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prospectus proposed to their considera- escape unmarked; for he changes rapidly tion. If each reader will only contribute from All-my-men and I, to Old Vulcan something to the instruction and amuse and I, and so on, and sometimes names ment of the rest, the editor has no doubt two or three together, that little chance of that he will be able to present a larger escaping with a clean face is left. series of interesting notices and agreeable The Corn-market.--Here, as before, an illustrations, than any work he is at pre- experienced reveller is chosen to be the sent acquainted with.
master, who has an assistant, called SpyTo the Editor of the Every-Day Book. the-market. Another character is Old
February 6, 1826. Penglaze, who is dressed up in some riSir,-I send you the account of two diculous way, with a blackened face, and more games, or in-doors sports, in vogue a staff in his hand; he, together with among the country people in Cornwall. part of a horse's hide girt round him, for Of the latter, Mr. D. Gilbert has made the hobby-horse, are placed towards the glight mention in the introduction to his back of the market. The rest of the carols, second edition; but he states that players sit round the room, and have each these games, together with carol-singing, some even price affixed to them as names; may be considered as obsolete, which is for instance, Two-pence, Four-pence, Site by no means the case : even yet in most of pence, Twelve-pence, &c. The master then the western parishes, (and of these I can says “Spy-the-market,” to which the man speak from personal observation, the responds, “ Spy-the-market;" the master carol-singers, not only sing their “aun- repeats, "Spy-the-market;" the man says, tient chaunts” in the churches, but go Aye, sirrah.” The master then asks the about from house to house in parties. I price of corn, to which Spy-the-market, am told the practice is the same in many may reply any price he chooses, of those other parts of the county, as it is also in given to his comrades, for instance, various places throughout the kingdom. “Twelve-pence." The master then says, I have added a slight notice respecting “Twelve-pence," when the man hearing Piccadilly, which (if worth inserting) may that price answers “ Twelve-pence," and be new to some of your readers; but, now a similar conversation ensues, as with for our Cornish sports : I state them as I Spy-the-market before, and Twelve-pence found them, and they are considered pro- dames his price, and so the game provincial.
ceeds; but if, as frequently happens, any Fisrt, then, the Tinkeler's(tinker's)shop.. of the prices forget their names, or any In the middle of the room is placed a other mistakes occur in the game, the large iron pot, filled with a mixture of offender is to be sealed, a ceremony in soot and water. One of the most humour- which the principal amusement of the ous of the set is chosen for the master of game consists; it is done as follows,-the the shop, who takes a small mop in his master goes to the person who has forleft hand, and a short stick in his right; feited, and takes up his foot, saying, his comrades each have a small stick in “ Here is my seal, where is old Penglaze's his right hand; the master gives each a seal ?" and then gives him a blow on the separate name, as Old Vulcan, Save-all, sole of the foot. Old Penglaze then comes Tear'em, All-my-men, Mend-all, &c. After in on bis horse, with his feet tripping on these preliminaries, all kneel down, en the floor, saying, “ Here I comes, neither circling the iron vessel. The master cries riding nor a foot;" the horse winces and out,“ Every one (that is, all together, or capers, so that the old gentleman can
one and all,' as the Cornish say,) and I; scarcely keep his seat. When he arrives all then hammer away with their sticks as at the market, he cries out, “ What work fast as they can, soine of them with absurd is there for me to do?" The master holds grimaces. Suddenly the master will, per- up the foot of the culprit and says, “ Here, haps, cry out, “All-my-men and I ;” upon Penglaze, is a fine shoeing match for you.' this, all are to cease working, except the Penglaze dismounts ; “ I think it's a fine individual called All-my-men ; and if any colt indeed.” He then begins to work by unfortunate delinquent fails, he is treated pulling the shoe off the unfortunate colt, with a salute from the mop well dipped in saying " My reward is a full gallon of the black liquid : this never fails to afford moonlight, besides all other customs for great entertainment to the spectators, and shoeing in this market;" he then gives if the master is “ well up to the sport,” he one or two hard blows on the shoe-less contrives that none of his comrades shall foot, which make its proprietor tingle,
and remounts his horse, whose duty it is the size of their ruffs ; on the contrary, now to get very restive, and poor Pen- according to Andrews, (Continuation of glaze is so tossed up and down, that he Henry's History of England, vol. ii. has much difficulty to get to his old place 307,) they wore them immoderately large, without a tumble. The play is resumed made of lawn and cambric, and stiffened until Penglaze's seal is again required, and with yellow starch, for the art of using at the conclusion of the whole there is a which, in the proper method, they paid as set dance.
