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1253-54, and between De la Ware and De Radnor, 1256-57, as finally did Earl Gilbert between De Radnor and De Braose, 1265-66.

The question was again opened in the 18th Edward I, when Malcolm de Harlegh, the King's officer (probably escheator), complained that on the death of De Braose, Bishop of Llandaff, in 1287, the lords marchers seized his temporalities,-Gilbert de Clare taking the manors of Llandaff and Llankaderwader (a manor in Gwent Iscoed), and collating to vacant benefices, De Bohun that of Donestow, and William de Braose that of Bishopston in Gower. De Clare asserted that the manors challenged were in his demesne, and that he and none other had a right to their custody; that his ancestors had always exercised the right, and the king only during minorities; that his father, Earl Richard, died seized of the temporalities of the see,

and their custody came to him with the estate. The King opposed this view. After some time the Earl compounded. He waived his claim to custody and advowsons, and the King regranted them to the Earl and his Countess for their lives, with reversion to the crown, or without prejudice to the right of the crown. (Ryley, Pleadings in Parliament, p. 61.) Two or three years afterwards (22 Edward I) the see had to be filled up, and there was a delay on the Earl's part in giving seizin to the new Bishop, on which the King interposed. (Ibid., p. 203.) Besides Llandaff and Llankaderwader, the bishops held Nash and Duffryn Golwch, or Worlton, in St. Lythan’s. (See also Haddan and Stubbs, Concilia.) One thing is clear, that for near two centuries the Bishop of Llandaff was supposed to hold his temporalities of the lord of Glamorgan.

Besides these divisions were the demesne or private lands of the lord, which he either kept in his own hands or let on farm. These were the Castles of Cardiff, Dinas Powis, Llantrissant, and Kenfig; the manors of Roath, Boverton, and Llant wit Major; the grange of Kenfig ; and, in some sense, the whole division of Cibwr. The lordships of Tir y Iarll and Glyn Rhondda were in his hands, but scarcely as demesne lands. The lord is said to have held the manor (borough ?) of Cowbridge and its liberties ;, but as the Mayor of Cowbridge is, and always has been, appointed by the Constable of Llanblethian Castle, within which member Cowbridge is locally situated, it seems probable that the borough was from the first dependent upon the member, and probably only came to the chief lord upon the attainder of Syward in the reign of Henry III.

Each lordship, whether member or manor, had its local courts ; court-baron for civil matters, conveyance of land, and the like, in which the freeholders were the judges, and the seneschal the recorder, and which included the court customary, where there were copyholds in the manor; and court-leet, where matters criminal were tried. Here both were held in the lord's name, but outside the marches, the court-baron was held in the name of the lord of the manor, and the court-leet in that of the king. These courts were held within the manor to which they belonged. The tenures were freehold; copyhold or customary, holding by copy of courtroll, and delivery of a verge or rod; patent or leasehold; and at will. Some lands were held in free soccage ; some by an annual acknowledgment, as a red rose or a pound of white pepper. Gavelkind prevailed among the copyholds, and in at least one instance, boroughEnglish. Of the lands of the religious houses, the services due to the chief lord seem to have been usually reserved by the donors until the Dissolution, when such as were granted away were held by the crown in capite. In the earlier days the lordship itself was held de corona ; but nothing within it, not even the episcopal manors ; nor did the stepping in of the crown during a minority, or upon a forfeiture, convert the holdings into manors held of the crown. The distinction between a tenant who held of a lord, who again held of the crown, and one who held direct of the crown, was important. Both held in capite in law, but the

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latter only in capite de corona ; and when the holding of the latter escheated to the crown, the military tenants were not bound to render personal service. This was reserved for the immediate lord. To the king, when he stepped in, they had the option of paying a composition in money. The division of the country was not unlike that carried out in Ireland by Henry II. The over-lord held by an undefined military service, or sometimes, as De Braose in Gower, by a nominal service of one knight's fee. The knights' fees composing the body of the lordship had relation rather to the tenants than to the crown.

The court of the chief lord was called “Curia”, “Comitatus”, or “Parliamentum”, indiscriminately. It seems to have been the court of appeal for the lordship, and was presided over by the "vice-comes”, who was the lord's representative and chief officer. It was ambulatory, though probably most frequently held at Cardiff, in the outer ward of the Castle, where the records were kept, and where, till comparatively modern times, the shire-hall stood.

