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use by workmen in England at some period, for they are found very frequently, though very

rarely, in sepulchral interments all over the island”. Worsaae (Antiquities of the Bronze Period, p. 25), giving a figure of one of these, says that “they were fastened at the end to a wooden handle. They were probably used as a kind of axe or pickaxe. At all events, similar tools of iron are still used in Iceland as crowbars”. Indeed, the shape is such as to admit of their being adapted to a great variety of purposes. In Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities we find (pp. 351, 352) that the ouirn or dolabra, a similar instrument, was used as an adze for planing and polishing wood; by stonemasons; as a hoe; in throwing up entrenchments and destroying fortifications; also by leather cutters, and even as a page cutter! This form is more rarely met with in Wales than either the socketed celt or the paalstab, which latter is by far the commoner type. Of the paalstab I append two drawings. The plainest of them was found many years ago, together with a similar one, at Coed Llan, near Llanfyllin, and is now in the possession of Mrs. Richards of Vronheulog, Merionethshire, who tells me that she gave its fellow to Capt. Massey Taylor of Tynllwyn, near Corwen. It has no ornamentation beyond a something like a shield on either side, just below the groove for the handle ; the cutting edge is broad, being two inches and a half across, and it was evidently originally broader, a portion having been worn away. Its length is six inches and a quarter ; receptacle for the handle, three inches long ; breadth at half length, one inch ; greatest thickuess, nearly one inch. The other is a well preserved example of the singlelooped type, the ornamentation on either side consists of three ribs, running to a point towards the cutting edge, the middle one, which is the longest, being nearly two inches in length. It is six and three-eighths inches long, with a breadth, at the cutting end, of one inch and three quarters ; receptacle for handle is two and fiveeighths inches long, and the breadth abreast of the loop


is one inch and one-eighth. This last was found when the Vronheulog drive was being made, close to the foot of a rock, not far from the lodge, and at the same time and place was discovered the broken spear-head, of which I give a drawing, and which I shall now describe. The length of the fragment is nearly three inches and three quarters, and, judging from the inclination of the mid-rib and sides, it may have been, when entire, about seven inches or so, as indicated by the dotted lines. The breadth of the blade will have been about two inches, the rivet hole still remains, and has a diameter of a quarter of an inch. The fabric itself is thin, not more than one-eighth of an inch at the broken edge. An almost identical example, found in Devonshire, is figured in the Archæological Journal, vol. ix, p. 185, and another among the antiquities of bronze found at Ty-mawr, on Holyhead mountain in 1832, figs. 1 and 2 in Mr. Stanley's memoir. Lastly, I come to treat of the material, without which none of these implements could have been formed—viz., copper; and this brings me back again to Anglesey, where I have to chronicle another addition to the already goodly list of copper cakes found in that island. The discovery was

. made known to me by Thomas Prichard, Esq., of Llwydiarth Esgob, who has possession of the cake, and who kindly drove me over to see the place where it was found. The farm is now called “Olgar”, which may mean “rough remains", or "remains of a fort". Mr. Prichard

” tells me that in an old map of the Meyrick property by Lewis Morris, the name is spelt “Olgre”, which would be “strong remains” or “ vestiges”. The farmhouse itself is situated on high ground, but the cake was found in a field on the side of a bank, sloping towards the north ; this spot has gone by the name of gardden”, and animals always liked the grass


grew 1 Another and very probable derivation, suggested by the Editor of the Archæologia Cambrensis, is Gwylgre (the watch-place), which name, now transformed into Golden Grove, occurs near Llanasa in Flintshire.


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