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“ Come under my arm, little fellow." He Mean Temperature. . . 64.02. died 5th of April, 1815, in his sixtieth
Ancient Cornish names of the Months. July 13.
JANUARY was called Mis (a corruption
of the Latin word mensis, a month) GenTHE CORNISH FALSTAFF. ver, (an ancient corruption of its common
name, January,) or the cold air month. For the Every-Day Book.
FEBRUARY, Hi-evral, or the whirling Anthony Payne, the Falstaff of the month. sixteenth century, was born in the manor MARCH, Mis Merh, or the horse month; house at Stratton, in Cornwall, where he also, Meurz, or Merk, a corruption of died, and was buried in the north aisle of March. Stratton church, the 13th of July, 1691.
APRIL, Mis Ebrall, or the primrose In early life he was the humble, but month; Abrilly, or the mackerel month; favourite attendant of John, eldest son of also Epiell, a corruption of its Latin sir Beville Granville, afterwards earl of appellative, Aprilis. Bath, whom he accompanied throughout
MAY, Miz Me, or the flowery month; many of his loyal adventures and cam Me, being obviously a corruption of May, paigns during the revolution and usurpa
or Maius, the original Latin name. tion of Cromwell. At the age of twenty
JUNE, Miz Epham, the summer month, he measured the extraordinary height of or head of summer. seven feet two inches, with limbs and July, Miz Gorephan, or the chief head body in proportion, and strength equal of the summer month. to his hulk and stature. The firmness of AUGUST, Miz East, or the harvest his mind, and his uncommon activity of month. person, together with a large fund of sar SEPTEMBER, Mis Guerda Gala, or the castic pleasantry, were well calculated to white straw month. cheer the spirits of his noble patron during
OCTOBER, Miz Hedra, or the watery the many sad reverses and trying occasions
month. which he experienced after the restora
NOVEMBER, Miz Dui; or the black tion. His lordship introduced Payne to
month. Charles the Second; “the merry mon
DECEMBER, Miz Kevardin, or in Ar. arch” appointed him one of the yeomen moric Miz Querdu, the month following of his guard. This office he held during the black month, or the month also black. his majesty's life; and when his lordship
Sam Sam's Son. was made governor of the citadel of Ply
June 21, 1826. mouth, Payne was placed therein as a gunner. His picture used to stand in the
NATURALISTS' CALENDAR. great hall at Stowe, in the county of Corn Mean Temperature ...63 • 55. wall, and is now removed to Penheale, another seat of the Granville family. At his death the floor of the apartment was
July 14. taken up in order to remove his enormous
CHRONOLOGY. remains. As a Cornishman, in point of
On the 14th of July, 1766, the Grand size, weight, and strength he has never Junction Canal, connecting the Irish sea been equalled. The nearest to Anthony Payne was Mr. Brindley.
to the British ocean, was commenced by Charles Chillcott, of Tintagel, who measured six feet four inches high, round the breast six feet nine inches, and weighed
FRENCH REVOLUTION four hundred and sixty pounds. He was
From the destruction of the Bastille almost constantly occupied in smoking- this day in the year 1789,* the commencethree pounds of tobacco was his weekly al- ment of the French revolution is dated. lowance ; his pipe two inches long. One of Miss Plumptre mentions a singular his stockings would contain six gallons of allegorical picture in the Hotel de Ville, or wheat. He was much pleased with the Guildhall, of the city of Aix. It reprecuriosity of strangers who came to see him, and his usual address to them was,
See vol. i. col. 936
sented the three orders of the state the national constituent assembly, and afternobles, the clergy, and the tiers-état-in wards the celebrated mayor of Paris, their relative situations before the revolu- mentions, in a posthumous work, that an tion. In the middle is a peasant, with association was formed at Versailles as the implements of his profession about early as in June, 1789, even before the him, the scythe, the reaping-hook, the taking of the Bastille, of the deputies of pioche, which is a sort of pick-axe used in Brétagne to the tiers-état, which was Provence to turn up the ground in steep known by the name of the comité Breton; parts where a plough cannot be used, à and he goes on to say :-" This may be spade, a vessel for wine, &c. On his called the original of the society aftershoulders he supports a heavy burden, in- wards so celebrated as the Jacobin Club, tended to represent the state itself; while and was disapproved by all who did not on one side of him is a noble, and on the belong to it. The Brétons were certainly other an ecclesiastic, in the costume of excellent patriots, but ardent, vehement, their respective orders, who just touch the and not inuch given to reflection ; Dot burden with one hand, while he supports have I any doubt but that the first idea of it with his whole strength, and is bowed establishing a republic was engendered down by it. The intention of the allegory by the overstrained notions