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tion, men achieve success through the exercise of the intellect. Yet many waste their lives in gluttony and sleep. Life is only worth living when one is intent upon some ennobling task through which he shall win fame.
17. nam . . . fuit: such an apology for speaking of kings w natural, as the Romans never lost their hatred of regal power. 18. pars. alii: for the more common aliī . . . ali; an instance of Sallust's fondness for variety of expression. 19. etiam tum: 'even so late as that,' i.e. after the mythical golden age of Saturn, when goodness and happiness prevailed in an all-bountiful world. Then came the more degenerate ages-the silver and bronze; but it was not until the depraved iron age that 'the accursed love of gain' · amor scelerātus habendī — seized on mankind. Cf. Ovid, Met. I, 89-162, and Vergil's Aeneid, VIII, 314–332. 20. cuique: B. 187,
II, a; A. 227; H. 426, 1; G. 346.
20. Postea. C · quam: after.' 21. Cyrus: Cyrus the Great, B.C. 559-529, extended the domain of the Persian empire until it embraced the greater part of the Old World. Sallust must have known something of the conquests of the Egyptian king, Rameses II, B.C. 1322, whom Herodotus calls Sesostris. But he rightly preferred to mention the first great world-conqueror of what was authentic history in his time. Lacedaemonii: beginning with the First Messenian War, B.C. 743-723, the Lacedaemonians pursued a very aggressive land policy, and conquered the greater part of the Peloponnesus; from B.C. 404 to 371, they were admitted to be the most powerful state in reece. Athēniēnsēs: under Pericles, the Athenians established a maritime empire, and, for a short time after his death, B. c. 429, held the supremacy of all Greece, extending their sway over the islands and cities of the Aegean, as well as over the coasts of Asia Minor.
22. coepere: Sallust, like his model Cato, uses the popular form -ēre, in preference to -ērunt for the perfect active third plural. urbis atque nātiōnēs: when thus contrasted with urbs, natiō denotes a barbarous people.' As Cyrus subdued the 'peoples,' while the Lacedaemonians and Athenians subdued the 'cities,' the criss-cross order of the words produces chiasmus. lubīdinem... causam: B. 177, 1; A. 239, 1, a; H. 410; G. 340 (b). 24. periculō atque negōtiīs: hendiadys, 'in perilous undertakings.’
Page 2. 2. Quod sĩ: 'If then.' animī virtus: strength of 4. sēsē... habērent: 'move.' neque,
mind and character.'
etc. nor would you see power passing from one to the other, and the whole world in a state of change and confusion.' 6. artibus by (the exercise of) those qualities.' partum est: from pario. 11. Quae, etc.: 'What men do in the way of ploughing, sailing, building, all depends on mental energy.' What accusative is Quae? B. 176, 2, a; A. 238, b; H. 409, G. 333, 1, N.2. 13. peregrinantēs: i.e. with as little mental exertion as is employed by those who travel for pleasure in a foreign country. 14. voluptātī: B. 191; A. 233; H. 425, 3; G. 356. 18. artis bonae: 'of a noble career.'
§ 3. A man's disposition points him to one or another of the many occupations leading to success. But perhaps the most difficult task one can undertake is to try to win fame by writing history: first, because the words must rise to the level of the deeds, and second, because the reader is apt to ascribe the historian's criticisms to malice, and to suspect that his account of remarkable exploits is greatly exaggerated.
As for myself, like most young men, I was drawn into public life; and although I spurned the evil practices which I found prevalent, I yielded to ambition, and, as often happens, was basely slandered by my enemies.
20. in māgnā cōpiā rērum: 'in the great variety of occupations' (leading to success), several of which are mentioned in the following sentence. 22. haud absurdum: a case of litotes. vel pāce vel bellō: 'by means of either peace or war.' clārum : agrees with quemquam, which is to be supplied as the subject of fierī. 23. fēcēre (facta): 'achieved success.' 28. quae dēlīcta = ea delicta, quae: 'most persons think that all your censure of faults has been uttered out of malice and envy.' 31. supra ea = quae suprā ea sunt: a phrase used as the object of ducit. ficta prō
falsīs fictitious if not false.'
Page 3. 4. audacia: corresponds to pudore; but in the remaining pairs, largītiō corresponds to virtute and avāritia to abstinentia, thus producing chiasmus. 6. imbecilla aetās, etc.: 'with the weakness of youth, I was held corrupted by ambition.' 8. nihilō minus, etc.: 'my craving for state honors resulted in my being tormented by the same envious slanders as were the others.'
§ 4. Hence, when I retired from public life, I determined not to waste my time in idleness, or even in agriculture or hunting; but, returning to my earlier aspirations, I resolved to write the history of different periods of the Roman people. Therefore I purpose to give a brief account of a most remarkable plot against the government, known as the conspiracy of Catiline. But first a few words on Catiline's character.
10. ex: 'after.' miseriis atque periculis: see page viii. 13. bonum ōtium: 'valuable leisure.' colundō aut vēnandō: ablative dependent on intentum. 14. servilibus officiīs: agriculture was regarded by the Romans as a most respectable occupation, while hunting was often indulged in by Roman gentlemen. In speaking of these as 'employments fit for slaves,' Sallust probably intended nothing sarcastic, but was merely carrying out the idea before expressed, that men, whenever possible, should engage in intellectual pursuits. Hence agriculture and hunting, which exercise the body chiefly, might well be left to slaves. 15. sed, etc.: 'but returning to the same undertaking and pursuit from which an evil ambition had kept me.' 17. carptim: see "Sallust's Writings," pages ix and x. memoriā: B. 226, 2; A. 245, a; H. 481; G. 397, N.2. 18. mihi: 'my.' partibus: 'partisanship.' 21. paucis: sc. verbis. 23. prius quam... faciam: B. 292, 1, a; A. 327, b; H. 605; G. 577, 1.
