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ut se quibuscumque de causis quam saevissime coerceret, ipse quodam libello conqueritur. Ob hanc eandem valitudinem et gladiatorio munere, quod simul cum fratre memoriae patris edebat, palliolatus novo more praesedit; et togae virilis die circa mediam noctem sine sollemni officio lectica in Capitolium latus est.

III. Disciplinis tamen liberalibus ab aetate prima non mediocrem operam dedit ac saepe experimenta cuiusque etiam publicavit. Verum ne sic quidem quicquam dignitatis assequi aut spem de se com

modiorem in posterum facere potuit. 2 Mater Antonia portentum eum hominis dictitabat,

nec absolutum a natura, sed tantum incohatum ; ac si quem socordiae argueret, stultiorem aiebat filio suo Claudio. Avia Augusta pro despectissimo semper habuit, non affari nisi rarissime, non monere nisi acerbo et brevi scripto aut per internuntios solita. Soror Livilla cum audisset quandoque imperaturum, tam iniquam et tam indignam sortem p. R. palam et clare detestata est. Nam avunculus maior Augustus quid de eo in utramque partem opinatus sit, quo certius cognoscatur, capita ex ipsius epistulis posui.

IV. “ Collocutus sum cum Tiberio, ut mandasti, mea Livia, quid nepoti tuo Tiberio faciendum esset ludis Martialibus. Consentit autem uterque nostrum, semel nobis esse statuendum, quod consilium in illo sequamur. Nam si est artius, ut ita dicam, holocleros, purpose of punishing him with all possible severity for any cause whatever. It was also because of his weak health that contrary to all precedent he wore a cloak when he presided at the gladiatorial games which he and his brother gave in honour of their father; and on the day when he assumed the gown of manhood he was taken in a litter to the Capitol about midnight without the usual escort.a

a Of relatives and friends. • The future emperor.

c Claudius. & Celebrated by Augustus in 12 A.D. in honour of Mars Ultor; cf. Aug. xxix. 1 and 2.

III. Yet he gave no slight attention to liberal studies from his earliest youth, and even published frequent specimens of his attainments in each line. But even so he could not attain any public position or inspire more favourable hopes of his future.

His mother Antonia often called him “a monster of a man, not finished but merely begun by Dame Nature”; and if she accused anyone of dulness, she used to say that he was “ a bigger fool than her son Claudius." His grandmother Augusta always treated him with the utmost contempt, very rarely speaking to him; and when she admonished him, she did so in short, harsh letters, or through messengers. When his sister Livilla heard that he would one day be emperor, she openly and loudly prayed that the Roman people might be spared so cruel and undeserved a fortune. Finally to make it clearer what opinions, favourable and otherwise, his great uncle Augustus had of him, I have appended extracts from his own letters:

IV. “ I have talked with Tiberius, my dear Livia, as you requested, with regard to what is to be done with your grandson Tiberiuse at the games of Mars.d Now we are both agreed that we must decide once for all what plan we are to adopt in his case. For if

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Nam semper

quid est quod dubitemus, quin per eosdem articulos

et gradus producendus sit, per quos frater eius 2 productus sit? Sin autem ñdartwo bac 1 sentimus

eum et βεβλάφθαι και εις την του σώματος και εις τήν της ψυχής 2 αρτιότητα, praebenda materia deridendi et illum et nos non est hominibus tà tocauta σκώπτειν και μυκτηρίζειν ειωθόσιν.3 aestuabimus, si de singulis articulis temporum deli

berabimus, μη προϋποκειμένου ημίν posse arbitremur 3 eum gerere honores necne. In praesentia tamen

quibus de rebus consulis, curare eum ludis Martialibus triclinium sacerdotum non displicet nobis, si est passurus se ab Silvani filio homine sibi affini admoneri, ne quid faciat quod conspici et derideri possit. Spectare eum circenses ex pulvinari non placet nobis ; expositus enim in fronte prima spectaculorum conspicietur.

