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15. in citeriōre Galliā: according to Cicero, Murena was in Galliā Transpadānā, i.e. in ulteriōre Gallia. The weight of authority is with Cicero.

19. ex

§ 43. 18. ut vidēbātur: 'as it seemed to them.' agrō Faesulānō : an emendation for in agrum Faesulānum, which is obviously a mistake of a copyist, as Catiline had already reached Faesulae; see 27, 4. 20. L. Bēstia, tribūnus plēbis, contiōne habitā: as the tribunes were not inaugurated into office until December 10th, the assembly could not have been called for any date earlier than that. What was a contio? See Vocab. 22. optumō cōnsulī this was a somewhat stereotyped expression. And yet, coming from a political opponent like Sallust, it certainly shows that the historian bore him no ill will. 24. ea sc. negotia. 26. duodequō: 'in order that.' 29. alius

:

cim: Plutarch says 100.
autem alium: sc. aggrederetur.

Page 33. 1. familiārum: this use of the plural is rare, familias being the usual form with both the singular and plural. Sallust here imitates the historian Sisenna. quōrum, etc. = = quōrum māxuma pars erat ex nobilitāte. 2. parentis interficerent: the patria potestas gave the father such absolute authority over the son that the latter could not own any property in his own right. Whatever he might acquire was in the eye of the law at the disposal of the father. Hence might arise the desire of the sons to kill their fathers. 5. diēs prōlātandō : Cicero says that the massacre and conflagration were set for the Saturnalia, which began on the 17th of December. 6. factō, nōn cōnsultō ... opus : cf. 1, 14-15. 8. aliis cēterīs; the ablative absolute is concessive. in curiam: 'on the Senate.' 9. manu: see Vocab.

=

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The ambassadors, after shrewdly obtaining written evidence against the chief conspirators at Rome, set out for Gaul, and were arrested on the Mulvian bridge. Sections 44-45.

$ 44. 12. cēterōs: sc. coniūrātōrēs.

16. eo: i.e. to Gaul.

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Page 32. 1. praesertim qui: 'especially since they.' Page 33. 1. Quem Catilinam. pellēbam: what is the force of the imperfect? B. 260, 3; A. 277, c; H. 530; G. 233. 12. ut: repeated for the sake of clearness.

Page 34. 1. exemplum: as we have seen in § 34, this word is used to denote an exact copy.' A careful comparison of the letter as reported by Cicero below with this as given by Sallust will show that they are identical in thought and in several expressions. It is probable, therefore, that Sallust reproduced the letter exactly, while Cicero merely quoted from memory. 2. Qui sim='What sort of man I am,' while Cicero's Quis sim 'Who I am.' But such nice distinctions would hardly be observed in a hurriedly written letter. The student, however, will be interested in noting the shades of difference between the corresponding expressions, e.g. cōgnōscēs and sciēs; memineris tē virum esse and Cūrā ut vir sīs, etc. 3. Fac cōgitēs : in letters, fac followed by the dependent subjunctive is often substituted for the simple imperative. in quantă calamitāte sīs: 'how desperate your situation is.' 4. ratiōnēs: 'interests.' 5. ab īnfimīs: i.e. from the slaves, whose assistance Catiline had at first rejected on the ground that it would disgust the aristocracy to be associated with them in any enterprise; cf. Cicero, 36, 7. 6. mandāta verbīs: verbal instructions.'

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$45. 9. nocte: December 2d. 10. L. Valerio Flaccō : son of the consul under whom the Lex Valeria was passed; see note to 24, 24. The son had served in the army in Cilicia and Spain. In the year after the conspiracy he was governor of Asia. When, on his return to Rome, he was accused of extortion, he was successfully defended by Cicero. 11. C. Pomptīnō: he had taken part in the Servile War. Two years after the conspiracy, B.C. 61, he was propraetor of Gallia Narbonensis, and defeated the Allobroges when they rebelled against Rome.

11. praetoribus: although the city praetors were primarily concerned with the administration of justice, they might be called upon to perform occasional military service, especially in providing for the safety of Rome, this being their especial care. 13. cetera, etc. : as for the rest, he permitted them to do whatever might be necessary.'

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Page 34. 1. Erant: sc. litterae, 'the letter.' 8. qui, etc.: 'being men who had only the most noble and exalted views of their duty to the state.' 12. interesset: observe that Cicero, too, sometimes uses a singular verb with two subjects. Why? Eōdem: adverb. 14. ex praefectūrā Reātinā: see Vocab., and note to 32, 1. 16. tertia ferē vigiliā exactā: about 3 A.M.

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16. ad id locī: 'to this very place.' B. 201, 2 ; A. 216, 3; H. 441; G. 369. But the partitive genitive dependent on a word governed by a preposition does not occur in Cicero or Caesar.

Trial of the chief conspirators before the Senate. Sections 46-47. Page 35. § 46. 12. tantis: 'such influential.' 14. perdundae rei publicae: 'ruinous to the state'; for construction, cf. 5, 21.

Page 36. 3. scrīnium: a cylindrical box or case for letters.

§ 47. 6. quid, etc.: construe, quid consili habuisset aut quả de causă id habuisset. 7. fidē pūblică: an assurance that he would not be punished, if he turned state's evidence. 10. tantum modo: sc. sē as the subject of solitum (esse). 11. Gabiniō: for information about this man and the other persons here mentioned, see Vocab., and the notes to § 17. 14. praeter litteras sermonibus: 'not only by his letter, but by the conversations,' etc.

