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Now all are gathered round in silence deep,
Brings forth the gem that gladdens some one's eye,
“ Also that (the feoffees) their heirs or NATURALISTS' CALENDAR.
assignes shall lykewise yerelie, for ever, Mean Temperature, :,.. 58: 62.
after the deceasse of the said Thomas Oken, distribute, or cause to be distributed,
and paide, out of the yerelie revenewes June 24.
of the forsaid lands and teneme'tes, to
and amongest the neyhgboures of the bonSt. John's Day,
fire of the said T. O., w'thin the High Midsummer Day.
payv’ment Warde in the said towne of There are several interesting notices of Warwick, towe shillinges of lawfull usages on this day and midsummer-eve, of lawfull englysshe money, to be paid by
englysshe money, and thre shillings more in vol. i. from col. 825 to 855. account of the “old London watch” there equall porcions, to and amongest the cited, from “ Stow's Survey,” should be neyhboures of the other thre bonfyres, added from Mr. Douce's notes, quoted by beinge w'thin the said ward of the high Mr. Brand, that the watch '« was laid pay’ment, to make merry w't all, at there down in the twentieth year of Henry
said bonfyres, yff'any be in the vigilles or VIII;" and that “ the chronicles of Stow daies of seynt John Baptist and seynt and Byddel assign the sweating sickness Peter; and yff they have noe bonfires, as a cause for discontinuing the watch.” that then the same to be ymployed to Mr. Douce adds, that “ Niccols says the some other good use or uses, as to them watches on midsummer and St. Peter's shal be thought metest and convenient.' eve were laid down by licence from the king,. 'for that the cittie had then bin
The same gentleman quotes and refers charged with the leavie of a muster of to the following illustration of the day :15,000 men.'
“ It was the 24 June, (at Lüdingen in
Norway on the confines of Lapland) the WARWICK BONFIRES.
festival of St. John the Baptist; and the
people flocked from all quarters to sport A large paper copy of Brand's “ Popu- the whole night round a blazing fire, lar Antiquities," with MS. notes upon it kindled on the top of an adjacent hill : a by a gentleman of great reputation as an practice common about the time of the antiquary, and who has publicly distin. solstice, to the whole of the Gothic tribes, guished himself by erudite dissertations being a vestige of that most ancient woron certain usages of ancient times, was ship of the resplendent image of the some time ago most obligingly forwarded divinity, the glorious luminary of day.” by that gentleman to the editor of the -- Edinburgh Review, October, 1813, Every-Day Book, with permission to use Art. Von Buch's Travels in Norway and the valuable manuscript additions. His
Lapland. therto it happened, from peculiar circumstances, that the advantage has not been available, but this and future sheets will
The Cow-Mass be enriched from that source.
At Dunkirk. tleman referred to cites from_“ an In The emperor Charles V. found it expedenture of covenant between Thomas Oken dient to exhibit to the turbulent inhabof Warwick and his twelve feoflees, itants of Dụnkirk, a show called the Cowdated the 20th of January, 13 Elizabeth, mass, on St. John's-day. Whether it has (1571,) the following clause :
been resumed is uncertain, but in 1789 it
was described to have been represented at and on the uppermost stage but that time in the following manner : were two figures, representing Adam and
The morning is ushered in by the merry Eve, and several winged angels, in white peals of the corillons, or bell-playing. The flowing garments. On the uppermost streets are very early lined with soldiers ; stage was one figure only, to represent and, by eight o'clock, every house-top and God, on whom all the eyes of the lower window is filled with spectators, at least figures were directed, with looks of adoforty thousand exclusive of inhabitants. ration and humility; this machine was
About ten o'clock, after high mass at drawn by horses. the great church, the show begins, by the Next 'followed an enormous figure to the townsmen being classed according to represent Hell. It was something like an the different trades, walking two and two, elephant, with a large head and eyes, each holding a burning wax candle, and and a pair of horns, on which several at least a yard long, and each dressed not little devils, or rather boys dressed like in their best apparel, but in the oldest and devils, were sitting; the monster oddest fashion of their ancestors.
hollow within, and the lower jaw was After the several companies is a pageant movable, by moving of which it frecontaining an emblematical represent- quently exhibited the inward contents, ation of its trade, and this pageant is fol. which was filled wi full-grown devils, lowed by patron saints, most of which are who poured out liquid fire from the of solid silver adorned with jewels. Bands“.
