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entering Gwynedd. The Gaels of later centuries, who were invaders, and troublesome on our coast, are called in the Brut, Ysgodogion Gwyddelig or Irish Scots, and are supposed by some to have succeeded in colonising parts of Wales, as they had established themselves on the coast of Scotland.

In situation, there was no great difference between the Gaulish towns and our own, placed, as they generally were, on rocky eminences in the interior of the country, and along the coast, like those of the Veneti, “on the edges of promontories and points of land running out into the sea”. Worlebury, on a cliff overlooking the Bristol Channel, is in this and in some other respects so like Castle Coz in Brittany, that it might almost have been the work of the same people, and mark the course taken by them through Cornwall and Somersetshire to the western confines of Wales. It is a curious and suggestive fact that a chevaux de frise of stones, the rudest and most primitive of defences or obstructions, should now exist at Castle Coz in Brittany, at Pen y Gaer, near to Conway, and in front of the great Dun's, in the Aran Isles of Galway. In Cæsar's time the walls of Gaulish towns were more skilfully built than ours, and were generally secured by an outer trench-an important defence, totally omitted at Braich

у Ddinas and Tre’r Ceiri, and where found connected with these strongholds is, I am inclined to think, an addition of a later date.

If we class Braich y Ddinas with Worlebury, we must assign to it a similar antiquity, and suppose it to have been built before the Roman conquest, and centuries prior to the arrivalof the Cymryin Carnarvonshire. How long it was occupied and when deserted is not easy to decide. According to the Brut, the last of the Gwyddyls did not leave Arvon until A.D. 966, “ when Rhodri, son of Eidwal, was killed by the Irish of Mona, and on that account Iago, son of Eidwal, destroyed Aberffraw, where the Irish resided, and he slew them in all their habitations in Mona, and they could never after that oppose

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the Welsh. After that he went to Arvon, Lleyn, and Ardudwy, and drove the Irish completely out of those countries, and they never afterwards formed a nation in Gwynedd, and many of them fled to Ceredigion, Dyfed, and Gower.” During this persecution, it is possible that Carn Madryn, Carn Boduan, and Tre 'r Ceiri, if not Braich y Ddinas, were resorted to by the Gwyddyls of Lleyn and Arvon, as places of strength and security. There are no remarkable remains of Irish settlements at Aberffraw, but north of it, and especially up the Gwna at Trefeilir, Bodwrdyn, Dindryfal, Ceryg y Gwyddyl, Ceryg-Engan, and Bodrwyn, there were, years ago, abundant traces of circular huts, called Cytiau Gwyddelod by the Welsh, but why so designated I do not understand, unless known to have been inhabited by alien tribes. Their own dwellings, about the Roman period, must have been circular and generally similar. That they were of stone on Penmaenmawr we may attribute to situation, and to the materials on the spot, which were suitable and even necessary. Gaulish huts, built of timber, straw, and clay, as usually represented, would have afforded sorry protection on this mountain during the gales which sometimes visit it. For a further account of these ruins the reader is referred to the first volume of the Archæologia Cambrensis, First Series. It is scarcely requisite that I should direct his attention to the beauty of the accompanying illustrations in which Mr. Smith has so ably done justice to Mr. Haslam's drawings.



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The Annual Meeting of the Cambrian Archeological Association will be held at Carnarvon on Monday, August 6th, and succeeding days, and the following is the proposed programme of its proceedings

Monday, August 6th.-Committee meeting, 8.30. Public meeting, 9 P.M.

Tuesday, August 7th. Leave by 9.45 train to Llangybi Station, 10.34.

(a.) Those intending to visit Carn Pentyrch may walk two miles, inspecting on their way Llanarmon and Llangybi Churches, and returning to either Llangybi or Chwilog stations, to meet the 3.39 train for Avon Wen, and walking thence three-quarters of a mile to the Circular Mound on the left, towards Criccieth, and returning to Avon Wen for the 6.10 train for Carnarvon at 7.10.

(0.) Those who intend to examine Tre Ceiri will go on to Pwllheli, whence carriages will be ready to convey them to Llanaelhaiarn, about six miles; visiting on the way a cromlech on Cromlech Farm, near Four Crosses, and inspecting the ALHORTVS METIACO Stone in the old schoolroom ; ascend thence to Tre Ceiri ; and on return journey visit the Llannor inscribed stones on way to Pwllheli for the 5.51 train, reaching Carnarvon at 7.10.

(c.) Those of the Pentyrch party, who prefer it, may walk on to Pen y Gaer (two miles and a half from Pentyrch), on the summit of which are some interesting remains; thence to Glasfryn, the residence of the Rev. J. Williams Ellis, and on to the Pwllheli road, within half a mile of Llanaelhaiarn, and returning in the carriages of the Tre Ceiri party.

Evening meeting at 8.30.

Wednesday, Aug. 8.—By carriages to Dinas Dinorben, Gadlys (a circular camp near Llanwnda Station), Dinas y Pryf, Dinas Dinlle, Llandwrog Church, maenhir in Glynllifon Park, Craig y Dinas (a

, strong post on the Llyfni), cromlech near Tanybedw, Clynnog Church and St. Beuno's Chapel, Chest, and Holy Well; cromlech with cup-markings, a short distance from the church. Return thence to Carnarvon.

Evening meeting at 9.