15. ex libris Sibyllīnīs: the story is that an old woman once offered to sell a set of nine books to Tarquin the Proud for a large sum. The king refused to buy them, whereupon the old woman burned three of the books, and offered to sell the remaining six for the same price she had asked for the nine. When this also was refused, she burned three more, and again asked the same price for the remaining three. The king's curiosity was aroused. He bought the books, which, on being examined, were found to contain certain prophecies concerning Rome, in Greek hexameters. They were supposed to have been written by the Hellespontic Sibyl, in the time of Solon and Cyrus, at Gergis on Mount Ida. They were thereafter guarded most carefully in the Capitol, and only consulted at the order of the Senate, in time of peril. When the Capitol was burned, in B.C. 83, the books were destroyed. But the Senate had a collection

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10. crēdō, etc.:

Page 35. 5. ipsi: the ambassadors and Volturcius. a sarcastic allusion to Lentulus's proverbial sleepiness; see Cicero, 33, 3.

Page 36. 8. id: sc. ut faceret; id is in apposition with the preceding clause, ut accederet. 10. erat: why indicative in indirect discourse? See note to frequentābat, 10, 15. B. 235, 2, b, ß; A. 187, b; H. 395, 2; G. 286, 1. tors. 17. sibi: the Gauls.

14. data: why neuter? 16. sibi: the conspira

of similar oracular sayings made and deposited in the temple when it was rebuilt.

Page 37. 1. Cinnam: in the year 87, when Sulla had left Rome to fight Mithridates, one of the consuls, L. Cornelius Cinna, who belonged to the Marian party, proposed that the Italians be admitted to citizenship, and in consequence was expelled by force from the city, by his colleague. He soon returned, however, at the head of a large army, and triumphed over his opponents. After a frightful season of bloodshed, Cinna and Marius declared themselves consuls; but on the death of Marius, a few days later, Cinna assumed absolute control and remained sole consul of Rome for three years. When Sulla was on his way home, in 83, Cinna made preparations to march against him, but was killed in a mutiny by his soldiers.

2. antea: sc. fuisse. urbis: Caesar and Sallust use the genitive, as well as the ablative, with potīrī. 3. ab incēnsō Capitōliō : the Capitol was destroyed by fire on the 6th of July, 83, but was rebuilt by Sulla, although it was not dedicated until 69. 4. ex prōdigiīs: the Etruscan harūspicēs not only prophesied by interpreting the movements and appearance of the vital organs of sacrificial victims, but explained the significance of lightning flashes and of unusual occurrences. 5. perlēctīs litteris: see note to redditās, 25, 18. 6. abdicātō magistrātū: no magistrate could be impeached during his term of office. When, however, the Senate brought the tremendous weight of its influence to bear upon a man, it was well-nigh irresistible. And so it proved in the case of Lentulus.

7. in liberis cūstōdiīs: see custodia in Vocab. 8. P. Lentulō Spinthērī: a good friend to Cicero; for when the latter was in exile, six years later, Spinther vigorously urged his recall. 9. Statilius C. Caesarī, Gabinius M. Crasso: Mommsen, assum

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Page 37. 3. post virginum absolūtiōnem: the very possibility of a Vestal virgin violating her vow was so abhorrent that a trial, even if it resulted in an acquittal, was considered to be a dreadful omen. Nothing is known of the case here mentioned. 5. Sāturnālibus: a thanksgiving feast in honor of the golden age of Saturn. It began on the 17th of December and lasted several days. The 19th was the great day of the feast. It was a time of much merrymaking; no business was transacted,

ing that Caesar and Crassus were concerned in the conspiracy, declares that their appointment to guard the two least dangerous of the conspirators was a shrewd move of the Senate, since if they let them escape, they would be regarded by the people as leagued with the conspiracy, while if they detained them, their fellow conspirators would brand them as traitors to the cause.

Reaction among the plebs against the conspiracy; unsuccessful attempts to implicate Crassus and Caesar. Sections 48-49.

§ 48. 13. coniūrātiōne patefacta: by the third oration of Cicero against Catiline, which he delivered in the Forum, before the people, on the 3d of December. quae: the antecedent is plēbs.

Page 38. 4. quippe cui omnēs cōpiae . . . erant: 'since all their resources consisted'; quippe qui is followed by the indicative in Sallust, but by the subjunctive in Caesar and Cicero. 5. üsü: 'food.' cultu: clothing.' 6. Post eum diem = postrīdie ēius diei. 10. eadem and (11) senātum form the double accusative with docet. dē parātīs incendiīs: the participle here is equivalent to a verbal substantive in English; translate, 'about preparations to set fire to the city.' So also dēprehēnsī (line 14).

13. nē, etc.: 'not to be frightened by the arrest of Lentulus.’ 14. -que: 'but.' 19. tanta vīs hominis: a man of such power.' 21. plērīque . obnoxii: 'most of them were under obligations to Crassus in private transactions.' 25. potestatem : sc. indicandi. 26. rem: the accusative with mentior is poetical. 28. māchinātum: another perfect participle of a deponent verb used passively; cf. adeptā, 5, 30. 30. nē, etc. in order to prevent Crassus from disturbing the state by befriending the criminals, as was his custom.' Crassus made himself popular by pleading the cases of men whom lawyers like Cicero would not defend.

and the schools and courts were closed. The slaves were allowed unusual freedom, as they were not required to perform their customary duties, and were feasted at a banquet at which their masters waited upon them. 13. cui, etc.: 'to whom, according to the testimony which was given, Apulia had been allotted for the purpose of tampering with the shepherds of that district.' 14. P. Furium: this man, together with Chilo, Umbrenus, and Cassius, succeeded in escaping arrest.

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