Character of Catiline. Section 5.
§ 5. Catiline's mad desire to seize the government, as Sulla had done, was constantly increased by want of means and by a guilty conscience. His project was favored by the low state of morals among the people. Here begins an account of the gradual corruption of Roman character.
25. nobili genere nātus: the Sergian gens to which Catiline belonged claimed descent from the Trojan Sergestus; cf. Vergil's Aeneid, V, 121, Sergestusque, domus tenet a quo Sergia nomen. Catiline's great-grandfather, M. Sergius Silus, won great distinction in the Second Punic War; so eager was he to fight that on losing his right hand in battle, he had it replaced by an iron hand. The family wealth had been much reduced, and the little that was handed down to Catiline was entirely insufficient to withstand the drain caused by his youthful extravagances.
26. ab adulēscentia bella, etc.: when Sulla returned from the East in B.C. 83, to take vengeance upon the Marian party, Catiline, who was then 25 years old, served in Sulla's army as quaestor. Throughout the frightful proscriptions that followed, he was one of Sulla's most bloodthirsty agents. He killed his own brother, and then, to evade prosecution, persuaded Sulla to put his brother's name on the list of the proscribed, as though he were still living. With a troop of Gallic cavalry, he plundered and slaughtered on every hand, murdering, among others, Q. Caecilius, his own brother-in-law. He most cruelly tortured M. Marius Gratidianus, a relative of C. Marius, and having at last put him to death, carried his gory head through the streets of Rome and presented himself with it in triumph before Sulla's tribunal. He is charged later with making away with his own son, in order to win the hand of Orestilla, who objected to having a full-grown step-son; see § 15.
29. inediae: B. 204, 1; A. 218, b; H. 451, 3; G. 375. quam, 'than,' naturally follows the comparative idea contained in suprā; translate, beyond what.' 30. Animus audāx, subdolus, etc. : the omission of connectives in this chapter makes the lines of the character sketch all the stronger. 31. cuius rei lubet: for cuius lubet rei, of whatever he pleased.' simulātor: one who pretends to be what he is not; dissimulātor: one who conceals what he is. aliēnī and (32) suī: neuter adjectives used as substantives, 'covetous of others' property, lavish with his own.' 32. satis, etc.: 'quite eloquent, he was lacking in discretion.'
Page 4. 1. vāstus, etc. : 'his insatiable mind always entertained inordinate, startling, over-ambitious desires.' 3. dominātiōnem: Sulla was absolute master in Rome from B.C. 82 until his abdication in 79. 4. neque id, etc.: nor did he have the slightest scruple about the means by which he should accomplish this, provided he secured the supreme power for himself.' 5. pararet: B. 310; A. 314; H. 587; G. 573. pēnsī: partitive genitive with quicquam. 7. quae utraque: neuter plural in agreement with two nouns in the feminine singular; B. 235, в, 2, α; A. 187, c; H. 395, 2, N.; G. 286, 3. artibus: 'practices.'
8. Incitabant, etc.: 'Besides, he was urged on by the corruption of the state's morals, which were being ruined by the worst and most opposite of evils, luxury and avarice.' 11. Rēs ipsa, etc.: 'The occasion itself, since my account has brought the public morality to
mind, seems to encourage me to go further back.' 12. repetere : ut with the subjunctive is more often the construction with hortārī, as in 19, 12. paucīs as in 3, 21. 13. militiae: how did this come to mean abroad'? 14. ut: how.' 16. disserere has four objects, viz. īnstitūta and the three following clauses.
Digression: Sketch of the gradual change of the Romans from a simple, brave, industrious people to an utterly corrupt nation. Sections 6-13.
§ 6. Tradition relates that Trojan colonists united with the Aborigines in founding Rome. As the city grew and became prosperous, it was attacked by neighboring tribes; but Roman valor triumphed. The liberal policy of the Romans after their victory won them many friends. At first they were ruled by a king, with the advice of a council of elders. But the kings, becoming tyrannical, were expelled; and thereafter two chief magistrates, clothed with equal power, were elected annually.
17. sicuti ego accēpī: 'as I have heard on good authority.' Sallust follows Cato in tracing the beginnings of Rome to the intermingling of Trojan colonists with the Aborigines. 18. habuere : 'possessed.' sēdibus incertīs: 'without fixed abodes.' 19. Aborīginēs: a name given by Roman writers to the primitive race which, mixing with the ancient Siculi, was said to have produced the Latins. Cf. Vergil's account of them in the Aeneid, VIII, 314–323 :
"Haec nemora indigenae Fauni Nymphaeque tenebant
quis neque mos neque cultus erat, nec iungere tauros
aut componere opes norant aut parcere parto,
2. connōrat for
Page 4. 1. Ille Catiline. istis: these (scoundrels),' the conspirators. sed tam diū, dum: 'but only so long as.' tinēbātur: B. 293, 11; A. 276, e, N.; H. 603, 1; G. 569. noverat, from nōscō. 4. Erat ei, etc.: 'not only did he possess the ability to plan crime, but neither hand nor tongue ever failed to support his ability'; i.e. he lacked neither a persuasive tongue to urge his plans, nor a deft hand to execute them. 6. descriptōs: 'assigned.' cum mandārat: B. 288, 3; A. 322, 309, c; H. 539, 2; G. 567. 7. nihil erat, etc. there was nothing to which he did not give his personal attention and energy, nothing for which he did not himself watch and toil.'