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share in these voluntary inflictions. They carry away what they cannot eat,
There was a notion afloat, that this act of and receive a small present in money
penance had an excellent effect on the besides."
constitution.*

NATURALISTS' CALENDAR.
Mean Temperature .

43 · 15. The pope commemorates the washing

March 24. of the disciples' feet by officiating in person. A modern traveller who was pre

Good FRIDAY. sent at the ceremony says, “There were This annual commemoration is the thirteen instead of twelve; the one being only one observed in England, with the the representative of the angel that once exception of Christmas, by the suspension came to the table of_twelve that St. Gre- of all business, and the closing of shops. gory was serving. The twelve were old The late bishop Porteus having particupriests, but the one who performed the larly insisted on this method of keeping part of the angel was very young. They Good Friday, the reverend Robert Robinwere all dressed in loose white gowns, son of Cambridge wrote a remarkable and white caps on their heads, and clean pamphlet, entitled, “The History and woollen stockings, and were seated in a Mystery of Good Friday," wherein he row along the wall, under a canopy. urges various statements and arguments When the pope entered and took h's seat against the usage. This tract has been at the top of the room, the whole com- published from time to time by Mr. pany of them knelt in their places, turn- Benjamin Flower. The controversy is ing towards him; and on his hand being referred to, because the writings of the extended in benediction, they all rose bishop and his opponent state the grounds again and reseated themselves. The on both sides. It is to be remarked splendia garments of the pope were then likewise, that several dissenters openly taken off; and clad in a white linen robe engage in their usual avocations, contrary which he had on under the others, and to the general practice, which does not wearing the bishop's mitre instead of the appear to be enforced by the church of tiara, be approached the pilgrims, took England, farther than by notices through from an attendant cardinal a silver bucket the parochial beadle and other officers. of water, knelt before the first of them,

Hot-cross Buns. immersed one foot in the water, put water over it with his hand, and touched buns," and the custom of eating them

On the popular cry of “ hot-cross it with a square fringed cloth; kissed the leg, and gave the cloth, and a sort of to-day, there are particulars in vol

. i. p. white hower or feather, to the man; then ancient name and use of the bun, a few

402 ; and in the illustration of the went on to the next. The whole cere interesting passages are added. mony was over, I think, in less than two minutes, so rapidly was this act of hu- used to present to the gods, were gene

offerings which people in ancient times mility gone through. From thence the pope returned to his throne, put on his rally purchased at the entrance of the robes of white and silver again, and pro- secrated bread, which was denominated

temple; especially every species of conceeded to the Sala di Tavola : the thirteen priests were seated in a row at the bread which used to be offered to the

accordingly. One species of sacred table, which was spread with a variety of dishes, and adorned with a profusion of boun. The Greeks, who changed the nu

gods, was of great antiquity, and called flowers. The pope gave the blessing, final into a sigma, expressed it in the and walking along the side of the table nominative Bous, but in the accusative opposite to them, handed each of them bread, then plates, and lastly, cups of of the boun, and describes it a kind of

more truly boun, Bovv. Hesychius speaks wine. They regularly all rose up to re- cake with a representation of two horns. ceive what he presented ; and the pope Julius Pollux mentions it after the saine having gone through the forms of service, manner, a sort of cake with horns. and given them

his parting benediction, Diogenes Laertius, speaking of the same left them to finish their dinner in peace. offering being made by Emperocles, de

“ The

• Doblado's Letters,

• Rome in the Nineteenth Century.

scribes the chief ingredients of which it St. Bridget, they being desirous to know was composed :-he offered up one of something in particular of the blessed the sacred libra, called a boun, which passion of our Lord and Saviour Jesus was made of fine flour and honey.' It Christ. is said of Cecrops, he first offered up this “First, I received 30 cuffs ; 2dly, when sort of sweet bread. Hence we may judge I was apprehended in the garden, I reof the antiquity of the custom, from the ceived 40 blows: 3dly, I journeying to times to which Cecrops is referred. The Annas's house, got 7 falls : 4thly, they prophet Jeremiah takes notice of this gave me 444 blows of whips upon my kind of offering when he is speaking of shoulders : 5thly, they raised me up from the Jewish women at Pathros, in Egypt, the ground, by the hair of the head, 330 and of their base idolatry; in all which times : 6thly, they gave me 30 blows their husbands had encouraged them: against my teeth : 7thly, I have breathed the women, in their expostulation upon 8888 sighs: 8thly, they drew me by my his rebuke, tell him, “Did we make her beard 35 times : 9thly, I received one cakes to worship her? &c. Jer. xliv. 18, mortal wound at the foot of the cross : 19. Ib. vii. 18.*".

