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The references are to the latest editions of the following grammars: Bennett's = B.; Allen & Greenough's = A.; Harkness's H.; Gildersleeve's = G.

As Sallust affected an archaic style, many words in his writings were spelled in an old-fashioned way, much as though an author of our own times were to adopt the spelling in vogue a half century ago. The text of this edition, therefore, presents the following variations from the spelling in other Latin authors that are commonly read in our schools: (1) -is instead of -ēs in the accusative plural of -i stems of the third declension, as omnis for omnēs; (2) -umus instead of -imus in superlatives and ordinals, as māxumus for maximus; (3) -undus instead of -endus in gerunds and gerundives of the third and fourth conjugations, as agundus for agendus; (4) -u- instead of -i- in certain words, as lubidō for libidō; (5) -vos instead of -vus in second declension nouns and adjectives, as novos for novus; (6) vo- instead of ve- or vu- in certain words, as vortō for vertō, volnus for vulnus.

Page 1. GAI SALLUSTI CRISPI : see page vii. BELLUM Catilinae : there is much uncertainty as to the title which Sallust himself gave to this history. Some editors prefer DE CATILINAE CONIURATIONE, which is evidently borrowed from an expression occurring in the text, 3, 20. Others find the title in the words appended to the Catiline in the best manuscript extant (the Paris), viz. C. SALLVSTII CRISPI BELLVM CATILINE EXPLICIT. Quintilian, in referring to both the works of Sallust, writes in bello Iugurthinō et Catilinae. The fact that Florus, the historian, also names his account of the conspiracy Bellum CATILINAE strengthens the probability that this was the original title.

Introduction: Reasons which led Sallust to write an account of Catiline's conspiracy. Sections 1-4.

The general line of thought followed by Sallust in the introduction is briefly as follows:

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Believing that one can win lasting fame more surely by intellectual than by bodily achievement, I as a youth had high literary

aspirations. But unfortunately these were crushed out by a foolish ambition to succeed in politics. When, therefore, I withdrew from public life, I naturally returned to my first inclination, and, resolving to write history, selected for my theme the conspiracy of Catiline, as one of the most noteworthy events in the annals of Rome."

§1. Man's intellect makes him superior to other animals, and perpetuates his memory on the earth. Therefore it is wiser to seek fame by the exercise of the mind rather than of the body. In war, however, men were for a long time in doubt as to whether bodily strength or mental power contributed more to success.

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1. hominēs . . nītī accusative and infinitive clause forming the subject of decet. sēsē: after verbs of desire, the subject of the infinitive is more often omitted, if it is the same as that of the leading verb. B. 331, Iv, a ; A. 331, b, N.; H. 614, 2; G. 532, R.2. 3. prōna: cf. Ovid, Met. I, 84-86 :

Pronaque cum spectent animalia cetera terram,

Os homini sublime dedit, caelumque tueri

Iussit et erectos ad sidera tollere vultus.


5. animi, etc. the mind we use to rule with, the body rather for service.' 8. opibus: 'by means of.' ipsa: actual.' 9. nostrī: what use of the genitive ? B. 200; A. 217; H. 440, 2; G. 363, 2. 11. virtūs, etc.: 'intellectual superiority is a glorious and eternal possession.'

12. Sed and yet.' 6 vine = vī, ablative of vis +-ne. 13. prōcēderet: B. 300, 4; A. 334; H. 650, 1; G. 461. 14. incipiās: B. 292, 1, a; A. 327, b; H. 605; G. 577, 1; for influence of indefinite second person on mood, see references to consulueris below. cōnsultō and (15) factō: B. 218, 2; A. 243, e; H. 477, ш; G. 406. cōnsulueris: B. 302, 2; A. 316, a, 1; H. 602, 4; G. 567. liō: B. 214, 1, c; A. 243, a; H. 462; G. 405.

16. auxi

$ 2. At first, therefore, the policy of kings differed according as they believed in the superiority of the mind or of the body. Finally, however, the military achievements of the Persians and Greeks settled the question in favor of the mind, so far as war was concerned. But mental superiority would be just as effective in peace, if men, after obtaining power, did not deteriorate, and yield to stronger minds.

Indeed, even in pursuits which seem to require only bodily exer

tion, men achieve success through the exercise of the intellect. Yet many waste their lives in gluttony and sleep. Life is only worth living when one is intent upon some ennobling task through which he shall win fame.

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17. nam . fuit: such an apology for speaking of kings was natural, as the Romans never lost their hatred of regal power. 18. pars . . . alii: for the more common alii . . . ali; an instance of Sallust's fondness for variety of expression. 19. etiam tum: 'even so late as that,' i.e. after the mythical golden age of Saturn, when goodness and happiness prevailed in an all-bountiful world. Then came the more degenerate ages - the silver and bronze; but it was not until the depraved iron age that 'the accursed love of gain -amor scelerātus habendi-seized on mankind. Cf. Ovid, Met. I, 89-162, and Vergil's Aeneid, VIII, 314-332. 20. cuique: B. 187, II, a; A. 227; H. 426, 1; G. 346.


quam: after.'

