Immagini della pagina
PDF
ePub

Page

45. Universal spread of the insurrection,

506

46. Defeat of an attempt by the French against Gerona,

508

47. Expedition against Rosas, which is defeated,

509

48. Unsuccessful siege of Gerona,

510

49. The siege is raised by the Spaniards from Tarragona,

ib.

50. Universal transports in the Peninsula. Entry of the Spanish troops into

the capital,

512

51. Neglect of any efficient measures in the general exultation,

ib.

52. Affairs of Portugal, and disarming of the Spanish troops in that country,

513

53. Progress of the insurrection,

514

54. Operations of Loison in the Alentejo,

516

55. The English cabinet resolve on sending succours to Portugal,

517

56. Strange substitution of successive commanders to the British expedition, 518

57. Sir A. Wellesley takes the command of the expedition, and arrives off

Mondego Bay,

519

58. Arrival of the British troops at Mondego Bay, and proclamation by Sir

A. Wellesley,

520

59. Landing of the army,

521

60. March of the British troops to Roliça,

522

61. Advance of the British to attack the French there,

523

62. Combat of Rolica,

524

63. Victory of the British,

525

64. The British advance to Vimeira,

526

65. Sir A. Wellesley's plans are overruled by Sir H. Burrard,

527

66. Description of the field of battle of Vimeira,

528

67. Positions taken up by the two armies,

ib.

68. Battle of Vimeira,

529

69. Desperate conflict on the left,

530

70. Defeat of the French,

531

71. Sir A. Wellesley proposes to follow up the victory,

532

72. But is prevented by Sir Harry Burrard, .

533

73. An armistice is concluded,

535

74. Reasons which led to an armistice on both sides,

ib.

75. Convention of Cintra,

536

76. Senseless clamour in England on the subject,

537

77. A court of inquiry is held, and its results,

538

78. Expedience of the convention at that juncture,

540

79. Napoleon's views on that subject,

541

80. Disgraceful revelations which are made at Lisbon of the plunder by all

ranks in the French army,

81. Enormous extent of the plunder the French superior officers endeavoured

to carry off,

543

82. Great part of the plunder is wrested from the French,

544

83. The British troops are placed under the command of Sir John Moore, . 545

84. Strength of the united British forces, and their advance into Spain, 546

85. Great difficulty in forming a central junta at Madrid,

547

86. Appointment of a central junta at Madrid,

548

87. Miserable condition of the central government and the armies on the Ebro, 549

88. The Marquis Romana obtains information of what is going on in Spain, 551

89. Escape of the Marquis and his troops,

552

90. Extraordinary scene at the embarkation of the troops,

553

8

Page

1. Deep impression which these events made on the mind of Napoleon, 554

2. Armaments of Austria, and negotiations with that power and the princes

of the Rhenish Confederacy,

555

3. Napoleon's preparations to meet the danger, and great levy by the French

government,

557

4. Subsidiary treaty with Prussia,

558

5. Interview at Erfurth with Alexander,

559

6. Its secret object, and tenor of the conferences held there,

561

7. Fêtes and spectacles at Erfurth,

562

8. And on the field of Jena, .

564

9. Secret views of both parties at the conference,

565

10. Tenor of the conferences held there,

566

11. Concessions made by Napoleon to Russia and Prussia,

568

12. Their differences concerning Napoleon's marriage, and Turkey,

569

13. Treaty with Prussia, and Murat declared King of Naples,

570

14. Napoleon returns to Paris, and sets out for the Ebro,

571

15. Immense force there collected by Napoleon,

572

16. Positions and strength of the Spaniards, .

573

17. March, position, and strength of the British army,

574

18. Deplorable division of the British and Spanish troops,

575

19. Movements on the French right before the arrival of Napoleon, .

576

20. Check of Castanos at Logrono,

577

21. Defeat of Blake at Durango,

578

22. Position of the French and Spanish armies on Napoleon's arrival,

579

23. Actions at Espinosa,

ib.

24. Total defeat of the Spaniards at Reynosa,

581

25. Battle of Burgos, and defeat of the Spanish centre,

ib.

26. Movement against Castanos and Palafox,

583

27. Positions of the French and Spanish armies before the battle of Tudela, 584

28. Total defeat of the Spaniards,

585

29. Disorderly and eccentric retreat of the Spanish armies from the Ebro, 586

30. Rapid and concentrated advance of the French armies to adrid,

587

31. Forcing of the Somo-sierra pass, .

588

32. Prodigious agitation at Madrid,

589

33. Capture of the Retiro,

590

34. Capitulation of Madrid,

591

35. Napoleon's measures for the tranquillising of Spain,

592

36. Positions of the French corps in the end of December,

595

37. Vast forces at the disposal of the Emperor,

38. Bold advance of Sir John Moore,

597

39. Determination of Moore to advance, and joy which it diffused through

599

40. Advance to Sabagun, on the French line of communication,

ib.

41. Preparations for attacking Soult on the Carrion,

600

42. This movement instantly paralyses the farther advance of the French to

the south,

601

[ocr errors]

Page

43. Rapid march of Napoleon with an overwhelming force towards the English, 601

44. The English retreat on the line of Galicia,

602

45. Gallant action of light cavalry with the enemy, and capture of Lefebvre-

Desnouettes,

603

46. The Emperor continues the pursuit to Astorga, :

605

47. But thence returns to Paris,

606

48. Sir John Moore retires to Lugo,

607

49. Increasing disorder of the retreat,

608

50. And offers battle, which is declined,

609

51. Continues the retreat to Corunna. Hardships undergone by the troops, 610

52. Arrival at Corunna of the troops and the transports from Vigo Bay, 611

53. Position of the British in front of Corunna,

612

54. Battle of Corunna. Commencement of the action,

613

55. Vehement struggle in the centre,

ib.