much as four or five pounds, as also .PICCADILLY.—The pickadil was the twenty shillings for learning “to seethe round hem, or the piece set about the starche,” to a Mrs. Dingen Van Plessé, edge or skirt of a garment, whether at who introduced it, as well as the use of top or bottom; also a kind of stiff collar, lawn, which was so fine that it was a bymade in fashion of a band, that went word, “ that shortly they would wear about the neck and round about the ruffes of a spider's web.” The poking of shoulders; hence the term “ wooden pec- these ruffs gracefully was an important cadilloes,” (meaning the pillory) ih “ Hu- attainment. Some satirical Puritans endibras," and ste Nares's “Glossary,” and joyed the effects of a shower of rain on Blount's “Glossographia.” At the time the ruff-wearers ; for “then theyre great that ruffs, and consequently pickadils, ruffes stryke sayle, and downe they falle, were much in fashion, there was a cele- as dish-clouts Auttering in the winde.' brated ordinary near St. James's, called Mrs. Turner, who was one of the persons Pickadilly, because, as some say, it was implicated in the death of sir Thomas the outmost, or skirt-house, situate at Overbury, is said to have gone to the the hem of the town; but it more proba- place of execution in a fashionable ruff, bly took its name from one Higgins, a after which their credit was very much tailor, who made a fortune by pickadils, diminished. and built this with a few adjoining
I am, sir, houses. The name has by a few been
Your obedient servant, derived from a much frequented shop for sale of these articles; this probably took
W. S. its rise from the circumstance of Higgins having built houses there, which, however,
P.S.-It is perhaps scarcely worth obwere not for selling ruffs ; and indeed, serving, that the Monday preceding Ashwith the exception of his buildings, the Wednesday is, in the west, called Shrovescite of the present Piccadilly was at that Monday; and that peas and pork is as time open country, and quite out of the standard a dish on that day as pancakes way of trade. At a later period, when
on Shrove-Tuesday, or salt fish on AshBurlington-house was built, its noble
Wednesday. owner chose the situation, then at some distance from the extremity of the town, that none might build beyond him. The Having thus performed a duty to a ruffs formerly worn by gentlemen were valued correspondent without waiting till frequently double-wired, and stiffened Christmas, the editor takes the liberty of with yellow starch; and the practice was referring to the observations by which the at one time carried to such an excess that preceding letter was introduced, and rethey were limited by queen Elizabeth “ to spectfully expresses an earnest hope to be a nayle of a yeard in depth.” In the time favoured with such cominunications as, of James I. they still continued of a pre- from the past conduct of the Every-Day posterous size, so that previous to the Book, may appear suitable to its columns. visit made by that monarch to Cambridge For the first time, he believes, he venin 1615, the vice-chancellor of the tures to allude to any inconvenience he university thought fit to issue an order, has felt while conducting it; nor does he prohibiting “the fearful enormity and hint at difficulty now from lack of maexcess of apparel seen in all degrees, as, terials, for he has abundance; but it is a Damely, strange peccadilloes, vast bands, truth, which he is persuaded many of hoge cuffs, shoe-roses, tufts, locks, and his readers will be happy to mitigate, tops of hair, unbeseeming that modesty that at the present moment he is himself and carriage of students in so renowned so very unwell, and has so much indisan university.” It is scarcely to be sup- position in his family to distract his prsed that the ladies were deficient in mind, that he cannot arrange his collec
tions ; services, therefore, under such appeal in vain, and he again calls on the circumstances, will be peculiarly accept- friends and readers of his labours to send able. If one or two of his correspon- him their aid. dents should refer him to communications which their kindness have already placed NATURALISTS' CALENDAR. in his hands, he answers, that he is really too ill to seek them amongst his papers.
