upon towards Chittigong, laden with a tent, him at once; and, without any difficulty, and some baggage for the accommodation he permitted a driver to be seated on his of Mr. Buller and myself on the journey. neck, who in a few days made him as Having come upon a tiger's track, which tractable as ever, elephants discover readily by the smell, he took fright and ran off to the woods in Bruce relates the Abyssinian mode of spite of the efforts of his driver. On destroying the elephant from his own entering the wood, the driver saved him. observation, during his return from Gonself by springing from the elephant, and dah, and while sojourning with Ayto clinging to the branch of a tree, under Confu. His narrative is in these words. which he was passing : when the elephant Though we were all happy to our wish had got rid of his driver, he soon contrived in this enchanted mountain, the active to shake off his load. As soon as he ran spirit of Ayto Confu could not rest. He away, a trained female was despatched was come to hunt the elephant, and hunt after him, but could not get up in time to him he would. All those that understood prevent his escape; she, however, brought any thing of this exercise had assembled back his driver, and the load he had from a great distance, to meet Ayto Confu thrown off, and we proceeded, without at Tcherkin. He and Engedan, from the any hope of ever seeing him again. moment they arrived, had been overlook

Eighteen months after this, when a ing from the precipice their servants herd of elephants had been taken, and had training and managing their horses in the remained several days in the enclosure, market-place below. Great bunches of till they were enticed into the outlet, and the finest canes had been brought from there tied, and led out in the usual man- Kawra for javelins; and the whole house ner, one of the drivers, viewing a male was employed in fitting heads to them in elephant very attentively, declared that the most advantageous manner. he resembled the one which had run away. part, though I should have been very well This excited the curiosity of every one to contented to have remained where I was, go and look at him ; but when any person yet the preparations for sport of so noble came near, the animal struck at him with a kind roused my spirits, and made me his trunk, and, in every respect, appeared desirous to join in it. as wild and outrageous as any of the other On the 6th, an hour before day, after a elephants. At length, an old hunter, hearty breakfast, we mounted on horse

For my

back, to the number of about thirty, be- round with him, neglectful of making his longing to Ayto Confu. But there was escape by running straight forward, in another body, both of horse and foot, which consists his only safety. After which made hunting the elephant their having made him turn once or twice in particular business. These men dwell pursuit of the horse, the horseman rides constantly in the woods, and know very close up alongside of him, and drops his little of the use of bread, living entirely companion just behind on the off side ; upon the flesh of the beasts they kill, and while he engages the elephant's attenchiefly that of the elephant or rhinoceros. tion upon the horse, the footman behind

They are exceedingly thin, light, and gives him a drawn stroke just above the agile, both on horseback and foot; are heel, or what in man is called the tendon very swarthy, though few of them black; of Achilles. This is the critical moment; none of them woolly-headed, and all of the horseman immediately wheels round, them have European features. They are takes his companion up behind him, and called Agagcer, a name of their profes- rides off full speed after the rest of the sion, not of their nation, which comes herd, if they have started more than one; from the word agar, and signifies to hough and sometimes an expert agageer will kill or hamstring with a sharp weapon. More three out of one herd. If the sword is properly it means the cutting of the ten- good, and the man not afraid, the tendon don of the heel, and is a characteristic of is commonly entirely separated; and if it the manner in which they kill the ele- is not cut through, it is generally so far phant, which is shortly as follows: divided, that the animal, with the stress

Two men, absolutely naked, without he puts upon it, breaks the remaining part any rag or covering at all about them, get asunder." In either case, he remains in. on horseback; this precaution is for fear capable of advancing a step, till the of being laid hold of by the trees or horseman's return, or his companions bushes in making their escape from a very coming up pierce him through with javewatchful enemy. One of these riders sits lins and lances : he then falls to the upon the back of the horse, sometimes ground, and expires with loss of blood. with a saddle, and sometimes without The agageer nearest me presently lamed one, with only a switch, or short stick in his elephant, and left him

standing. Ayto one hand, carefully managing the bridle Engedan, Ayto Confu, Guebra Mariam, with the other; behind him sits his com and several others, fixed their spears in panion, who has no other arms but a the other before the agageer had cut his Broad-sword, such as is used by Sclavo- tendons. My agageer, however, having nians, and which is brought from Trieste. wounded the first elephant, failed in the His left hand is employed grasping the pursuit of the second; and being close sword by the handle ; about fourteen upon him at the entrance of the wood, he inches of the blade is covered with whip- received a violent blow from the branch cord. This part he takes in his right of a tree which the elephant had bent by hand, without any danger of being hurt his weight, and, after passing, allowed by it; and, though the edges of the lower it to replace itself; when it knocked down part of the sword are as sharp as a razor, both the riders, and very much hurt the he carries it without a scabbard.