56. Repulse of the French, .

614

57. Mortal wound of Sir John Moore,

615

58. His death,

616

59. His grave, and veneration with which it is regarded in Spain,

617

60. Embarkation of the troops, and their return to England,

618

61. Extreme gloom which these events produce in the British isles,

619

62. Despair which seized the public mind, .

620

63. Horror excited by the appearance of the army on its return,

621

64. Reflections on the campaign : its character checkered, but on the whole

eminently unfavourable to France,

622

65. Reflections on the campaign, and effect of Sir John Moore's movement, 623

66. Errors which he committed,

624

67. Especially in the undue rapidity of the retreat, .

625

68. Errors of Sir David Baird,

ib.

69. It was public opinion which was really to blame,

627

70. Moore's desponding views with regard to the contest,

628

71. Reflections on the character of the British and French armies. Superiority

of the former in fighting, .

630

72. And of the French, as yet, in the other duties of a campaign,

631

CHAPTER LVI.

CAMPAIGN OF ABENSBERG, LANDSHUT, AND ECKMUHL.

1. Influence of the aristocratic and democratic principles on the contending

parties in Europe,

633

2. Policy of the Imperial cabinet since the peace of Presburg,

634

3. Important decree for the formation of the landwehr,

635

4. Napoleon's remonstrances against these measures,

637

5. Deceitful pacific professions of Austria at Erfurth,

638

6. Intelligence of the preparations of Austria induces Napoleon to halt in Spain

and return to Paris,

639

7. Division of opinion in the Austrian cabinet on the war,

640

8. Arguments used on both sides,

641

9. Amount and distribution of the French forces in Germany, in spring 1809, 643

$

Page

10. Efforts of Austria to obtain the accession of Russia to the confederacy,

644

11. Prussia resolves to remain neutral,

645

12. General effervescence in Germany in aid of the Austrian cause,

646

13. Character of Metternich, the Austrian ambassador at Paris,

647

14. Angry interchange of notes between the French and Austrian courts, 648

15. Deep umbrage taken by Austria at the conference of Erfurth,

650

16. Measures for the concentration of the French army,

651

17. Preparations and forces of Austria,

ib.

18. Spirit which animated all classes of the Austrian empire,

653

19. Last diplomatic communications at Paris,

654

20. Austrian plan of the campaign,

655

21. Plans of Napoleon,

656

22. Commencement of hostilities by the Austrians,

657

23. Impolitic delay in the early movements,

659

24. First movements of the Austrians, and imminent danger of the French, 660

25. Imprudent dispersion of his forces by Berthier, and slow advance of the

Austrians,

661

26. Faulty movements of Berthier to arrest their progress,

662

27. The advance of the Austrians almost cuts in two the French army,

663

28. Napoleon instantly concentrates his army,

664

29. Movements of the two armies towards each other,

665

30. Napoleon's plan of operations. Its great dangers,

666

31. Actions between Davoust and Hohenzollern at Thaun,

667

32. Positions of the two armies on the night of the 19th,

668

33. Napoleon's address to the German confederates, .

669

34. Position and forces of the parties,

670

35. Combats of Abensberg,

671

36. Hiller pursued to Landshut by Napoleon,

672

37. His defeat by the Emperor,

673

38. Operations of Davoust and the Archduke Charles in the centre,

675

39. Attack and capture of Ratisbon by the Austrians,

676

40. Preparatory movements on both sides,

677

41. Description of the field of battle,

678

42. Battle of Eckmuhl,

679

43. Napoleon gains the victory,

681

44. Desperate cavalry action in front of Ratisbon,

682

45. In which the Austrian horse are at length overthrown, .

ib.

46. The Archduke retreats across the Danube, and Ratisbon is taken by the

French,

683

47. Operations against Ratisbon by the French, and wound of Napoleon, 685

48. Assault of Ratisbon,

ib.

49. Great results of these actiuns,

687

50. The indefatigable activity of Napoleon and his soldiers was the principal
cause of these successes,

ib.

51. Impressive scene in the conferring of military honours at Ratisbon,

689

52. Defeat of the Bavarians by Hiller,

691

53. Successful operations of the Archduke John in Italy,

692

54. Total defeat of Eugene Beauharnais at Sacile,

ib.

55. Important effects of this victory on the Italian campaign,

693

56. Hopes which the commencement of the campaign afforded to the allies, 695

APPENDIX,

697

HISTORY OF EUROPE.

CHAPTER XLIX.

ADMINISTRATION OF MARQUESS WELLESLEY, AND FIRST

APPEARANCE OF WELLINGTON IN INDIA.

1.

quess Wel

ARTHUR WELLESLEY, afterwards Duke of WELLING- CHAP.

XLIX. TON, was born in Merion Street, Dublin, in the parish of

1769. St Peter's, where his birth is registered, on the 1st May 1769. He was the fourth son of Garret, second Earl of Birth of

Wellington Mornington, and was descended by the mother's side and Marfrom the Dungannon family, his mother having been lesley. Anne, eldest daughter of Viscount Dungannon. His father was a man of polished manners and kind and hospitable disposition, but not distinguished by any remarkable abilities, except a marked genius for music. His mother was a woman of uncommon vigour of mind, so that he forms, with Sir Walter Scott, Napoleon, Chateaubriand, Schiller, Goethe, and nearly all the illustrious persons of the last age, another instance among the many which experience must probably have furnished to every observer, that the sons of a family, at least in general, take their intellectual character from the mother's side. The Wellesleys were an old Saxon family long settled in Sussex, and the ancestor of the Irish branch had come over with Henry II. in 1172, to whom he was standard-bearer, and from whose gratitude VOL, VIII.

A

« IndietroContinua »