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20. Posteā 21. Cyrus: Cyrus the Great, B.C. 559-529, extended the domain of the Persian empire until it embraced the greater part of the Old World. Sallust must have known something of the conquests of the Egyptian king, Rameses II, B.C. 1322, whom Herodotus calls Sesostris. But he rightly preferred to mention the first great world-conqueror of what was authentic history in his time. Lacedaemonii: beginning with the First Messenian War, B.C. 743-723, the Lacedaemonians pursued a very aggressive land policy, and conquered the greater part of the Peloponnesus; from B.C. 404 to 371, they were admitted to be the most powerful state in Greece. Athēniēnsēs: under Pericles, the Athenians established a maritime empire, and, for a short time after his death, B.C. 429, held the supremacy of all Greece, extending their sway over the islands and cities of the Aegean, as well as over the coasts of Asia Minor.

22. coepere: Sallust, like his model Cato, uses the popular form -ēre, in preference to -ērunt for the perfect active third plural. urbis atque nātiōnēs: when thus contrasted with urbs, nātiō denotes 'a barbarous people.' As Cyrus subdued the 'peoples,' while the Lacedaemonians and Athenians subdued the cities,' the criss-cross order of the words produces chiasmus. lubīdinem... causam : B. 177, 1; A. 239, 1, a; H. 410; G. 340 (b). 24. periculo atque negōtiis: hendiadys, 'in perilous undertakings.'

Page 2. 2. Quod sĩ: 'If then.'

mind and character.'


animi virtus: strength of 4. sēsē... habērent: 'move.' neque,

etc. nor would you see power passing from one to the other, and the whole world in a state of change and confusion.' 6. arti

bus by (the exercise of) those qualities.' partum est: from pario. 11. Quae, etc.: 'What men do in the way of ploughing, sailing, building, all depends on mental energy.' What accusative is Quae? B. 176, 2, a; A. 238, b; H. 409, 1; G. 333, 1, n.2. 13. peregrinantēs: i.e. with as little mental exertion as is employed by those who travel for pleasure in a foreign country. 14. voluptātī: B. 191; A. 233; H. 425, 3; G. 356.

a noble career.'

18. artis bonae: ' of

§ 3. A man's disposition points him to one or another of the many occupations leading to success. But perhaps the most difficult task one can undertake is to try to win fame by writing history: first, because the words must rise to the level of the deeds, and second, because the reader is apt to ascribe the historian's criticisms to malice, and to suspect that his account of remarkable exploits is greatly exaggerated.

As for myself, like most young men, I was drawn into public life; and although I spurned the evil practices which I found prevalent, I yielded to ambition, and, as often happens, was basely slandered by my enemies.

20. in māgnā cōpiā rērum: 'in the great variety of occupations' (leading to success), several of which are mentioned in the following sentence. 22. haud absurdum: a case of litotes. vel pace vel bellō: 'by means of either peace or war.' clārum :

agrees with quemquam, which is to be supplied as the subject of fieri. 23. fēcēre (facta): 'achieved success. 28. quae dēlīcta = ea dēlīcta, quae : 'most persons think that all your censure of faults has been uttered out of malice and envy.' 31. supra ea = suprā ea sunt: a phrase used as the object of ducit. falsīs fictitious if not false.'


quae ficta prō

Page 3. 4. audacia: corresponds to pudōre; but in the remaining pairs, largītiō corresponds to virtute and avāritia to abstinentia, thus producing chiasmus. 6. imbecilla aetās, etc.: 'with the weakness of youth, I was held corrupted by ambition.' 8. nihilō minus, etc. my craving for state honors resulted in my being tormented by the same envious slanders as were the others.'

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§ 4. Hence, when I retired from public life, I determined not to waste my time in idleness, or even in agriculture or hunting; but, returning to my earlier aspirations, I resolved to write the history of different periods of the Roman people. Therefore I purpose to give a brief account of a most remarkable plot against the government, known as the conspiracy of Catiline. But first a few words on Catiline's character.


ex: after.' miseriis atque periculis: see page viii.

13. bonum ōtium: 'valuable leisure.' colundō aut vēnandō : ablative dependent on intentum. 14. servilibus officiīs: agriculture was regarded by the Romans as a most respectable occupation, while hunting was often indulged in by Roman gentlemen. In speaking of these as 'employments fit for slaves,' Sallust probably intended nothing sarcastic, but was merely carrying out the idea before expressed, that men, whenever possible, should engage in intellectual pursuits. Hence agriculture and hunting, which exercise the body chiefly, might well be left to slaves. 15. sed, etc.: but returning to the same undertaking and pursuit from which an evil ambition had kept me.' 17. carptim: see "Sallust's Writings," pages ix and x. memoriā: B. 226, 2; A. 245, a; H. 481; G. 397, N.2. 18. mihi: 'my.' partibus: 'partisanship.' 21. paucis: sc. verbis. 23. prius. quam faciam 327, b; H. 605; G. 577, 1.

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Character of Catiline. Section 5.

B. 292, 1, a; A.

§ 5. Catiline's mad desire to seize the government, as Sulla had done, was constantly increased by want of means and by a guilty conscience. His project was favored by the low state of morals among the people. Here begins an account of the gradual corruption of Roman character.

25. nōbili genere natus: the Sergian gens to which Catiline belonged claimed descent from the Trojan Sergestus; cf. Vergil's Aeneid, V, 121, Sergestusque, domus tenet a quo Sergia nomen. Catiline's great-grandfather, M. Sergius Silus, won great distinction in the Second Punic War; so eager was he to fight that on losing his right hand in battle, he had it replaced by an iron hand. The family wealth had been much reduced, and the little that was handed down to Catiline was entirely insufficient to withstand the drain caused by his youthful extravagances.

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