horse. This, indeed, is the great danger As soon as the elephant is found feed. in elephant-hunting; for some of the ing, the horseman rides before him as near trees, that are dry and short, break by his face as possible; or, if he flies, crosses the violent pressure of .so immense a body him in all directions, crying out, “I am moving so rapidly, and fall upon pur. such a man and such a man; this is my suers, or across the roads. But the horse, that has such a name; I killed greatest number of these trees being of a your father in such a place, and your succulent quality, they bend without grandfather in such another place; and breaking, and return quickly to the former I am now come to kill you ; you are but position, when they strike both horse and an ass in comparison of them.” This man so violently, that they often beat nonsense he verily believes the elephant them to pieces. Dexterous too as the understands, who, chased and angry at riders are, the elephant sometimes reaches hearing the noise immediately before them with his trunk, with which he dashes him, seeks to seize him with his trunk, or the horse against the ground, and then proboscis; and, intent upon this, follows sets his feet upon him, till he tears him the horse everywhere, turning and turning limb from limb with his proboscis; a


great many hunters die this way. Besides substance, on the upper part of the head. this, the soil at this time of the year is They are very sure-footed, have an active, split into deep chasms, or cavities, by the shuffling gait, and generally travel about heat of the sun, so that nothing can be three or four miles an hour, but may be more dangerous than the riding.

urged on to six when goaded by a man The elephant once slain, they cut the who runs behind the animal for that purwhole of the flesh off his bones into thongs, pose. They are very fond of sugar-canes, like the reins of a bridle, and hang these and the leaves of the banyan; they can like festoons upon the branches of trees, free a cocoa-nut from its tough coat, crack till they become perfectly dry, without it, and take out the nut free from the shell. salt; and then they lay them up for their A small race of elephants, from five to provisions in the season of the rains. six feet in height, are much used about

the court in the northern part of India. A very interesting account of the affec- When the elephant passes through a tion of a young elephant for its mother, crowd, he is very careful to open a way concludes Bruce's description of this cruel with his trunk, that he may not injure amusement.

any one.

This observation is strengthThere now remained but two elephants ened by M. d'Obsonville, who informs us of those that had been discovered, which that the baron de Lauriston was induced were a she one with a calf. The agageer to go to Laknaor, the capital of the would willingly have let these alone, as Soubah, or viceroyalty of that name, at a the teeth of the female are very small, and time when an epidemic distemper was the young one is of no sort of value, making the greatest ravages amongst the even for food, its flesh shrinking much inhabitants. The principal road to the upon dying ; but the hunters would not palace gate was covered with the sick be limited in their sport. The people and dying, extended on the ground, at having observed the place of her retreat, the very moment when the nabob must thither we eagerly followed. She was necessarily pass. It appeared impossible very soon found, and as soon lamed by for the elephant to do otherwise than the agageers; but when they came to tread upon and crush many of these poor wound her with their darts, as every one wretches in his passage, unless the prince. did in turn, to our very great surprise, the would stop till the way could be cleared ; young one, which had been suffered to but he was in haste, and such tenderness escape unheeded and unpursued, came would be unbecoming in a personage of out from the thicket, apparently in great his importance. The elephant, however, anger, running upon the horses and men without appearing to slacken his pace, with all the violence it was master of. I and without having received any comwas amazed, and as much as ever I was, mand for that purpose, assisted them with upon such an occasion, afflicted at seeing his trunk, removed some, and stepped the great affection of the little animal de over the rest with so much address and fending its wounded mother, heedless of assiduity, that

one person its own life or safety. I therefore cried to wounded. them for God's sake to spare the mother, though it was then too late ; and the calf

The proboscis of the elephant is the had made several rude attacks upon me, most distinguishing character in his forwhich I avoided without difficulty ; but I mation. It is hollow all along, but with am happy to this day in the reflection that

a partition running from one end of it to I did not strike it. At last, making one

the other; so, though outwardly it apof his attacks upon Ayto Engedan, it pears like a single pipe, it is inwardly hurt him a little upon the leg; upon divided into two. This fleshy tube is which he thrust it through with his lance, composed of nerves and muscles, covered as others did after, and then it fell dead with a proper skin of a blackish colour, before its wounded mother, whom it had like that of the rest of the body. It is so affectionately defended.