"jaws of hell.” At the same time, the of music, vocal and instrumental, attend figure was surrounded by a great number the companies, the chorusses of which are of external devils dressed in crape, with very solemn.
hideous masks and curled tails. Then followed the friars and regular Between the figures which represented clergy, two and two, in the habits of their “heaven” and “hell,” several young ladies different orders, slow in their motion, and passed with wreaths of Aowers on their with the appearance of solemn piety. heads, and palms in their hands, riding
Then came the abbot in a most magnifi- in elegant carriages. After Hell followed cent dress, richly adorned with silver and old Lucifer himself, armed with a pitchgold, his train supported by two men in fork, and leading St. Michael the archthe dress of cardinals. The host was borne angel in chains. Michael and Lucifer before him by an old white-bearded man were followed by a person dressed in a of a most venerable aspect, surrounded kind of harlequin's coat hung round with by a great number of boys in white sur. bells, holding a hoop in his hands, through plices, who strewed frankincense and which he frequently jumped, and showed myrrh under his feet; and four men sup- many other feats of activity ; but what, ported a large canopy of wrought silver . or who he represented I cannot say (exover his head, while tour others sustained cept it were a fool). a large silver lantern, with a light in it Then came a grand carriage, covered at the end of a pole.
with a superb canopy, from the middle They then proceeded to the bottom of of which hung a little dove; under the the street, where there was elevated a dove was a table covered with a carpet, grand altar, ascended by a flight of steps ; at which were sitting two women dressed there the procession stopped, while the in white, with wings, pointing upwards abbot came from under his canopy and to the dove. They represented the salutatook the host from the old man: ascend- tion of the Virgin Mary. ing the altar, he held up the host in his Next followed a group of dancing boys elevated hands, and the vast multitude in- surrounding a stable, in which was seen stantly fell on their knees, from the house- the Virgin Mary again, and the child in tops down to the dirt in the streets below. the manger. This machine was followed
After this solemnity, gaiety in the face by another fool, like the former, with a of every one appeared, and the procession hoop of bells. recommenced.
The next inachine was a fish, fifteen Other pageants came forth, from the feet long, moved by men, on wheels, congreat church, followed by a vast moving cealed within ; upon its back sat a boy, machine, consisting of several circular richly dressed, and playing upon a harp. stages to represent Heaven; on the bot. The gold, silver, and jewels, which decotom stages appeared many friars and nuns, rated this fish, were valued at ten thoueach holding white lilies in their hands, sand pounds and were finished by the
city merchants, whose sons and daughters heaving the log, and the tops filled with
sentation of a large wood, with men in
The wood was followed by a very tall sion : these two were followed by a fourth man, dressed like an infant in a bodyfool, or hoop-dancer.
coat, and walking in a go-cart, with a Then came a large and magnificent rattle in his hand. carriage, on which sat a person represent
This infant was followed by a man ing the grand monarque sitting on a forty-five feet high, with a boy looking throne, dressed in his robes, with a crown, out of his pocket, shaking a rattle and ball, and sceptre, lying before him on a calling out.-“ grand papa! grandpapa !" table covered with embroidered velvet. He was clothed in blue and gold, which His most christian majesty was attended reached quite to the ground, and conby several devils, hoop-dancers, and ban- cealed a body of men who moved it and ner-bearers.
made it dance. Then followed another machine bearing After him followed a figure nearly of the queen in her royal robes, attended the same stature, mounted on a horse of by a great many ladies and maids of suitable size for the enormous rider, which honour; the jewels of her crown were made a most striking and elegant appearsaid to be of vast value; on this stage ance, both man and horse being executed there was a grand band of music, and in a masterly manner. It was made in a many dancers richly attired.
