« IndietroContinua »
to men's morals as well as health, gave Little tube of mighty power, them permission to enter it in England; Charmer of an idle hour, and he inhibited by proclamation all im- Object of my warm desire; portation of it from Spain."
Lip of wax, and eye of fire ; At this period originated the story of And thy snowy taper waist, the wetting poor sir Walter Raleigh, re- With my finger gently brac'd ; &c. ceived from the hands (and bucket) of
In our own times the following hare his servant; this, however, is too common
appeared. to deserve transferring to your pages. i La Pipe de Tabac," a French song to The following facts, however, are not so music, by Geweaux, contains the followgenerally known. « On the first intro
ing humorous stanzas :duction of tobacco, our ancestors carried its use to an enormous excess, smoking
“ Le soldat baille sous la tente, even in the churches, which made pope
Le matelot sur le tillac,
Bientôt ils ont l'âme contente, Urban VIII. in 1624, publish a decree
Avec la pipe de tabac; of excommunication against those who
Si used such an unseemly practice; and
pourtant survient une belle,
Å l'instant le cæur fait tic tac, Innocent XII. A.D. 1690, solemnly excom- Etl’Amant oublie auprès d'elle, municated all those who should take
Jusqu'à la pipe de tabac. snuff or tobacco, in St. Peter's church at Rome.” Flora Domestica, p. 367.
" Je tiens cette maxime utile, This excess is perhaps only equalled
De ce fameux Monsieur de Crac, by the case of William Breedon, vicar
En campagne comme à la ville,
Font tous l'amour et le tabac, of Thornton, Bucks, profound
Quand ce grand homme allait en guerre divine, but absolutely the most polite per- Il portait dans son petit sac, son for nativities in that age;" of whom Le doux portrait de sa bergère, William Lilly, “ student in astrology, Avec la pipe de tabac.” says, “ when he had no tobacco, (and I
In the accompanying English version, suppose too much drink,) he would cut the bell ropes and smoke them." - His- they are thus imitated : tory of Lilly's Life and Times. p.44.* See, content, the soldier smiling
Round the vet'ran smoking crew To the eulogist of tobacco, who, on And the tar, the time beguiling, column 195 of your present volume, defies Sighs and whiffs, and thinks of Sue. " all daintie meats,” and
Calm the bosom ; naught distresses ;
Labour's harvest's pearly ripe ;кеерѕ his kitchen in a box,
Susan's health ;'--the brim he presses, And roast meat in a pipe,"
Here alone he quits his pipe. take as an antidote the following from Faithful still to every duty Peter Hausted's Raphael Thorius : Lon- Ne'er his faithful heart will roam; don, 1551.
Mines of wealth, and worlds of beauty,
Tempt him pot from Susan's home Let it be damn'd to Hell, and call'd from From his breast-wherever steering, thence,
Oft a sudden tear to wipe, Proserpine's wine, the Furies' frankincense, Susan's portrait, sorrow cheering, The Devil's addle eggs.
First he draws—and then his pipe ! Hawkins Brown, esq., parodying Am
Our immortal Byron, in his poem of brose Philips, writes thus prettily to his “ The Island," sings thus the praises of pipe :
« the Indian weed :”–
Though not less loved, in Wapping or the Strand ; * “The following commendation of Lilly is iserted under a curious frontispiece to his “Animo Astrologiæ," 1076, “ containing portraits of Cardan, Guido, and himself,
“ Let Envy burst-Vrania's glad to see
Divine in hookas, glorious in a pipe
If, Sir, you should deem this communi- Mary. At the conclusion o1 each of the cation worthy of your notice, I shall feel twelve psalms appointed for the service, inclined to pursue my researches farther; one of the yellow candles is extinguished, and, whatever the result, allow me in the till, the white taper burning alone, it is mean time to subscribe myself,
taken down and concealed behind the Your well-wisher, altar. Immediately after the ceremony,
Fumo. the Miserere, (Psalm 50.) set, every other P.S. Should you, Sir, burn this, the year, to a new strain of music, is sung in Roman adage, which I have used as my à grand style. This performance lasts motto, will be once more verified. exactly an hour. At the conclusion of
the last verse the clergy break up abruptly
without the usual blessing, making a thunNATURALISTS' CALENDAR. Mean Temperature ... 43. 44.
dering noise by clapping their movable seats against the frame of the stalls, or
knocking their ponderous breviaries March 22.
