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would take in passing from the heated clothed, than when they were put in body into our bodies. In consequence bare: the heat actually applied to the of this compound limitation of our re- greatest part of their bodies was consisisting power, we bear very different derably less in the first case than in the degrees of beat in different mediums. last. As animals can destroy only a The same person who felt no inconve- certain quantity of heat in a given time, nience from air heated to 211 deg. could so the time they can continue the full not bear quicksilver at 120 deg. and exertion of this destroying power seems could just bear rectified spirit of wine to be also limited ; which may be one at 130 deg. that is, quicksilver heated to reason why we can bear for a certain 120 deg. furnished, in a given time, more time, and much longer than can be peheat for the living powers to destroy, cessary to fully heat the cuticle, a degree than spirits heated to 130 deg. or air io of heat which will at length prove in211 deg. And we had, in the heated tolerable. Probably both the power of room where our experiments were made, destroying heat, and the time for which a striking, though familiar instance of it can be exerted, may be increased, the same. All the pieces of metal there, like most other faculties of the body, by even our watch-chains, felt so hot that frequent exercise. It might be partly we could scaicely bear to touch them on this principle, that, in M. Tillet's exfor a moment, whilst the air, from which periments, the girls, who had been used the metal had derived all its heat, was to attend the oven, bore, for ten minutes, only unpleasant.
The slowness with an heat which would raise Fahrenheit's which air communicates its heat was thermometer to 280 deg. In our expefurther shown, in a remarkable manner, riments, however, not one of us thought by the thermometers we brought with he suffered the greatest degree of heat us into the room; none of which, at the that he was able to support.* end of twenty minutes, in the first experiment, had acquired the real heat of
We find then, that Dr. Fordyce, Dr. the air by several degrees. It might be Blagden, Dr. Solander, the honourable supposed, that by an action so very dif- captain "Phipps, sir Joseph Banks, to. ferent from that to which we are ac. gether, bore the heat at 198 deg.; that customed, as destroying a large quantity Dr. Solander went into the room at 210, of heat, instead of generating it, we sir Joseph Banks at 211; and that M. must have been greatly disordered. And Tillet's oven-girls bore a heat for ten indeed we experienced some inconve- minutes which would raise the thernience; our hands shook very much, mometer to 280 deg., being 60 deg. and we felt a considerable degree of higher than M. Chabert bore for ten languor and debility; I had also a noise minutes at White Conduit-house. Reand giddiness in my head. But it was
cent experiments in England fully coronly a small part of our bodies that ex
roborate the experiments referred to; cited the power of destroying heat with and, in short, an extension of our knowsuch a violent effort as seems necessary ledge in philosophical works will outjugat first sight. Our clothes, contrived to gle jugglers of every description. guard us from cold, guarded us from the heat on the same principles. Underneath we were surrounded with an at
NATURALISTS' CALENDAR. mosphere of air, cooled on one side to Mean Temperature ...58 · 70. 98 deg. by being in contact with our bodies, and on the other side heated very slowly, because woollen is such a bad
June 8. conductor of heat. Accordingly I found, toward the end of the first experiment,
FIGG, THE PRIZE FIGHTER. that a thermometer put under my clothes,
A printed advertisement from this but not in contact with my skin, sunk
“ early master" in the " noble art of selfdown to 110 deg. On this principle it defence,” in answer to a challenge from was that the animals, subjected by M. the anciently-noted Sutton, with the chalTillet to the interesting experiments re
lenge itself, being before the editor in lated in the “ Memoirs of the Academy
the shape of a small hand-bill, printed of Sciences” for the year 1764, bore the oven so much better when they were
• Piilos. Trans.
at the time wherein they “Aourished," wherein these self-styled heroes anit is submitted verbatim, as the first spe- nounced their exhibitions " for the becimen in these pages of the manner nefit of the public."