moving posture, two of the feet being Then followed Bacchus, a large fat raised from the ground. figure, dressed in coloured silk, attended Then followed a woman of equal staby a great number of bacchanals holding ture, and not inferior in elegance to those goblets up to their mouths as in the act which preceded; she had a watch at her of drinking, with a few more devils and side as large as a warming-pan, and her hoop-dancers.
head and breast richly decorated with Then followed a kind of a sea triumph, jewels; her eyes and head turned very in the front of which appeared Neptune naturally; and as she moved along she with his trident and crown, in a large frequently danced, and not inelegantly. shell, surrounded by boys dressed in “Thus," says its describer, “ended the white, who were throwing out and draw- Cow-mass, a show scarce exceeded by any ing in a deep sea-lead, as sounding for in the known world."* land. Six men followed in white shirts, with
Midsummer Wrestling. poles twenty-five feet long, decorated with bells and flowers ; frequently shak In the church of Bradmore, Nottinging their poles, or endeavouring to break hamshire, is a monument for sir Thomas them ; for he who could break one was Parkyns, who is represented standing in exempted a whole year from all parish a posture for wrestling, and in another duty.
part he appears thrown by Time, with The pole-bearers were followed by a the following lines, written by Dr. large ship, representing a ship of war
Friend :drawn on wheels by horses, with sails “Quem modo stravisti longo in certamine, spread, colours flying, and brass guns on
Tempus, board fired off very briskly : on the quar. Hic recubat Britonum claris in orbe ter-deck stood the admiral, captain and
pugil. boatswain, who, when he whistled, brought forth the sailors, some dancing, others * Town and Country Magazine, 780
Jam primum stratus ; præter le vicerat
June 25. omnes ; De te etiam victor, quando resurget, 1826.-The first Sunday after Miderit."
summer Day. Which may be thus translated :
says, " It is the duty of the His nervous arm each bold opposer quell’d, rector of St. Mary at Hill, in which parish In feats of strength by none but thee excell'd: Billingsgate is situated, to preach a serTill, springing up, at the last trumpet's call, mon every year, on the first Sunday after He conquers thee, who wilt bave conquer'd midsummer-day, before the society of all.
Fellowship Porters, exhorting them to The inscription underneath takes notice be charitable towards their old decayed of his wife's fortune, and the estates he brethren, and “to bear one another's purchased; that he rebuilt his farm- burthens.?” houses, was skilled in architecture and It is remarkable that Mr.Brand, who was inedicine, and that he wrote a book on the rector of this church, and who quotes wrestling, called “ The Cornish Hug largely from the churchwardens' accounts Wrestler."
of that parish, in illustration of mani. This gentleman was remarkable for his fold customs whereon he treats, says skill in that exercise; he trained many nothing further respecting his “duty,” of his servants and neighbours to it, and as rector, towards the Fellowship Porters : when those manly (though now thought he does not even subjoin how long the unpolished) diversions were in fashion, he annual sermon appeared to have been exhibited his pupils in public with no preached, nor does he say so much as a small éclat.
recent compiler who notices the custom By his will he left a guinea ta be as follows :wrestled for at Bradmore every midsum “ Annually on the Sunday after midmer-day, and money to the ringers, of jammer-day, according to ancient cuswhom he also made one. He displayed to, the fraternity of Fellowship Porters his learning in several curious iuserin- of the city of London repair to the church tions. Over a seat by the road-side, Hic of St. Mary at Hill in the morning, where, sedeas, viator si tu defessus es ambulando. during the reading of the psalms, they The honour of a visit from a judge on the reverently approach the altar, two and circuit, was commemorated at the horse- two, on the rails of which are placed two block by, Hinc Justiciarius Dormer equum basins, and into these they put their ascendere solebat.
respective offerings. They are generally followed by the congregation, and the
money offered is distributed among the CHRONOLOGY.
aged poor and inferior members of that 1340. On the twenty-fourth of June,
fraternity.* Edward III. fought a great naval battle off Sluys on the coast of Flanders, and The birds now begin to be very active gained a complete victory over the French. in devouring the fruits, and cherryclacks Edward's force did not exceed two hunc are set up to drive them away; the perdred and forty sail; the French had four petual flapping of which, in the light hundred sail, and forty thousand men. breezes by night, are too well-known The English took two hundred and thirty to the student by the nightly lamp. of the ships, and killed thirty thousand Frenchmen, and two of their admirals.
