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sed rami atque asper victu venatus alebat.
Primus ab aetherio venit Saturnus Olympo,
arma Iovis fugiens et regnis exsul ademptis.
Is genus indocile ac dispersum montibus altis
composuit legesque dedit, Latiumque vocari
maluit, his quoniam latuisset tutus in oris."

Page 5. 2. moenia, which usually means 'city walls,' here denotes a walled city'; note the use of una in the plural to agree with moenia. dispari genere: although they were unlike in race.' 3. alii aliō mōre viventes: accustomed to different modes of life.' 6. rēs state.' mōribus: 'civilization.' 7. sīcuti, etc.: 'as generally happens with human possessions.' 9. rēgēs: the Etruscan kings. populique finitumī: the Sabines, Aequians, Rutulians, and Volscians. temptāre and (10) esse: the first stances of the historical infinitive, which, although rare in Caesar and Cicero, Sallust uses very freely. B. 335; A. 275; H. 610; G. 647. paucī: 'but few; it is probable that the alliance existing later with the lowland Hernicans began in the regal period.

10. auxiliō: B. 191; A. 233; H. 433, 3; G. 356. 11. intenti: energetically.' 14. auxilia portābant: colloquialism for auxilia ferebant; portāre is restricted more properly to the carrying of material objects. 16. parābant: 'secured.' Imperium, etc.: 'Rule over them was regulated by law; but their ruler was called king.' 17. rēgium: not from rex. 18. rei publicae consultābant: this is the only case in which the frequentative is used like the simple verb cōnsulō with the dative, to denote 'taking counsel for.'

19. cūrae similitudine: 'from the similarity of their duties.' patrēs: they were more probably called patrēs because the senate originally consisted of all the patres familias over 45 years old; their age gave them the title senātōrēs, which is derived from the same root (SEN, 'old') as senex. 21. conservandae lībertātis: this use of the gerundive as predicate genitive to express purpose is rare. B. 339, 6; A. 298, R.; H. 626, 5; G. 428, R.2. 23. annua, etc.: 'they elected two rulers to hold office for one year; in this way they thought the mind of man would be least likely to grow overbearing for want of restraint.'

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§ 7. With the establishment of the republic, men's ambitions long stifled by suspicious kings—were aroused. Young men were

willing to undergo any hardship, to incur any danger, in the hope of winning fair fame. Glory in war, rather than mere wealth, was their aim. Their bravery bore fruit in the defeat of large armies, and in the capture of many cities belonging to their enemies.


26. ea tempestāte: more archaic and poetical than the usual eō tempore. quisque in apposition with 'they,' the subject of coepere; it regularly follows the reflexive, as it does in this case. 30. adepta: here used in a passive sense; cf. machinatum, 38, 28. B. 112, b; A. 135, ƒ; H. 222, 2; G. 167, n.2.

Page 6. 3. habebant: Sallust seems to forget that he has already put two verbs, erat and discēbat, agreeing with iuventus, in the singular. For other examples of a combination of singular and plural verbs in the same sentence, see 12, 13-17, and 17, 9-12. 5. glōriae: what case? B. 200; A. 217; H. 440, 2; G. 363, 2. 6. sē: cf. use of reflexive with student in 1, 1; here the presence of quisque is responsible for it in some degree. 7. facinus faceret: alliteration, of which there are innumerable instances in Sallust. When the words are from the same root, as in this case, it is called figūra etymologica. 8. faceret: subjunctive by attraction. B. 324, 2; A. 342; H. 652; G. 663, 1. 11. possem . . . traheret: as these form a contrary-to-fact present conditional, the perfect subjunctives fecerit and ceperit are only apparent violations of the law of sequence of tenses. 13. pūgnandō oppugnando. Sallust often uses a simple verb instead of a compound. nī, etc. if this enumeration would not draw us too far from our undertaking.'


§ 8. But surely capricious Dame Fortune reigns supreme in this world. For while the Athenians have had several talented historians to laud their brave deeds, the Roman people unfortunately have let their exploits go unheralded, simply because they were always so absorbed in business affairs that they never developed historians of any merit.

15. ea: 'she,' i.e. fortūna; the subject of celebrat obscuratque, while res is the object. 16. ex lubīdine: 'according to her caprice.' 19. feruntur: are famed to be.' 20. scriptōrum māgna ingenia = scriptōrēs māgnī ingenī; such clever historians as Herodotus, Thucydides, and Xenophon contributed to the renown of Athens. 21. prō māxumīs: 'as being most remarkable.'

22. fēcĕre used absolutely, i.e. without any object expressed. 23. populō Rōmānō: Q. Fabius Pictor and L. Cincius Alimentus, the best of the early Roman historians, were mere annalists, who wrote altogether in Greek. Cato the Censor, B.C. 184, who was Sallust's model in many particulars, was the first to write a history in Latin. With the exception of Julius Caesar, whose writings are memoirs rather than histories, Rome produced no historian of ability before Sallust. 24. copia: 'advantage.' prudentissimus quisque : 'all their ablest men.' B. 252, 5, c; A. 93, c; H. 515, 2; G. 318, 2.

$ 9. But to resume: The Romans of the early republic were a people of good morals, thrifty and harmonious at home, brave and energetic in the field. Their success was due to their daring in war and their fairness in peace. That these qualities were characteristic of them is proven by the fact that in war the penalty for disobedience to orders was much more severe than for either fleeing or giving way in battle, while in peace they ruled by kindness rather than by fear.