Thursday, Aug. 9.-Examine the Castle, Town Walls, and Museum; the remains of Segontium and Roman walls; Llanbeblig and St. Mary's Churches. In the afternoon members and visitors may make their own separate plans, as there will be no evening meeting.

Friday, Aug. 10.-By carriages to Dinas Dinorwic, by Crúg oval enclosure ; traces of supposed Roman road from Segontium, at Bethel; Llys Dinorwic, Llanberis Church, Dolbadarn Castle. In returning diverge at Cwm y Glo, taking the Carnarvon road, which


goes to Carreg y Fran; thence by Brynbras Castle to Llanrug Church; Decivs Stone at Pantavon, the residence of the Rev. P. Bayley Williams.

Evening meeting at 8.

We regret to have to state that Mr. Lewis R. Thomas of the Old Vicarage has been compelled, through a serious accident, to resign the post of Local Secretary; but we are glad to be able to add that Mr. S. W. Davids, Jun., has kindly undertaken the office.

The British Archeological Association will hold its Annual Meeting at Llangollen, on the 27th of August and following days, under the presidency of Sir W. Williams Wynn, Bart., M.P. The programme embraces the Abbeys of Valle Crucis, Cymmer, and Basingwerk, the Castles of Chirk, Denbigh, and Dinas Bran, the Churches of Wrexham, Gresford, Corwen, Llanrhaiadr, and Derwen ; and several papers are promised on subjects of interest connected with the Principality.




Sir,- Did eight tributary kings row King Edgar upon the Dee? I say they did not, and I base my opinion upon the following facts :

(a.) Discrepancy of date of reputed occurrence. Florence of Worcester says it happened in 973. Matthew of Westminster says in 974. William of Malmesbury does not give the date. The Saxon Chronicle says Edgar was at Chester in 972. Henry of Huntingdon says he was there in 970. Mr. Frank Buckland says the date of this event on a wall at Chester is 962.

(6.) Discrepancy as to number of tributary kings. Florence of Worcester, Matthew of Westminster, and William of Malmesbury say eight. But the Saxon Chronicle and Henry of Huntingdon say there were six only.

(c.) All that the earliest authorities state is that Edgar held a court at Chester, and that he there received the homage of the kings. Henry of Huntingdon says that six subordinate kings pledged him their fealty there, but he does not give their names, nor does he say a word about the triumphant procession by water. The Saxon Chronicle is equally silent on these two vital points. Nor does Humphrey Lhoyd, in his Historie of Cambria, allude to this matter.

· H.M. Inspector of Fisheries.

In the Brut y Tywysogion (Chronicle of the Princes) we read that in the year 971 “ Edgar, King of the Saxons, collected a very great fleet at Caerleon upon Usk”. Caerleon


Usk” is, doubtless, confounded with the Roman camp upon the Dee, that is, Chester.

(d.) The names given by the monkish chroniclers do not correspond with the names of the Welsh kings who were contemporary with Edgar up to the year 974, except that of Howel, given by Matthew of Westminster. This prince began to reign in 974. William of Malmesbury says the names of the so-called tributary kings were—“ Kinad, King of the Scots; Malcolm of the Cambrians; that prince of pirates, Maccus; all the Welsh kings, whose names were Dufual, Giferth, Huval, Jacob, Judethil.” Matthew of Westminster says they were- -Kined, King of the Scots ; Malcolm, King of Cumberland; Maco, King of Man and many other islands; Dufual, King of Demetia ; Siferth and Howel, Kings of Wales ; James, King of Galwallia ; and Jukil, King of Westmaria. Florence of Worcester says they were-“Kenneth, King of the Scots; Mal

. colm, King of the Cumbrians; Mæcus, King of several isles; and five others, named Dufual, Siferth, Hawal, Jacob, and Juchil."

(e.) In consequence of the fulsome manner in which the monks write of this king, I am inclined to receive their statements with grave doubt. It is an undisputed fact that he was fearfully licentions and cruel; that his laws, as far as offenders were concerned, were atrocious ones, and yet Florence of Worcester terms him the flower and glory of a race of kings. Matthew of Westminster says he exchanged his earthly kingdom for an eternal one. William of Malmesbury says his sanctity broke the neck of an abbot and cared a blind lunatic.

(f.) From the Iolo MSS. we learn that Gwaethvoed, Lord of Cibwyr and Ceredigion, in reply to Edgar's summons to row him on the Dee, said “he could not row a barge ; and if he could, that he would not do so, except to save a person's life, whether king or vassal.” When a second message begged for some sort of a reply to return to the king, "Say to him”, said Gwaethvoed,

« Fear him who fears not death."

("Ofner na ofne angau.") (I may here incidentally remark that, in speaking on this matter at Dowlais House, Mrs. Clark, who is a connection of the late Viscountess Beaconsfield, laughingly remarked, “Oh, I am descended from Gwaethvoed !" At my request she gave me her crest and monogram. The motto is Gwaethvoed's reply to King Edgar, which reply, the Iolo MSS. inform us, is the motto of all his descendants.)

(9.) The mere idea that eight kings, like so many galley slaves, should row, upon compulsion, the puny-bodied, lustful-minded, Dunstan-guided Edgar upon the Dee is simply preposterous. What would their subjects think of such an ignoble exhibition ? I am persuaded that snch a fair opportunity of advancing their own interests would not be neglected by their rivals, and in those days

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