10th, 666 blows they gave me when I was bound to the pillar of stone : 11th,

they set a crown of thorns upon my head: Irish Custom.

12th, they have spitted at me 63 times : In the midland districts of Ireland, viz. 13th, the soldiers gave me 88 blows of the province of Connaught, on Good whips : 14th, they gave me gall and Friday, it is a common practice with the vinegar to drink : 15th, when I hanged lower orders of Irish catholics to prevent

on the cross I received five mortal wounds. their young from having any sustenance,

“All men or women that will say seven even to those at the breast, from twelve paters, seven aves, and a creed daily, in on the previous night to twelve on Friday honour of the blessed passion of our Lord night, and the fathers and mothers will and Saviour Jesus Christ, for the space of only take a small piece of dry bread and 15 years, they shall obtain five graces : a draught of water during the day. It is first, they shall receive plenary indulgence a common sight to see along the roads will not suffer the pains of purgatnry;

and remission of their sins; 2dly, they between the different market towns, numbers of women with their hair dishevelled, 3dly, if it happen that they die before 15 barefooted, and in their worst garments; well as if they had suffered martyrdom;

be ended, they shall obtain grace as all this is in imitation of Christ's passion.t Athly, in point of death, I will not come

myself alone, to receive his own soul, but In Ireland, as a catholic country, ex

also his parents, if they be in purgatory; cessive attention prevails to the remark- finally, I will convert them into everlastable instances in the passion of Christ, ing bliss. which terminated in the crucifixion; and

* This revelation hath those virtues, that a revelation from Christ himself, to three whosoever shall carry it about him, shall puns canonized by the Romisk church, be free from his enemies, neither will he has been devised to heighten the fervour die of any sudden death; and if there be of the ignorant. The Irish journals of any woman with child, that carry this 1770, contain the copy of a singular revelation about her, she shall feel no pain paper said to have been sold to devotees in child-birth; and in whatsoever part of at a high price, viz.

the house this revelation shall lye, it shall H

not be infected with any contagious disIS

eases, or any other evil: and whosoever HOLY JUBILEE, 1770.

shall carry it about hini, the glorious virgin Mary will show herself to him 46 days before his death."

H “This revelation was made by themouth

IS of our Lord Jesus Christ, to those three saints, viz. St. Elizabeth, St. Clare, and

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• Bryant's Analysis.
+ Communicated by T. A.

The custom of preaching at St. Paul's pas, one of the sheriffs, in the year 1439, cross on Good Friday and other holidays, the eighteenth of Henry VII., gave twenty and some account of the cross itself is shillings a year to the three preachers at communicated in the following letter of a the Spital. Stephen Foster, mayor, in the correspondent, who will be recognised by year 1454, gave forty shillings to the his initials to have been a contributor of preachers of Paul's cross and Spital. Opformer interesting articles.

posite the pulpit at the Spital, was a To the Editor of the Every-Day Book.

handsome house of two stories high, for Kennington, March 10, 1826. the mayor, aldermen, sheriffs, and other Sir,—The following account of a ser- persons of distinction, to sit in, to hear mon, annually preached on Good Friday the sermons preached in the Easter holiat St. Paul's cross, with a brief notice of days; in the part above, stood the bishop that structure, will I hope be considered of London and other prelates. worthy preservation in your valuable mis- In foul and rainy weather, these solemn cellany.