capable of being moved in every direc

tion, of being lengthened and shortened, The bodies of elephants are frequently of being bent or straightened, so pliant oiled, to prevent the effects of the sun on as to embrace any body it is applied to, them. They are fond of the water in hot and yet so strong, that nothing can be weather, and seem delighted when they torn from the gripe. To aid the force of are rubbed with a brick, or any hard this grasp, there are little eminences, like




a caterpillar's feet, on the underside of young ones suck; and it often happens, this instrument, which, without doubt, when the dam is tall, that she is obliged, contribute to the sensibility of the touch for some time, to bend her body towards as well as to firmness of the hold, her young, to enable him to reach the Through this trunk the animal breathes, nipple with his mouth; consequently, if drinks, and smells, as through a tube; ever the trunk were used to lay hold of the and at the very point of it, just above the nipple, it would be at this period, when nostrils, there is an extension of the skin, he is making laborious efforts to reach it about five inches long, in the form of a with his mouth, but which he could alfinger, and which, in fact, answers all the ways easily do with his trunk if it answerpurposes of one; for, with the rest of the ed the purpose. In sucking, the young extremity of the trunk, it is capable of elephant always grasps the nipple, which assuming different forms at will, and, projects horizontally from the breast, with consequently, of being adapted to the his mouth. Mr. Corse often observed minutest objects, By means of this the this ; and so sensible were the attendants elephant can take a pin from the ground, of it, that, with them, it is a common untie the knots of a rope, unlock a door, practice to raise a small mound of earth, and even write with a pen. “I have about six or eight inches high, for the myself seen," says Ælian,

an elephant young one to stand on, and to save the writing Latin characters on a board, in a mother the trouble of bending her body very orderly manner, his keeper only every time she gives suck, which she canshowing him the figure of each letter. not readily do when tied to her picket. While thus employed, the eyes might be Taine elephants are never suffered to re, observed studiously cast down upon the main loose in India, as instances occur of writing, and exhibiting an appearance of the mother leaving even her young and great skill and erudition.” It sometimes escaping into the woods. Another cirhappens that the object is too large for cumstance deserves notice: if a wild elethe trunk to grasp; in such a case the phant happens to be separated from her elephant makes use of another expedient, young for only two days, though giving as admirable as any of the former. It suck, she never afterwards recognises it. applies the extremity of the trunk to the This separation happened, sometimes, surface of the object, and, sucking up its unavoidably, when they were enticed, breath, lifts and sustains such a weight separately, into the kiddah. as the air in that case is capable of suspending. In this manner this instru Elephants in India are taught to re, ment is useful in most of the purposes of verence the various sovereigns to whom life; it is an organ of smelling, of touch- they belong, when they appear in his ing, and of suction; it not only provides presence. They are then trained to warfor the animal's necessities and comforts, fare, and rushing upon the enemy, as if but it also serves for its ornament and conscious of their superior strength, beat defence.

down all before them. They have even

been known to brave the hottest fire of Mr. Corse affirms, that the usual height the enemy's artillery. Beauleu, in his of the male Asiatic elephant is from eight “Voyage to the East Indies," mentions to ten feet, and, in one instance orly, he that the king of Achen places his whole saw one of ten feet six inches. The young strength in nine hundred elephants, which one at its birth is thirty-five inches; one are bred to tread fire under their feet, and grew eleven inches in the first year; to be unmoved at the shot of cannon, and eight, six, and five, in the three succeed- likewise to salute the king when they pass ing years. The full growth is at nineteen by his apartments, by bending their years. He says, elephants that have knees, and raising their trunks three escaped from confinement have not saga- times. This traveller adds, that they are city to avoid being retaken, and they will influenced by exemplary punishment; breed in confinement. The young, he and gives an instance of the fact. The observes, begin to nibble and suck the king of Achen, he says, having orderbreast soon after birth, pressing it with ed the embarkation of a hundred elethe trunk, which, by mutual instinct, they phants for the siege of Dehly, when they know will make the milk flow more rea were brought to the coast not one of dily into their mouths while sucking. them would enter the ship. The king Elephants never lie down to give their being acquainted with their behaviour,

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