In Albanum montem ire eum placet nobis aut esse Romae Latinarum diebus. Cur

enim non praeficitur urbi, si potest sequi fratrem 4 suum in montem ? Habes nostras, mea Livia, senten

tias, quibus placet semel de tota re aliquid constitui, ne semper inter spem et metum fluctuemur. Licebit autem, si voles, Antoniae quoque nostrae des hanc partem epistulae huius legendam.” Rursus alteris

litteris: 5 6 Tiberium adulescentem ego vero,

dum tu aberis, cotidie invitabo ad cenam, ne solus cenet cum

ήλαττώσθαι, Berouldus ; ελαττωσθαι αυd ελαττωσεαι, m88. yuxñs, first Roman editions ; ¥xns, mss. 3 eiwoboiv, Roman editions ; eniwlooiv, most of the mss.

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ο The two Greek words, άρτιος and ολόκληρος, mean plete,”. “perfect of one's kind ;” the meaning therefore is ts if he have his five senses."

See note on Aug. xlv. l.

he be sound a and so to say complete,a what reason have we for doubting that he ought to be advanced through the same grades and steps through which his brother has been advanced ? But if we realize that he is wanting and defective in soundness of body and mind, we must not furnish the means of ridiculing both him and us to a public which is wont to scoff at and deride such things. Surely we shall always be in a stew, if we deliberate about each separate occasion and do not make up our minds in advance whether we think he can hold public offices or not. However, as to the matters about which you

ask my present advice, I do not object to his having charge of the banquet of the priests at the games of Mars, if he will allow himself to be advised by his kinsman the son of Silvanus, so as not to do anything to make himself conspicuous or ridiculous. That he should view the games in the Circus from the Imperial box b does not meet with my approval ; for he will be conspicuous if exposed to full view in the front of the auditorium. I am opposed to his going to the Alban Mount or being in Rome on the days of the Latin festival; for why should he not be made prefect of the city, if he is able to attend his brother to the Mount? You have my views, my dear Livia, to wit that I desire that something be decided once for all about the whole matter, to save us from constantly wavering between hope and fear. Moreover, you may, if you wish, give this part oỉ my letter to our kinswoman Antonia also to read." Again in another letter :

“I certainly shall invite the young Tiberius to dinner every day during your absence, to keep him

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suo Sulpicio et Athenodoro. Qui vellem diligentius et minus meteópws deligeret sibi aliquem, cuius motum et habitum et incessum imitaretur. Misellus ατυχεί: nam εν τοις σπουδαίοις, ubi non aberravit eius animus, satis apparet ή της ψυχής αυτού ευγένεια.” Item tertiis litteris :

“ Tiberium nepotem tuum placere mihi declamantem potuisse, peream nisi, mea Livia, admiror. Nam qui tam đoapôs loquatur, qui possit cum declamat capôs dicere quae dicenda sunt, non video.”

Nec dubium est, quid post haec Augustus constituerit, et 1 reliquerit eum nullo praeter auguralis sacerdotii honore impertitum ac ne heredem quidem nisi inter tertios ac paene extraneos e 2 parte sexta nuncuparet, legato quoque : non amplius quam octingentorum sestertiorum prosecutus.

V. Tiberius patruus petenti honores consularia ornamenta detulit; sed instantius legitimos flagitanti id solum codicillis rescripsit, quadraginta aureos in Saturnalia et Sigillaria 4 misisse ei. Tunc demum abiecta spe dignitatis ad otium concessit, modo in hortis et suburbana domo, modo in Campaniae secessu delitescens, atque ex contubernio sordidissimorum hominum super veterem segnitiae notam ebrietatis 1 et, mss. ; ut, Smilda ; cum, Bentley.

e, second Roman edition; ne, n. 3 legato quoque, Ernesti ; legatoque, mss.; legato, Torrentius.

sigillaria, L’s; sigillari, n.

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a See note on Jul. lxxxiii. 2; the heirs in the third degree had little or no prospect of receiving their inheritance.

o December 21 and 22, an extension of the Saturnalia, when it was customary to make presents of little images of various kinds (sigilla); also the name of a quarter or street in Rome, see chap. xvi. 4; Nero, xxviii. 2,

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