of liberty is to show, that it is on the peasantry, or cherished in this club. To them, consetiers-état, that the great burden of the quently, must be imputed the origin of state presses, while the nobles and clergy those fatal divisions which afterwards are scarcely touched by it. Above the arose between the adherents of a limited burden, which is in the form of a heart, is monarchy, and those who would not be the motto, nihil aliud in nobis, “ There is satisfied with any thing short of a repubnothing else in our power.” From the lic;-divisions which occasioned so many costume of the figures, which is that of and so great misfortunes to the whole the sixteenth century, it is conjectured country.” that the picture was of that date; but no This province was, in the sequel, retradition is preserved of the time when, or puted to be one of the parts of France the the person by whom it was executed. most attached to the Bourbon interest,
This remarkable painting hung in the because the arbitrary proceedings of the guard-room, on one side of the door of convention had afforded a handle for the room where the consuls of Aix held another set of anarchists to rise in oppotheir meetings for the settling the imposi- sition to them. In this conflict it would tions of the rates and taxes; a room which be difficult to determine on which side was consequently in theory the sanctuary the greatest want of conduct was shown, of equity, the place where to each member —which party was guilty of the greatest of the community was allotted the respec- errors. tive proportion which in justice was demanded of him for supporting the general good of the whole. « This," says Miss
SUPERSTITIONS OF BRITTANY. Plumptre, a very fine piece of Like the people of Wales, who boast satire, and it is only surprising that it that their ancestors were never conquered should have been suffered to hang there: by the Saxons, the Brétons affirm that it probably had occupied the place so their country alone, of all the provinces long, that it had ceased from time imme- of Gaul, was never bowed to the Frankish morial to excite attention ; but it shows yoke; and that they are the true descendthat even two centuries before the revolu- ants of the ancient Armoricans, its first tion there were those who entertained the known inhabitants. They allow the opinions which led finally to this tremend- Welsh to be of the same stock as themous explosion, and that these opinions did selves, and are proud of affinity with a not then first start into existence." people who, like themselves, firmly and
effectually resisted a foreign yoke; but
they claim precedence in point of anORIGIN OF THE JACOBIN CLUB.
tiquity, and consider themselves as the The Brétons were even from the com- parent stock from which Britain was mencement of the revolution among the afterwards peopled. Indeed from the most eager in the popular cause, and the great resemblance between the Brétons original republican party arose among and the Welsh, a strong argument may them. Bailly, the first president of the be drawn to conclude that they had a
common origin. As Wales is to England Morlaix; the former a little to the north, the great repository of its ancient super- west of the town, the latter a little to the stitions, so is Brittany to France. Here north-east. The town of St. Pol de Léon was the prime seat of the Druidical stands on the coast. From the boldness mysteries, nor were they banished till and beauty of the workmanship of ibe conversion of the country to Chris- the cathedral, it was supposed that it tianity. In the southern provinces, when could hardly have been executed by Woden and Thor ceded their places to mortal hands; it would have been to Apollo and Diana, the gods of Roma the honour of the saint to have asAntica were installed in their seats, till cribed it to him, as a notable worker of they in their turn were displaced by the miracles, but, by the most fervent, the legions of the papal hierarchy: but the architecture is attributed to the devil. deities established in Brittany by the Miss Plumptre says, “ The name of Celto-Scythian inhabitants maintained this episcopal see has become familiar their ground till they were overpowered in England, from its bishop having made by the army of popish saints, whose num a very conspicuous figure in his emigrabers so far exceeded the Celtic deities, tion hither, and having here at length that it was impossible to resist the inva- ended his days. I did not find the chasion. Yet if the ancient deities were racter of this prelate more popular among conquered, and honoured no longer under his fellow-countrymen in Bretagne, than their original names, their influence re- it had been among his fellow-emigrants mained. The wonders attributed to them in London: they gave him the same were not forgotten. Their remembrance character,—of one of the most haughty, was still cherished, their miracles were insolent, and over-bearing among the transferred to another set of champịons, ecclesiastical dignitaries in France; and and the Thors and Wodens were revived while the Brétons had in general an alunder the names of St. Pol, St. Ferrier, &c. most superstitious veneration for their