The coroner, so called because he took cognizance of the pleas of the crown, that is, in Glamorgan, of the lord, concerned himself, with the sheriff, in keeping the peace. The sheriff's assistants were called bailiffs or yeomen of the shire, which was divided between two of these officers by the Cowbridge Tawe.

Besides the feudal incidents yielding revenue to the lord, was a payment called “ myzes”, which Strype says was an ancient custom derived from the princes of Wales, and imposed certainly by Queen Elizabeth. It was anciently an honorary payment of corn by each commot to the prince on his accession, which was commuted for a money payment, and became eventually a payment from each manor on the accession of a new Iord. “Chence” or “ towl” was a parochial impost. Heriots were not unusual ; and in some of the Welsh holdings, as Avan, their old military character was preserved, and the payment was a horse and arms, due to the chief on the death of the mesne lord.

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Besides the specified services, measured by the number of fees held, and due from the tenants in the body of the shire, there were others discharged by Welshmen of high rank and considerable power among their countrymen, who held under the lord in his memberlordships, but had no definite sub-manor like the tenants in the body of the shire. Thus half a commot in Glyn Rhondda was held by the two sons of Morgan ap Cadwallon, two commots in Senghenydd were held by Griffith ap Rhys, and a commot in Machein or Miscin by Meredith ap Griffith.

Griffith. From none of these were any service due beyond a heriot of a horse and arms at death, which looks as though their submission was but nominal ; and, indeed, we find Morgan ap Caradoc of Avan, and other of these Welsh lords, accompanying Prince Rhys in his visit to Henry III at Gloucester, and offering their homage direct, as independent chiefs.

LIST OF MANORS AND LORDSHIPS.

UNDER CARDIFF CASTLE.

Avan member Coychurch
Balowick (?)

Coyty
Barry East

Cwrt-Colman Beganston

Dinas-Powis Bettws

St. Donat's Brigan

Erigen Park Boverton, in Llantwit St. Fagan's Major

Flaxland Caerau

Fonmon Caerwigau

St. George's Cantleston

Gileston Castle-Bayly

Glyn-Rhondda Castleton

Grammoyn Cilibebill

Hanghall-Wold Clan, otherwise Tre- St. Hilary

Hall Colneston

Kenfig Corntown

Leckwith Corrwg

Lesurth Coston

Lidmerston Cowbridge

Liege Castle

Littlebone
Llanbethery
Llanblethian
Llancadle
Llancarvan
Llancovian
Llandaff
Llandough by Cow-

bridge Llandough by Car

diff
Llandow
Llangewydd
Llangonydd
Llangewydd
Llanbaran
Llanharry
Llanmaes Bedford
Llanmaes Maliphant
Llanmays (?)
Llanquian

werne

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Manors held in capite de corona from the Dissolution:

Bonvileston

Llantwit and Ab- Moulton

Cogan
Colwinston
Cornellau (?)

bot's Llantwit, both Monknash
in Llantwit Major Neath Abbey
Llanveithin
Peterston-on-Ely
Roath Keynsham

Ewenny

Margam

Havod y Porth
Llantwit Tewkesbury.
Probably also West Milton

St. Mary Hill, alias Roath Tewkesbury
Kelligarn
Skerr (?)

Sub or mesne-manors:

Under Castleton,-Eglwys Brewis, Flemingston, Gileston (?), Orchard East.

Under Dinas Powis,-St. Andrews, Highlight, Michaelston-le-Pit. Under Kenfig,-Cornellau North, Cornellau South (?).

Under Llanblethian, Merthyr Mawr.

Under Llandaff,-Bishopston in Gower

Under Llantrithydd,-Stirton, alias Teverton.

Under St. Nicholas,-Carnllwyd, Llancadle, Wrinston.

Under Ogmore,-Brocastle, Colwinston, Corntown, Castle Adam, Dunraven, Dowell (?), Llampha Court, Llampha Old, St. Bride's Major, part of Pitcoed, Wallas.

Under Penllyn,-Llanvihangel.

Under Penmark,-Odin's Fee. Possibly Fonmon. Porthkerry. Under Senghenydd Subtus,-Llanvedw, Rudry, Van, Whitchurch. Under Wenvoe,-Cadoxton-juxta-Barry.

Manors held under Swansea Castle and in Cilvae, unconnected with the lordship of Glamorgan until the constitution of the county:

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