Mean Temperature ... 40.51. From this it will be seen how very much he really needs, and how much he
March 17. covets, assistance. He ventures to think that he shall not have made this public 1826, Cambridge Term ends.
It happens that several fairs, similar to « unless the neighbouring magistrates those in the country parts of England as personally interfere, or the spirits of the to tents and booths, are held in Ireland people are repressed by a conscious par. on Saint Patrick's day, and then its ticipation in plots and conspiracies." hilarity is heightened by the publicity of This is the character of these festivals by the celebration
an Irish writer, who relates an anecdote The usual fair day or “patron," or, as resulting from one of these festivals : it is usually pronounced, pattern or pat- “We were waiting (he says,) in the vain ten, is a festive meeting to commemorate hope that the weather would clear up, the virtues of a patron saint. It is a kind and allow us a fine evening for return, of rural fete with drinking and dancing, when a poor stranger from Joyce country whereto in (Ireland) is added fighting, came before his honour' as a magistrate.
His black eye, swelled face, and head which, he advised each one to take “a and shoulders covered with clotted blood, drop of something to drink;" and that too plainly told the history of his suffer- this last injunction of the saint in reveings; and his woeful countenance formed rence to his character was complied a strange and ludicrous contrast with his with. However this may be, it is a account of the pleasures of the preceding custom on his anniversary to observe evening." He had obtained these fea- the practice to supererogation; for the tures at a patron. “The poor fellow had greater number of his present followers, travelled many a weary mile across the who take a little “ crathur” for the purmountains to share its rustic mirth and pose of dissipating woeful reminiscencies, revelry: but, “plaze your honour, there continue to imbibe it till they “ lisp and was a little bit of fighting in it,' and as wink.” no true follower of St. Macdarragh could Some years ago, “ Patrick's day" was refuse to take a part in such a peaceful welcomed, in the smaller country towns contest, he had received, and no doubt or hamlets, by every possible manifestgiven, many a friendly blow; but his ation of gladness and delight. The inn, if meditations on a broken head during the there was one, was thrown open to all night, had both cooled his courage and comers, who received a certain allowance revived his prudence, and he came to of oaten bread and fish. This was a beswear before his honour' a charge of as- nevolence from the host, and to it was sault and battery against those who added a “ Patrick's pot,” or quantum of had thus woefully demolished his upper beer; but, of late years, whiskey is the works."
beverage most esteemed. The majority The constant use of the “shillelagh" of those who sought entertainment at the by Irishmen at a “patron,” is a puzzling village inn, were young men who had no fact to Englishmen, who, on their own families, whilst those who had children, holidays, regard a “ shillelagh” as a and especially whose families were large, malicious weapon. In the hand of an made themselves as snug as possible by Irishman, in his own country, at such a the turf fire in their own cabins. season, it is divested of that character ; Where the village or hamlet could not this singular fact will be accounted for, boast of an inn, the largest cabin was when the origin of the custom comes to sought out, and poles were extended be considered. At present, nothing more horizontally from one end of the apartis requisite than to add, that the “shille- ment to the other; on these poles, doors lagh" is seldom absent on St. Patrick's purposely unhinged, and brought from day, celebrated as a patron.