against the boards, as the rubric directs.* Passion Wednesday. In 1826, this being the Wednesday be
CHRONOLOGY. fore Easter, called Passion Wednesday, On the 22d of March, 1687, Jean is celebrated with great solemnity in ca- Baptiste Lully, the eminent musical comtholic countries. At Seville a white veil poser, died at Paris. He was born of ob. conceals the officiating priest and minis- scure parents at Florence, in 1634, and ters, during mass, until the words in the evincing a taste for music, a benevolent service the veil of the temple was rent cordelier, influenced by no other considerin twain” are chaunted. At this moment ation than the hope of his becoming emithe veil disappears, as if by enchantment, nent in the science, undertook to teach and the ears of the congregation are him the guitar. While under his tuition, stunned with the noise of concealed fire. a French gentleman, the chevalier Guise, works, which are meant to imitate an arrived at Florence, commissioned by earthquake.
Mlle. de Montpensier, niece to Louis The evening service, named Tinieblas, XIV., to bring her some pretty little (darkness) is performed this day after sun- Italian boy as a page. The countenance
The cathedral, on this occasion, ex- of Lully did not answer to the instructions, bibits the most solemn and impressive but his vivacity, wit, and skill on an instruaspect. The high altar, concealed behind ment, as much the favourite of the French dark grey curtains which fall from the as of the Italians, determined the chevalier height of the cornices, is dimly lighted to send him to Paris. On his arrival, he by six yellow wax candles, while the gloom was presented to the lady; but his figure of the whole temple is broken in large obtained for him so cool a reception, that masses by wax torches, fixed one on each she commanded him to be entered in her pillar of the centre aisle, about one-third household books as an under-scullion. of its length from the ground. An ele- Lully was at this time ten years old. In gant candlestick of brass, from fifteen to the moments of his leisure from the twenty feet high, is placed, on this and kitchen, he used to scrape upon a wretchthe following evening, between the choir ed fiddle. He was overheard by a perand the altar, holding thirteen candles, son about the court, who informed the twelve of yellow, and one of bleached princess he had an excellent taste for wax, distributed on the two sides of the music, and a master was employed to triangle which terminates the machine. teach him the violin, under whom in the Each candle stands by a brass figure of course of a few months, he became so one of the apostles. The white candle occupying the apex is allotted to the virgin * Doblado's Letters from Spain.
great a proficient, that he was elevated to excuses, Lully acquiesced, and pointing the rank of court-musician.
to a drawer in which the rough draft of quence of an unlucky accident he was “ Achilles and Polixenes" was deposited, dismissed from this situation ; but, obtain. it was taken out and burnt, and the coning admission into the king's band of vio- fessor went away satisfied.
Lully grew lins, he applied himself so closely to study, better and was thought out of danger, that in a little time he began to compose. when one of the young princes came to His airs were noticed by the king, Lully was visit him: “ What, Baptiste,” says he to sent for, and his performance of them was him,“ have you thrown your opera into thought so excellent, that a new band was the fire ? You were a fool for thus giving formed, called les petits violons, and un- credit
to a gloomy Jansenist, and burning der his direction it surpassed the band of good music.” “ Hush ! hush ! my lord,” twenty-four, till that time celebrated answered Lully, in a whisper, “I knew throughout Europe. This was about very well what I was about, I have anothe year 1660, when the favourite enter- ther copy of it!" This pleasantry was tainments at the French court were followed by a relapse; and the prospect dramatic representations, consisting of of inevitable death threw him into such dancing intermixed with singing and pangs of remorse, that he submitted to speaking in recitative; they were called be laid on ashes with a cord round his ballets, and to many of them Lully was neck; and, in this situation, he chaunted a employed in composing the music. deep sense of his late trangression.
In 1669, an opera in the French lan- Lully contributed greatly to the imguage, on the model of that at Venice, provement of French music. In his being established at Paris, Lully obtained overtures he introduced fugues, and was the situation of composer and joint direc- the first who, in the choruses, made use tor, left his former band, instituted one of of the side and kettle drums. It is diffihis own, and formed the design of build- cult to characterize his style, which seems ing a new theatre near the Luxemburg to have been derived from no other palace, which he accomplished, and source than his own invention. opened in November, 1670.