At Mr. FIGG's New Amphitheatre. Joyning to his House, the Sign of the City of Oxford, in Oxford
Road, Marybone Fields, on Wednesday next, being the 8th of
Hereas I EDWARD SUTTON, Pipemaker from Gravesend, and Kentish Pretence been deny'd a Combat by and with the Extollid Mr. FIGG; which I take to be occasioned through fear of his having that Glory Eclipsed by me, wherewith the Eyes of all Spectators have been so much dazzled : Therefore, to make appear, that the great Applause which has so much puff'd up this Hero, has proceeded only from his Foyling such who are not worthy the name of Swordsmen, as also that he may be without any farther Excuse ; 1 do hereby dare the said Mr. FIGG to meet as above, and dispute with me the Superiority of Judg. ment in the Sword, (which will best appear by Cuts, 8c.) at all the Weapons he is or shall be then Capable of Performing on the Stage.
JAMES FIGG, Oxonian Professor of the said Science, will not fail giving this
daring Kentish Champion an Opportunity to make good his Allegations; when, it is to be hop'd, if he finds himself Foyl'd he will then change his Tone, and not think himself one of the Number who are not worthy the Name of Swordsmen, as he is pleased to signifie by his Expression: However, as the most significant Way of deciding these Controversies is by Action, I shall defer what I have farther to Act till the Time above specified; when I shall take care not to deviate from my usual Custom, in making all such Bravadoes sensible of their Error, as also in giving all Spectators intire Satisfaction. N.B. The Doors will be open'd at Four, and the Masters mount between Six, and Seven txactly.
NATURALISTS' CALENDAR. all that period without incurring the Mean Temperature . . 59 • 52. odious imputation of having a taste for
trees and turf, has now suddenly started
into vogue once more, and you may June 9.
walk there, even during the “morning"
part of a Sunday afternoon, with perfect THE SEASON, IN LONDON.
impuvity, always provided you pay a Now, during the first fortnight, Ken- due deference to the decreed hours, aud sington Gardens is a place not to be never make your appearance there paralleled: for the unfashionable por- earlier than twenty minutes before five, tion of my readers are to know, that this or later than half-past six; which is al. delightful spot, which has been utterly lowing you exactly two hours after deserted during the last age (of seven breakfast to dress for the Promenade, years), and could not be named during and an hour after you get home to do
the same for dinner: little enough, it lines, announcing that the “ ensuing va.
footstool of the Most High*.
TWILIGHT confessed. But they are unique in their How fine to view the Sun' departing ray way nevertheless. Seen in the darkness Fling back a lingering lovely after-day; of noonday, as one passes by them on
The moon of summer glides serenely by, the top of the Portsmouth coach, they These, sweetly mingling, pour upon the
And sheds a light enchantment o'er the sky cut a sorry figure enough. But beneath
sight the full meridian of midnight, what is
A pencilled shadowing, and a dewy lightlike them, except some parts of the A softened day, a half unconscious night. Arabian Nights' Entertainments? Now, Alas! too finely pure on earth to stay, after the first few nights, they begin to It faintly spots the hill, and dies away. be in their glory, and are, on every suc
J. W. cessive gala, illuminated with “ ten thousand additional lamps," and include THE WATER FOUNTAIN. all the particular attractions of every preceding gala since the beginning of
It seems seasonable to introduce an time!
engraving of a very appropriate ornaNow, on fine evenings, the sunshine ment of a shop window, which will not finds (or rather, loses) its way into the surprise any one so much as the progalleries of Summer theatres at whole prietor, who, whatever may be thought price, and wonders where it has got to.
to the contrary, is wholly unknown to Now, boarding-school boys, in the the editor of this work. purlieus of Paddington and Mile End,
As a summer decoration, there is einploy the whole of the first week in scarcely any thing prettier than this writing home to their distant friends in little fountain. Gilt fish on the edge London a letter of not less than eight
• Mirror of the Months.
of the lower basin spout jets of water This representation exemplifies the into the upper one, wbich constantly rivalry of London tradesmen to attract overflows, and, washing the moss on its attention. Their endeavours bave not stand, falls into its first receiver. These attained the height they are capable of vessels are of glass, and contain live fish; reaching, but the beautiful forms and and on the surface of the larger, white graceful displays contjuually submitted waxen swans continue in gentle motion. to the sight of passengers, evince a Vases of flowers and other elegancies dispuoltion which renders our shops the are its surrounding accompaniments. nost elegant in Europe.
“ House of God," erected by Roger Mean Temperature ...59. 15.