the surrounding cabins were placed, so
that a table of considerable dimensions Some account of the commemoration was formed, round which all seated them, of this festival, and of the tutelar saint of selves, each one providing his own oaten Ireland and his miracles, is already given bread and fish. At the conclusion of the in vol. i. p. 363. To this may be added repast, they sat for the remainder of the the annexed notices relative to the day, evening over a “Patrick's pot,” and finally obtained from an Irish gentleman. separated quietly, and it is to be hoped in
perfect harmony. It is a tradition that St. Patrick first In the city of Dublin, “ Patrick's day" landed at Croagh Patrick, a high and is still regarded as a festival from the beautiful mountain in the county of Mayo, highest to the lowest ranks of society. from which place he banished all venomous There is an annual ball and supper at animals into the sea, and to this day, the lord lieutenant's residence in the multitudes of the natives who are catho- castle, and there are private convivial lics, make pilgrimages to Croagh Patrick, assemblies of the most joyous character. under the persuasion of efficacy in these On this day every Irishman who is alive journies to atone for misdeeds, or mitigate to its importance, adorns his bat with the penalties attached to sin.
bunches of shamrock, which is the comIt is a very popular tradition that when mon trefoil or clover,wherewith, according St. Patrick was dying, he requested his to tradition, St. Patrick converted the weeping and lamenting friends to forego Irish nation to belief in the doctrine of their grief, and rather rejoice at his com- the trinity in unity. In the humbler fortable exit, for the better furtherance of ranks, it is the universal practice to get a
morning dram as a preparation for the my shamrocks, green shamrocks,” and duties of the festival. They then attend children have “ Patrick's crosses” pinned chapel and hear high mass. After the to their sleeves. These are small prints ceremonies and observances peculiar to of various kinds; some of them merely the Romish worship, they again resort to represent a cross, others are representthe whiskey shop, and spend the remain- ations of Saint Patrick, trampling the repder of the day in devotions to Bacchus, tiles under his feet. which are mostly concluded, with what in England would be called, by persons It appears from this account, and from of this class, “ a row.”
general narrations, that St. Patrick is On Patrick's day, while the bells of honoured on his festival by every mode churches and chapels are tuned to joyous which mirth can devise for praise of his notes, the piper and harper play up memory. The following whimsical song “ Patrick's day in the morning;" old is a particular favourite, and sung to “bis women, with plenteous supplies of trefoil, holiness" by all ranks in the height of are heard in every direction, crying “ Buy convivial excitement :
St. Patrick was a Gentleman.
St. Patrick was a gentleman, and he came from decent people :
Tooralloo tooralloo, what a glorious man our saint was,
Tooralloo, tooralloo, O whack fal de lal, de lal, &c.
No wonder that we Irish lads, then, are so blythe and frisky;
The day after St. Patrick's day is is steeped at night in honour of “Sheelah" “Sheelah's day,"or the festival in honour of with equal devotedness. Sheelah. Its observers are not so anxious That Saint Patrick was not married is to determine who “Sheelah” was, as they clear from the rules of the Roman catholic are earnest in her celebration. Some say church, which impose celibacy on its she was “ Patrick's wife,” others that she clergy. A correspondent suggests that was “ Patrick's mother,” while all agree the idea of his matrimonial connection, that her “ immortal memory” is to be arose out of a burlesque, or, perhaps, maintained by potations of whiskey. ironical remark, by females of the poorer The shamrock worn on St. Patrick's day class in Ireland, to retaliate on their husshould be worn also on Sheelah's day, bands for their excesses on the 17th of and, on the latter night, be drowned in March ; or, perhaps, from the opportunity the last glass. Yet it frequently happens the effects of such indulgence afforded that the shamrock is flooded in the last them, these fair helpmates are as convivial glass of St. Patrick's day, and another last on the following morning, as their“worser glass or two, or more, on the same night, halves” were the preceding day. “Sheelah” deluges the over-soddened trefoil. This is an Irish term, generally applied to a is not “ quite correct,” but it is endea- slovenly or muddling woman, more parvoured to be remedied the next morning ticularly if she be elderly. In this way, by the display of a fresh shamrock, which probably, the day after St. Patrick's ob