His compositions were chiefly operas Previous to this, Lully, having been and other dramatic entertainments, adaptappointed surperintendent to the king's ed to the desires of Louis XIV., who private music, had neglected the practice was fond of dancing, and had not taste of the violin; yet, whenever he could be for any music but airs, in the composition prevailed with to play, his excellence of which a stated number of bars was astonished all who heard him.
the chief rule to be observed. Of har. In 1686, the king recovering from an mony or fine melody, or of the relation indisposition that threatened his life, Lully between poetry and music, he seems to composed a “ Te Deum,” which was not have had no conception; and these were more remarkable for its excellence, than restraints upon Lully's talents. the unhappy accident with which its per- He is said to have been the inventor of formance was attended. In the prepara. that species of composition, the overture; tions for the execution of it, and the more for, though the symphonies or preludes to demonstrate his zeal, he himself beat of Carissimi, Colonna, and others, are, the time. With the cane that he used for in effect, overtures, yet they were compothis purpose, he struck his foot, which sitions of a mild and placid kind, wiile caused so much inflammation, that his Lully's are animated and full of energy.* physician advised him to have his little toe taken off ; and, after a delay of some days, Notwithstanding the character of his foot; and at length the whole limb. Lully's compositions, when unrestricted At this juncture, an empiric offered to by the royal command and the bad taste perform a cure without amputation. Two of the court, he was one day reproached thousand pistoles were promised him if with having set nothing to music but he should 'accomplish it, but his efforts languid verses. He few to his harpsiwere vain ; and Lully died.
chord, and wildly running over the Lully's consessor in his last illness re- keys, sung, with great violence of gesquired as a testimony of his sincere re- ture, the following terrific lines from pentance, and as the condition of his Racine's tragedy of " Iphigenie :" absolution, that he should throw the last of his operas into the fire. After some * Biograph. Dictionary of Musicians,
“ Un prêtre environne d'une foule cruelle ing. The key of the cathedral monument
Portera sur ma fille, une maine criminelle is intrusted to the archbishop, if present,
tioned structure, the “monument” in the When cardinal d'Estrees was at Rome, cathedral, is not easily conceived. It he highly praised Corelli's sonatas to that fills up the space between four arches of eminent composer. “Sir,” replied Co- the nave, rising in five bodies to the roof relli, “if they have any merit it is be- of the temple. The columns of the two cause I have studied 'Lully." Handel lower tiers, which, like the rest of the has imitated Lully in many of his over- monument, imitate white marble filletted tures, *
with gold, are hollow, allowing the nu
merous attendants who take care of the NATURALISTS' CALENDAR.
lights that cover it from the ground to the Mean Temperature ... 42.79.
very top, to do their duty during fourand-twenty hours, without any disturb
or unseemly bustle. More than
three thousand pounds of wax, besides March 23.
one hundred and sixty silver lamps, are employed in the illumination.
The gold casket set with jewels, which Shere Thursday.
contains the host, lies deposited in an These denominations have been suffi- elegant temple of massive silver, weighciently explained in vol. i. p. 400, with ing five hundred and ten marks, which is an account of the Maundy at the chapel
seen through a blaze of light on the pediroyal St. James's. The Romish church this ment of the monument. Two members day institutes certain ceremonies to come of the chapter in their choral robes, and memorate the washing of the disciples' their knees before the shrine, till they are
six inferior priests in surplices, attend on feet.
relieved by an equal number of the same Celebration of the day at Seville.
classes at the end of every hour. This The particulars of these solemnities adoration is performed without interrupare recorded by the rev. Blanco White. tion from the moment of depositing the
The ceremonies of the high mass, are host in the casket till that of taking it especially intended as a remembrance of out the next morning. The cathedral, the last supper, and the service, as it as well as many others of the wealthiest proceeds, rapidlyassumes the deepest churches, are kept open and illuminated hues of melancholy. The bells, in every the whole night. steeple, from one loud and joyous peal, One of the public sights of the town, cease at once, and leave a peculiar heavy on this day, is the splendid cold dinner stillness, which none can conceive but which the archbishop gives to twelve those who have lived in a populous paupers, in commemoration of the Spanish town long enough to lose the apostles. The dinner is to be seen laid sense of that perpetual tinkling which out on tables filling up two large rooms in agitates the ear during the day and great the palace. The twelve guests are compart of the night.