29. Igitur: 'well then,' used to resume a line of thought after a digression, and hence called resumptive. In this case there is a return to the idea expressed in § 7. bonī mōrēs: 'good morals'; the picture of the Romans contained in the following lines, although somewhat highly colored, is fairly representative of the period of the conquest of Italy, B.C. 350-275. Indeed, it was not until after the Second Punic War, B.C. 218-201, that the Romans began to show unmistakable signs of deterioration. Before that, they had been for the most part simple peasants, remarkable for their industry in peace and their aggressiveness in war. 30. ius bonumque, etc.: 'justice and goodness prevailed among them, not so much because they were compelled to practice these virtues by their laws, as from their natural inclination.' 31. valēbat: the verb is in the singular, although there are two subjects. B. 255, 3; A. 205, b; H. 392, 4; G. 285, 2.

Page 7. 1. suppliciīs, which generally means 'punishment,' is an archaism for supplicātiōnibus, ‘thanksgivings.' On these thanksgiving days all the temples were thrown open to the public. Priests and people, crowned with bay wreaths, marched in procession to all the sanctuaries and prostrated themselves before the statues of the gods, while wine and incense were offered on the altars, and prayers were read to the deities. This was generally followed by much feast

ing. government.' flicted on.'

7. tardius: 'too tardily'; modifies excesserant. Sallust gives an account of the punishment of A. Manlius Torquatus for this offence; see 48, 23-27. Another instance is found in the Second Samnite War, B.C. 327-304, when Q. Fabius Maximus, in the absence of the commander-in-chief, Papirius, engaged in battle with the enemy in direct violation of orders, and won a great victory. Papirius immediately sentenced him to be executed. Fortunately for Fabius, he was rescued by the army and taken to Rome, where Papirius at last, with great reluctance, yielded to the entreaties of the Senate and spared his life. But such Roman severity was not lacking even at the time of Catiline's conspiracy; for Sallust states (30, 22-23) that when Fulvius, the son of a senator, was captured while on his way to join Catiline's forces, his own father ordered him to be put to death.

9. loco cedere: a military expression, 'to give way.' beneficiis referring probably to Rome's liberal policy with her allies, which was to allow them an independent government, provided they furnished regular contingents for the army. 11. īgnoscere quam persequi: if both these verbs governed the accusative, we should expect acceptam iniuriam.

Find an example of asyndeton, chiasmus, and alliteration in this section.

4. sēque, etc.: 'they maintained both themselves and their 6. vindicatum est in: 'punishment was in

§ 10. But when they had established their rule over many nations, and all seas and lands were open to them, then leisure and wealth proved their ruin. Love of money destroyed their honesty and fidelity, and made them proud and cruel, irreligious and venal. Love of power made them false and deceitful. At first these evils grew slowly; but soon they swept like a plague over the state, until its rule became unendurable.

12. With ubi, notice the usual perfect indicative in several clauses to denote single occurrences, followed by an imperfect, patebant, of continued state. 13. rēgēs: like Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, Antiochus the Great of Asia, Philip V. and Perseus of Macedonia, all of whom the Romans conquered between 280 and 168 B.C. nātiōnēs ferae et populī ingentēs: like the Spaniards and Cisalpine Gauls. 14. ab stirpe: 'root and branch'; the utter destruction of the city was accomplished at the end of the Third Punic War, B.c. 146.


15. saevīre fortūna ac miscēre: a poetical expression; cf. Vergil's Aeneid, I, 124, magno misceri murmure pontum. 17. dubiās atque asperās: 'dangerous and difficult.' 18. optanda aliās: 'desirable under other circumstances'; what part of speech is aliās? 19. ea: neuter plural, referring to ambitiō and avāritia; cf. quae utraque, 4, 7. 25. amīcitiās, etc.: 'to regard friendships and enmities not at their real worth, but as a matter of personal advantage.' 29. immūtāta: sc. est; so also with factum in line 30.

§ 11. At first, however, men were ambitious rather than avaricious; and ambition is a vice only when it actuates bad men. But avarice is an insatiable passion for money, which poisons the very soul of man. When, therefore, Sulla had once allowed his victorious adherents to rob and plunder their fellow-citizens at will, it became impossible to curb men's avarice. Added to this was the evil influence of Sulla's soldiers, who, being too leniently allowed to lay hands on everything they wanted in Asia, thereafter knew no restraint in victory.

32. exercebat: actuated.' quod, etc.: which, though a vice, was not far from being a virtue.' Account for gender of quod. B. 250, 3; A. 199; H. 396, 2; G. 614, 3 (b). How is virtutem governed? B. 141, 3; A. 261, a; H. 435, 2; G. 359, n.1.

Page 8. 1. īgnāvos : 'worthless'; notice the early form of the nominative singular in -os, which was regularly retained after v until the first century A.D. 2. huic: the latter in the absence of honorable qualities'; hic would seem more natural here. 4. habet: 'implies.' 7. Sed, etc. : 'But after L. Sulla had recovered control over the state by force of arms, and evil results had developed from good beginnings.' The bitter rivalry between Sulla and Marius came to a climax with the appointment, by the Senate, of Sulla to the command of the war against Mithridates, B.C. 88. Shortly afterward Marius, by resorting to the most desperate measures, succeeded in obtaining the same command through a vote of the Roman tribes. Sulla fled, but soon returned at the head of an army and compelled Marius in turn to take flight. Not long after Sulla's departure for the East, Marius, in company with Cinna, triumphantly reëntered Rome and wreaked vengeance on his political enemies. On the death of Marius, Cinna held absolute sway over Rome for three years. Sulla landed at Brundisium in 83, and at first conducted

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