sermons were preached in a place called It was, for a considerable period, a cus- the shrowds, which was by the side of tom on Good Friday in the afternoon, for the cathedral church under covering, but some learned man, by appointment of open in front.— Ellis's St. Paul's Cathethe bishop, to preach a sermon at Paul's dral, p. 52. cross, which was situated in the midst of For the maintenance of these St. Paul's the churchyard on the north side towards cross sermons, many of the citizens were the east end. The sermon generally liberal benefactors; as Aylmer, bishop of treated of Christ's passion; and upon the London, the countess dowager of Shrewsensuing Monday, Tuesday, and Wednes- bury, Thomas Russell, George Bishop, day in Easter week, other learned men

who

gave ten pounds a year, &c.; and for used to preach in a similar pulpit, at the further encouragement of those preachers, Spital, now the Old Artillery Ground, in the year 1607, the lord mayor and Spitalfields; the subject of their discoursé court of aldermen then ordered, “ that was the articles of Christ's resurrection, every one that should preach there, conThen, on Low Sunday, another divine was sidering the journies some of them might at Paul's cross, to make a rehearsal of the lake from the universities, or elsewhere, four former sermons, either commending should at his pleasure be freely enteror disproving them as in his judgment he tained, for five days space, with sweet and thought fit; all this done, (which by the convenient lodging, fire, candle, and all by was no easy task,) he was to make a other necessaries, viz. from Thursday be. sermon himself, which in all were five fore their day of preaching, to Thursday sermons in one. At these sermons, so morning following." This provision had severally preached, the mayor, with his a good effect, and the custom continued brethren the aldermen, were accustomed to for some time, added to which the bishop be present in their “violets," at St. Paul's of London, or his chaplain, when he on Good Friday, and in their “ scarlets," sent to any one to preach, signified the both they and their ladies, at the Spital, place whither he might sojourn at his in the holidays, except Wednesday in coming up, and be entertained freely. violet; and the mayor, with his brethren, Towards this charge of the city, George on Low Sunday, in scarlet, at Paul's cross. Palin, a merchant of London, gave two Since the Restoration these sermons were

hundred pounds to defray expenses. continued, by the name of the Spital ser- At some future time a few observations mons, at St. Bride's, with the like so- on crosses will be introduced ; at present lemnity, on Easter Monday, Tuesday, I shall confine myself to the history of St. and Wednesday, every year.

Paul's cross, which was used, not only Respecting the antiquity of this custom, for the instruction of mankind by the I learn from Maitland, that, in the year doctrine of the preacher, but for every 1398, king Richard having procured from purpose, political or ecclesiastical; for Rome confirmation of such statutes and giving force to oaths; for promulgating ordinances as were made in the parlia- laws; or rather, the royal pleasure; for ment begun at Westminster and ended at the emission of papal bulls; for anatheShrewsbury, he caused the same confirma- matizing sinners; for benedictions; for tion to be read and pronounced at Paul's exposing penitents under censure of the cross, and at St. Mary, Spital, in the ser- church ; for recantations; for the private mons before all the people. Philip Mal. ends of the ambitious; and for defaming

those who had incurred the displeasure and difficulty, added to which, space of the crown. Pennant, 4to. 394.

could not be well spared in a work of To enter minutely into all the events the present nature. I shall therefore connected with the history of this cross only notice some of the most remarkable would be a work of considerable labour that occur in history.

[graphic]

Sermon at St. Paul's Cross on Good Friday. This cross was strongly built of timber, St. Paul's cursed at the cross all those mounted upon steps of stone, and covered which had searched in the church of St. with lead. The earliest mention of Martin in the Fields for a hoard of gold, it occurs in the year 1259, when king &c. Henry III. commanded a general assem- This pulpit cross was by tempest of bly to be made at the cross, where he in lightning and thunder, much defaced person commanded the mayor that on the Thomas Kempe, bishop of London, from morrow he should cause to be sworn be- 28 Hen. VI. to 5 Hen. VII., new built fore the alderman, every youth of twelve the pulpit and cross. years of age or upward, to be true to the The following is curious :king and his heirs kings of England. In “ On the 8th day of March, 1555, the same year Henry III. caused to be while a doctor preached at the cross, a read at this cross a bull obtained from man did penance for transgressing Lent, pope Urban IV. as an absolution for him holding two pigs ready drest, whereof and for all that were sworn to maintain one was upon his head, having brought the articles made in the parliament at them to sell."- [Strype's Ecclesiastical Oxford. In the year 1299, the dean of Memorials. 1