The Cherryclack. Edward's presence animated his archers, The lamplight student wan and pale, who were as invincible then, as iney In his chamber sits at ease, were six years afterwards on the plains of And tries to read without avail; Cressy.
For every moment the light breeze
Springs up and nestles in the trees.
* Lambert's Hist. of London, rol. ij. n. 46',
And then he startles at the sound
as a barn is to be seen, at least in the Of the noisy cherryclack,
southern parts of Province. That drives its flippant windsails round Rain during harvest is so very unusual, With Lybs still puffing at his back,
that this whole process may be carried Provoking endless click-a-tee-clack,
on without fear of interruption from wet,
or of the corn being injured for want of The scholar tries and tries again
shelter. To read, but can't ; confounds the cherries,
The scripture injunction, “not to And swears that every effort's vain To answer all his master's queries;
muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn,' For Greek and Latin quite a jeer is, is explained by seeing this mode of thrash
ing. It is said both to be a more expeditious Where every chorus, every verse
and effectual process than the flail; but Is interrupted, for alack!
it appears very hard work to the animals, When he begins one to rehearse,
especially being performed under the The thread is broke, himself thrown back,
influence of such a burning sun. Our By this perpetual click.a-tee-clack.*
mode of thrashing is, perhaps, equally
hard work to mankind. NATURALISTS' CALENDAR.
During the time of harvest, which is Mean Temperature . . . 61. 55. considered as lasting till the corn is all
thrashed and laid up, the peasant makes June 26.
the cornstack his bed : he sleeps upon it,
attended by his dog, as a precaution MIDSUMMER HARVEST
against nocturnal depredators; and the In France.
air and ground are both so dry, that he The harvest in Provence begins about has nothing to apprehend from damps.** midsummer; the process of gathering it in is very different from ours. It is cut,
CHRONOLOGY. bound up in sheaves, and carried away immediately to the thrashing-floor, where On the twenty-sixth of June, 1752, died it is stacked up. The thrashing-floor, or cardinal Julius Alberoni. He was born aire, (to give it the name by which it is in 1664; his father, a gardener near Parma, called in the country,) is out in the open who obtained for him a small post in the field; it is of a circular form, and paved cathedral' where he took priests orders, sometimes with stone, sometimes with a was enabled by the fortune of war to stiff clay beaten down till it becomes serve Campistron, the French poet, who nearly as hard as stone. In the parts was secretary to the duke of Vendome, near the aire, while one man cuts the and who introduced him to that warrior, to corn and binds the sheaves, another takes whom Alberoni betrayed the granaries of them upon his back, two or three at a his countrymen. Vendome perceived time, and carries them away to the aire; his talent for political intrigue, and in rewhen the distance is somewhat greater, ward of this treason, appointed him to the sheaves are loaded upon an ass or conduct a correspondence with the prinmule; and when the distance is consi- cess d’Ursins who governed the affairs derable, then a cart is employed, provided of Spain. In quality of agent to the the ground be not too steep to admit of duke of Parma, Alberoni was settled it, which happens not unfrequently. In at the Spanish court, and contrived to no case is the corn left standing where marry the princess to Philip, V. The it is cut, but carried away immediately. new queen gave him her confidence, and
When all is in this manner collected obtained for him a cardinal's hat; he at the aire, it is spread out thick upon it, was made a grandee of Spain, and beand one or two horses or mules blind- came prime minister, in which capacity folded, with a man standing in the middle he endeavoured to excite the Turks against and holding the reins, are made to run the emperor, attempted the restoration of round and round, till the corn is separated the pretender to the throne of England, from the straw; after which the one is aimed at dispossessing the duke of Orleans put into sacks and stored up in the from the regency of France, and securing granary, and the other put into a loft for it for Philip V., and by these and other winter food for the cattle. No such thing ambitious endeavours, raised a host of
* Miss Plumptre.
• Dr. Forster's Perennial Calendar.