pletely clothed at the expense of their In every church a "host,” consecrated host; and having partaken of a more at the mass, is carried with great solem- homely dinner in the kitchen, they are nity to a teinporary structure, called the furnished with large baskets to take away monument, which is erected with more or the splendid commons allotted to each in less splendour, according to the wealth of separate dishes, which they sell to the the establishment. It is there deposited gourmands of the town. Each, besides, in a silver urn, generally shaped like a is allowed to dispose of his napkin, sepulchre, the key of which, hanging curiously made up into the figure of some from a gold in, is committed by the bird or quadruped, which people buy priest to the care of a chief inhabitant of as ornaments to their china cupboards, the parish, who wears it round his neck and as specimens of the perfection 10 as a badge of honour, till the next morn, which some of the poorer nuns have car
ried the art of plaiting. * Seward.
At two in the afternoon, the archbishop,
atteuded by his chapter, repairs to the dissembling colour:" to which Celia. cathedral, where he performs the cere
“ Something browner than mony, which, from the notion of its being Judas's.” literally enjoined by our saviour, is called The midnight procession derivez conthe mandatum. The twelve paupers are siderable effect from the stillness of the seated on a platform erected before the hour, and the dress of the attendants on high altar, and the prelate, stripped of his the sacred image. None are admitted to silk robes, and kneeling successively be- this religious act but the members of that fore each, washes their feet in a large fraternity; _generally young men of silver bason.
fashion. They all appear in a black About this time the processions, known tunic, with a broad belt so contrived as to by the name of cofradias, (confraterni. give the idea of a long rope tied tight ties) begin to move out of the different round the body; a method of penance churches to which they are attached. The commonly practised in former times. The head of the police appoints the hour face is covered with a long black veil
, when each of these pageants is to appear falling from a sugar-loaf cap three feet in the square of the town hall, and the high. Thus arrayed, the nominal peniaudiencia or court of justice. From tents advance, with silent and measured thence their route to the cathedral, and steps, in two lines, dragging a train six out of it, to a certain point, is the same feet long, and holding aloft a wax-candle for all. These streets are lined by two of twelve pounds, which they rest upon rows of spectators of the lower classes, the hip-bone, holding it obliquely towards the windows being occupied by those of the vacant space between them. The a higher rank. An order is previously veils, being of the same stuff with the published by the town-crier, directing cap and tunic, would absolutely impede the inhabitants to decorate their windows, the sight but for two small holes through which they do by hanging out the showy which the eyes are seen to gleam, adding silk and chintz counterpanes of their no small effect to the dismal appearance beds. As to the processions themselves, of such strange figures. The pleasure of except one which has the privilege of appearing in a disguise, in a country parading the town in the dead of night, where masquerades are not tolerated by they have little to attract the eye or affect the government, is a great inducement, the imagination. Their chief object is to to the young men for subscribing to this convey groups of figures, as large as life, religious association. The disguise, it is representing different of our true, does not in the least relax the rules saviour's passion.
of strict decorum which the ceremony reThere is something remarkable in the quires; yet the mock penitents think established and characteristic marks of themselves repaid for the fatigue and some figures. The Jews are distinguished trouble of the night by the fresh impresby long aquiline noses. Saint Peter is sion which they expect to make on the completely bald. The dress of the already won hearts of their mistresses, apostle John is green, and that of Judas who, by preconcerted signals, are enabled Iscariot yellow; and so intimately asso- to distinguish their lovers, in spite of the ciated is this circumstance with the idea veils and the uniformity of the dresses. of the traitor, that it has brought that It is scarcely forty years since the discolour into universal discredit. It is gusting exhibitiou of people streaming in probably from this circumstance, (though their own blood, was discontinued by an yellow may have been allotted to Judas order of the government. These penifrom some more ancient prejudice,) that tents were generally from among the the inquisition has adopted it for the most debaucked and abandoned of the sanbenito, or coat of infamy, which per: lower classes. They appeared in white sons convicted of heresy are compelled linen petticoats, pointed white caps and to wear. The red hair of Judas, like veils, and a jacket of the same colour, Peter's baldness, seems to be agreed upon which exposed their naked shoulders to by all the painters and sculptors in view. Having, previous to their joining Europe. Judas' hair is a usual name in the procession, been scarified on the Spain; and a similar application, it back, they beat themselves with a cat-o'should seem, was used in England in nine-tails, making the blood run down to Shakspeare's time. “ His hair,” says the skirts of their garment. It may be Rosalind, in As you like it, “ js of the easily conceived that religion had no