Thornton, on the Sandhill
, Newcastle, for the purpose of providing certain persons with food and clothing. The
building seems to have been completed June 10.
in that year. Before it was pulled down House of God, Newcastle.
in 1823, the “ Merchant's Court" was
established over it, and at this time a On the 10th of June, 1412, King
new building for the company of Free Henry IV. granted his royal license to Merchants
, &c., is erected on its site. an hospital called the Maison de Dieu, The son of the founder of the old hospital granted the use of its hall and ing into disuse, as a scene of mirth and kitchen“ for a young couple when revelry, from the want of being duly they were married to make their wed. encouraged and partaken in by the great ding dinner in, and receive the offerings ones of the earth ; without whose counand gifts of their friends, for at that time tenance and example it is questionable houses were not large." Mr. Sykes, in whether eating, drinking, and sleeping, his interesting volume of “ Local Re- would not soon become vulgar practices, cords," remarks, that “ this appears an and be discontinued accordingly! In a ancient custom for the encouragement state of things like this, the Holkham of matrimony."
and Woburn sheep-shearings do more
honour to their promoters than all their NATURALISTS' CALENDAR.
wealth can purchase and all their titles Mean Temperature ...59 • 37.
convey. But we are getting beyond our soundings: honours, titles, and “states
of things," are what we do not pretend June 11.
to meddle with, especially when the BLESSINGS OF INSTRUCTION,
pretty sights and sounds preparatory to
and attendant ou sheep-shearing, as a Hast thou e'er seen a garden clad In all the robes that Eden had;
mere rural employment, are waiting to Or vale o'erspread with streams and trees,
be noticed. A paradise of mysteries;
Now, then, on the first really sumPlains with green hills adorning them, mer's day, the whole flock being colLike jewels in a diadem ?
lected on the higher bank of the pool These gardens, vales, and plains, and hills, formed at the abrupt winding of the Which beauty gilds and music fills,
nameless mill-streamn, at the point, perWere once but deserts. Culture's hand haps, where the little wooden bridge Has scattered verdure o'er the land, runs slantwise across it, and the attendAnd smiles and fragrance rule serene, ants being stationed waist-deep in the Where barren wild usurped the scene. midwater, the sheep are, after a silent Add such is man-A soil which breeds but obstinate struggle or two, plunged Or sweeetest flowers, or vilest weeds; headlong, one by one, from the preciFlowers lovely as the morning's light, pitous bank; when, after a moment of Weeds deadly as an aconite;
confused splashing, their heavy fleeces Just as his heart is trained to bear
float them along, and their feet, moving The poisonous weed, or dow'ret fair.
by an instinctive art which every creaBowring. ture but
man possesses, guide them
towards the opposite shallows, that NATURALISTS CALENDAR.
steam and glitter in the sunshine. Mid. Mean Temperature . . .58 · 75. way, however, they are fain to submit
to the rude grasp of the relentless June 12.
washer, which they undergo with as ill
a grace as preparatory schoolboys do Tue Season, IN THE COUNTRY.
the same operation. Then, gaining the Sheep-Shearing.
opposite shore heavily, they stand for a Sheep-shearing, one of the great rural moment till the weight of water leaves labours of this delightful month, if not them, and, shaking their streaming sides, so full of variety as the hay-harvest, and go bleating away towards their fellows so creative of matter for those “ in search on the adjacent green, wondering within of the picturesque" (though it is scarcely themselves what has happened. less so), is still more lively, animated, The shearing is no less lively and picand spirit-stirring; and it besides re- turesque, and no less attended by all the tains something of the character of a idlers of the village as spectators. The rural holiday, which rural matters need, shearers, seated in rows beside the in this age and in this country, more crowded pens, with the seemingly inthan ever they did, since it became a animate load of fleece in their laps, and civilized and happy one. The sheep- bending intently over their work; the shearings are the only stated periods of occasional whetting and clapping of the the year at which we hear of festivities, shears; the neatly-attired housewives, and gatherings together of the lovers waiting to receive the fleeces; the smoke and practisers of English husbandry; for from the tar-kettle, ascending through even the harvest-home itself is fast sink- the clear air; the shorn sheep escaping,