Before this cross, in 1483, was brought, zens, in their best liveries. Which sermon divested of all her splendour, Jane Shore, being ended, upon the church leades the charitable, the merry concubine of the trumpets sounded, the cornets winded, Edward IV., and after his death, of his and the quiristers sung an antheme. On favourite the unfortunate lord Hastings. the steeple many lights were burned : the After the loss of her protectors, she fell a Tower shot off her ordinance, the bels victim to the malice of the crook-backed were rung, bonefires made," &c.—[Stow's tyrant Richard III. He was disappointed Annals, p. 770.] (by her excellent defence) of convicting Pennant says, the last sermon which her of witchcraft, and confederating with was preached at this place was before her lover to destroy him. He then at- James I., who came in great state from tacked her on the side of frailty. This Whitehall, on Midlent Sunday, 1620 ; was undeniable. He consigned her to but Mr. Ellis, the learned and indethe severity of the church: she was fatigable editor of the new edition of carried to the bishop's palace, clothed in Dugdale's “ History of St. Paul's Cathea white sheet, with a taper in her hand, dral,” says, there is a sermon in print, and from thence conducted to the cathe entitled, “ The White Wolfe, preached at dral, and the cross, before which she made Paul's Crosse, February 11, 1627 ;” and a confession of her only fault. “ In her according to the continuator of “Stow's penance she went,” says Holinshed,“ in Annals,” Charles I.

, on the 30th of May, countenance and pase demure, so wo. 1630, having attended divine service in manlie, that albeit she were out of all the cathedral, “ went into a roome, and araie, save her kirtle onlie, yet went she heard the sermon at Paule's Crosse.”so faire and lovelie, namelie, while the [Stow's Annals, p. 1045.] woondering of the people cast a comelie Thus this cross stood till it was demorud in hir cheeks (of whiche she before lished, in 1643, by order of parliament, had most misse), that hir great shame executed by the willing hands of Isaac was hir much praise among those that Pennington, the fanatical lord mayor of were more amorous of hir bodie than London for that year, who died in the curious of hir soule. And manie good Tower a convicted regicide. folkes that hated hir living (and glad The engraving at the head of this artiwere to see sin corrected), yet pitied they cle is from a drawing in the Pepysian more hir penance than rejoised therin, library, and appears to have been the when they considered that the Protector same that was erected circa 1450. procured it more of a corrupt intent, than There is a large painting of this cross anie virtuous affection.” [Hardyng's as it appeared on Sunday, 26th of March, Chron. 4to. Lond. 1812. p. 499.] She 1620, when King James I., his queen, lived to a great age, but in great distress Charles, prince of Wales, che archbishop and poverty; deserted even by those to of Canterbury, &c. attended with their whom she had, during prosperity, done court. It has been engraved in Wilkinthe most essential services.

son's “ Londina Illustrata." In 1538,“ The 24th of February being

I am, Sir, &c. &c. Suvday, the Rood of Boxeley, in Kent,

Τ. Α. called the “Rood of Grace,' made with divers vices, to move the eyes and lips,

Good Friday at Lisbon. was shewed at Pawie's Cross by the To a protestant, the observance of this preacher, which was the bishop of Ro- holiday in catholic countries is especially chester, and there it was broken and remarkable. In 1768, the late rev. plucked to pieces." — [Stow's Annals, George Whitefield published "AnAccount p. 575.]

of some Lent and other Extraordinary “On the 17th of November, 1595, a Processions and Ecclesiastical Entertainday of great triumph for the long and ments seen at Lisbon; in four Letters to prosperous raigne of her majestie (queen an English Friend." Very early in the Elizabeth) at London, the pulpit crosse in morning of Good Friday, he had gone on Pawle's churchyard was new repayred, board a vessel at Bellem for the purpose painted, and partly inclosed with a wal of sailing, but the wind dying away he of bricke: Doctour Fletcher, bishop of returned ashore.

“ But how was the London, preached there in prayse of the scene changed ! Before, all used to be queene, and prayer for her majestie, be- noise and hurry; now all was bushed and fore the lord mayor, aldermen, and citi- shut up in the most awful and profound

VOL. II.-66.

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