The old religion of the Druids secured clergy, they regarded this bishop with uabounded authority over the minds very different sentiments.” of the people. This engine was too powerful io be lightly relinquished ; and
The honour of having given birth to the papacy instead of directing them St. Pol de Léon is ascribed to England to the sublime contemplation of one all- about the year 490. When a boy he powerful, all-commanding govervor of
gave an earnest of what might in future the universe, through whom alone all be expected of him. The fields of the live and move and have their being, trans- monastery in which he was a student, ferred to new names the ancient reveries were ravaged by such a number of birds, of a supernatural agency perpetually in that the whole crop of corn was in danger terposing in all the petiy affairs of man- of being devoured. St. Pol summoned kind. The operators in this agency, the sacrilegious animals to appear before genii, fairies, dæmons, and wizards, were the principal of the monastery, St. Hyall comprebended under the one denomina- dultus, that they might receive the cortion of saints. Enchanters and dragons rection they merited. The birds, obedient were exchanged for pious solitaries and to his summons, presented themselves in a wonderful ascetics, who calmed tempests body; but St. Hydultus, being of a humane with a word, walked on the waves of the disposition, only gave them a reproof and ocean as on dry land, or wafted over it admonition, and then let them go, even upon cloaks or millstones; who meta- giving them his benediction at their morphosed their staves into trees, and departure. The grateful birds never commanded fountains to rise under their after touched the corn of the monastery: feet; by whom the sick were healed; whose In a convent of nuns hard by, situated shadows were pretended to have raised the on the sea-shore, and extremely exposed dead; and whose approach might be per, to the tempestuous winds of the north, ceived by the perfume their bodies spread lived a sister of St. Pol. She represented throughout the air.
the case of the convent to her brother ;
when he ordered the sea to retire four Two of the most illustrious and wonder- thousand paces from the convent; which working sains of the country, Saint Pol it did immediately. He then directed de Léon and Saint Jean du Doigt, were his sister and her companions to rauge a established at only a short distance from row of flints along the shore for a consi
derable distance ; which was no sooner continent, the place where the town done than they increased into vast rocks, now stands. The saint converted the they so entirely broke the force of the palace into a monastery; and, there winds, that the convent was never after being no water, had recourse to his incommoded.
staff again, and produced a fountain
of fresh water still existing on the seaFor some reason or other, it does not shore, which is not affected by the overappear what, St. Pol de Léon took a flowing of the sea. fancy to travel, and walked over the sea St. Pol was afterwards bishop of Ocone fine morning from England to the cismor, on which occasion the place Isle of Batz. Immediately on landing changed its name. Here he continued there, by a touch of his staff—for saints to work miracles. till, growing weary of used a staff instead of a wand, which was mankind, he retired again to the Isle of the instrument employed by fairies—he Batz, where he died at the age of a huncured three blind men, two who were dred and two years. The inhabitants of dumb, and one who was a cripple with the island and the people of Occismor
disputed for his body; the dispute was
settled by each agreeing to accept half. A count de Guythure, who was go. They were about to carry this agreement vernor of Batz at the saint's arrival into execution, when the body suddenly laboured under a mortal uneasiness of disappeared, and was afterwards found mind, on account of a little silver bell on the sea-shore at Occismor, which was belonging to the reigning king of England, considered as a plain indicatior
. that the the possession of which, in defiance of saint himself chose that for the place of the injunction contained in the tenth his interment. Such are the kind of fables commandment, he coveted exceedingly. related of this saint. St. Pol ordered a fish to swallow the bell, and bring it over : this was instantly performed; but the saint had provided a An occurrence in the town of St. Pol rival to himself, for the bell became a no de Léon about the end of the seventeenth less celebrated adept in miracles than he century, has only this of prodigy in it, was, and between them both the want of that such facts are not common. A physicians in the country was entirely seigneur of the neighbourhood had accuprecluded. The bell was afterwards mulated debts to so large an amount, deposited among the treasures in the that he was entirely unable to discharge cathedral of St. Pol de Léon.
them, and knew not what means to pursue
for extricating himself from his embarrassBut the Isle of Batz was visited with ments. Three of his tenants, farmers, even a heavier affliction than the mortal offered to undertake the management of uneasiness of its governor; it was infested his affairs, if he would resign every thing by a terrible dragon, which devoured in trust to them for a certain term of men, animals, and every thing that came years; and they proffered to allow him in its way. St. Po!, dressed in his pon- half the revenue he had drawn from tificial robes and accompanied by a young them, and with the remainder to pay off man whom he had selected for the pur- his debts, taking to themselves only what pose, repaired to the monster's cavern, profit they might be able to derive from and commanded him to come forth. He the speculation. The seigneur agreed soon appeared, making dreadful hissings to the proposal, and every part of the and howlings; a stroke of the saint's staff agreement was punctually performed by silenced him : a rope thrown round his the farmers. At the term agreed on the neck, and an order to lead him away estates were returned to the owner, not finished all opposition. St. Pol conducted merely disencumbered, but exceedingly him to the northernmost point of the increased in value, and in a state of ex. island; another stroke of his staff preci- cellent cultivation, while the farmers had pitated the monster into the sea, and he at the same time made a fair profit to themnever more returned.
selves. At the final conclusion of the
agreement they made a present to the seigThe count de Guythure, charmed with neur's lady of cight horses, that she might the saint, resigned his splendid palace come to church, as they said, in a manner to him, and retired to Occismor on the suitable to her rank.
In Brittany, mingled with the legends pleasure of frightening any body who of saints are its still more ancient super- may chance to meet him. stitions. There is scarcely a rock, a fountain, a wood, or a cave, to which some
Another nocturnal wanderer is a spectre tale of wonder is not attached. From thence omens and auguries are drawn in white carrying a lantern; he appears regarding the ordinary occurrences of life. at first like a mere child, but as you look Every operation of nature is attributed by till he becomes of a gigantic stature, and
at him he increases in size every moment, the Bréions to miraculous interposition : they believe that the air, the earth, and then disappears. Like the other he seems the waters are peopled with supernatural to have no object in his walks except to agents of all sorts and descriptions.
frighten people. One of the servants in the house where Miss Plumptre resided
very gravely gave her an account of a Likewise there are fountains, into rencontre which she once had with this which if a child's shirt or shist be thrown gentleman. She had been out on an and it sinks, the child will die within the errand, and returning home over the Place year; if it should swim, it is then put wet du Peuple she saw a light coming towards on the child, and is a charm against all her, which thought at first was somekinds of diseases. The waters of some body with a lantern; but as it came near fountains are poured upon the ground she perceived the white figure, and it by those who have friends at sea, to pro- began to increase in size,—so then she cure a favourable wind for them during knew what it was, and she put her bands four-and-twenty hours.
before her face, and ran screaming home. Her master, she said, laughed at her for a
fool, and said it was her own fancy, Another mode of procuring a favourable because he had never happened to see the wind is to sweep up the dust from a spectre; nay, she did not know whether church immediately after mass, and blow he would believe in it if he did see it; it towards the side on which the friends but nobody should persuade her out of are expected to return. The croak of the her senses; she saw it as plain as ever raven and the song of the thrush are she saw any thing in her life, and she answers to any questions put to them; had never ventured since to go out by they tell how many years any one is to herself after dark without a lantern, for live, when he is to be married, and how the spectre never presents himself before many children he is to have. Any noise people who carry a light. which cannot be immediately accounted for foretells some misfortune, and the howling of a dog is as sure forerunner of
The Cariguel Ancou, or “ Chariot of death in a family of Brittany as in Eng. death,” is a terrible apparition covered land. The noise of the sea, or the whist with a white sheet, and" driven by skeleling of the wind heard in the night, is the tons; and the noise of the wheels is lamentation of the spirit of some one who always heard in the street passing the has been drowned, complaining for want door of a house where a person is dying. of buria).
The Buguel-nos is a beneficent spirit of A dæmon or spirit of some kind, called a gigantic stature, who wears a long white the Teusarpouliet, often presents himself cloak, and is only to be seen between to the people under the form of a cow, a midnight and two in the morning. He dog, a cat, or some other domestic ani- defends the people against the devil by mal; nay, he will sometimes in his wrapping his cloak round them; and assumed form do all the work of the while they are thus protected they hear house.
the infernal chariot whirl by, with a fright
ful noise, the charioteer making hideous Jean gant y Tan,“ John and his fire,” the air for a long time after, by the
cries and howlings: it may be traced in is a dæmon who goes about in the night stream of light which it leaves behind it. with a candle on each finger, which he keeps constantly turning round very quick. What end this is to answer does There are a set of ghostly washerwomen not appear; there seems none, but the called ar cannerez nos, or “ nocturnal