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Sawerdek (Sarn Deg, in masc. tek)=fair causeway. 720. Big Broshley: 390. The Massaychers (Maes Ucha)=upper field. 735. Troych Field or Twych. 771. Cae Bon Acre (bon=the stump of a tree).

785. Cae Dee or Dù (Dio in W. Bedow's will, A.D. 1574)=Cae Dial, field of revenge.

782. Cae Couff (near to a field called the Gearthley =Gelli), the smith's field. The plural form, cofia, occurs at Bangor. In Canon Jones' Names of Places in Wiltshire, p. 35, we read : “In Bede's History, lib. ii, cap. 13, it is recorded that the priest who answered Paulinus when he was persuading Edwin King of Northumbria to become a Christian was Coifi. Now the name given by the British Celts to an Archdruid was 'Coibhi’ (=Coiti); they, therefore, seem to have spoken of the priest alluded to by his title. See Armstrong's Gael. and Irish Dict."

Gearthley (W. Gelli)=a hazel grove ; cf. Taciti Germania, c. ix and xi, and Exod. xix, 12. In 1739 this name was given to the field at the south-west end of the bed of Llyn Bedydd.

Bo Mere. A name, in 1739, for the boggy ground, now wooded, leading from Bettisfield Park to the Great Arowry. In Harcourt's Doctrine of the Deluge (vol. i, pp. 106, 112, 115, 118) he shows that Bo or Po is the name of Boudha or Noah; and that the lotus or waterlily, which abounds here, is still a Hindoo emblem, and one that doubtless represents, in its solitary flower, the ark appearing above a waste of water.

Cronimos (? Croxton Moss). The name is found now in Croxton, and to the west of Gredington; and in Edward I's reign is referred to near Haughton. It has been sometimes derived from corone and coronator; and in Appendix il to 37th Report of Public Records, mention is made of a “ Croune Mosse" by Bickerton (Cest), A.D. 1420.

350. Platt House, by which Croxton Pool is drained.

252. Bryn Blethins (Bleddyn) on west side of Hanmer Lake.

118. The Whit Moss. Probably the bed of a lake to the north-west of Gredington.

110. Scrape Wood (Ysgraph=that by which you cross). A brook runs below it.

228. The Feggins (? proper name, Teggin); one of them married into the Roydon family; or the Bellows' Field ; cf. Cae Couff.

318. Kiss Kibber (W. Cae Ysgubor, from ysgub=a sheaf; Irish, skibber=) barn-field. This is at Croxton. The Hanmer tithe-barn was in the present Park Field by the wood.

245. Kig Wyan (W. Cae Gwaen)=meadow-field at head of mere.

Nant y Tinkers (Tinker's Dingle). [The Tink Wood Quarry in Oldcastle (Malpas) supplied the stone for Hanmer Church, as it is said.

667. Little Caer Gwyn=little white encampment. 663. Bryn y Wilkin (Gwyleyn=watch-post).

588. The Ty Broffet (Prophwyd)=prophet's house. Qu. the abode of the “holy and discreet person who was wont to lead an eremetical life” (Bede, ii, 2), and was consulted by Abbot Dinoth.

497. Cae Barnicle (barnig and le)=a place of judgment. This name occurs (No. 106) in Bronington too. It

may have a Druidical reference, and is close adjoining Cae Couff, the Gearthley, and Bo Mere.

Caput Field, i.e., Baroniæ=the baron's seat. In Bettisfield,--the Ber Moss indicates the point where some little stream flowed into it, -Aber.

The Roden (Gallic, rea=rapid ; W. rhe=swift; Gr. pew=to flow : hence Roden and Ribble) rises in the cover called the Springs, and passing Usk Bank (wysg) runs down to Wem, joins the Tern below Rodington Hall, and Severn at Attingham.

In Bronington,—the Maes-Llwyn (field of the wood), house and lane.

72. The Trearan, probably Tre Wran, i.e., Gwran's Vill. This adjoins the place called Wren's Park. The Tir y Vron=land of the Vron, or sunny side. This name is referred to in 1624. (P. Henry MSS.)



69. Bar Loan (Bar Luin in Gredn. Map), the top of the wood.

59. Katrouse (cadros)= battle-moor.

630. Broad Herder (her=challenge, tir=land)=land of defiance. 6. Kidlease.

S W. cadlas=yard or enclosed croft.

W. cadlys=an encampment; cf. the Gadlas in Dudleston.

7. Keay Sah (W. sech), dry field. 8. Keay Coch=red field. 10. Kig Wern=Kae Gwern=alder-field. Kichell=Kae Gyll=hazel-field. Ditto, part of Arrowbank (Yr Erw Bant=) the low

The same name near Dinas Mawddwy. 11. Higher Pentry Couch (W. Pentre Goch)=red homestead. Occurs near water,

13. Camerayge (W. Cwm yr Agan)=the field of clefts or hollows.

270. Part of the Kennerwets (W. kynnar=early).

200. The Kidran Meadow (W. Cae Drain=Thorny field).

263. Still Field (W. estyll=) planks ; cf. Rhostyllen near Wrexham.

Ditto. Henrough (? Hen Rus=) old crosses. This is upon the line of Haughton Ring. In the year 1819 a man, now living, found a cross at the bottom of a mixen close by. It was of cast metal, 2 feet high, with the words “Great God” on the stem, in the casting.

299. Great Kirthmaur=the great beacon.

The Waind (W. Gwaun Du=) the dark meadow; the nanie, in 1739, of the upper bed of Llynbedydd that had been drained.

The Clapper.
The Cribb=the ridge or combe.

Pentre Bah=small hamlet. It was commonly said that there had once been a village at the north end of Llyribedydd. This name confirms it. Not far distant, upon a small granite boulder, is inscribed the first sign in the Bardic alphabet. If this is not to be considered

earlier than the beginning of the fifteenth century (see Archæologia Cambrensis, 4th Series, No. XI, p. 206), it would be at the very time that Davydd ap Edmwnt was living at Hanmer.

In Willington.—380. Ty Crack (W. careg)=stone house.

306 and 379. Lydyates (llidiart=porta agrestis, see Davies' Welsh and Latin Dict., A.D. 1632), near to Ty Crack. An old lane falls into the Watling Street here.

“ The Three Fingers.” As Croxton is just below, the name has sometimes been thought to have an ecclesiastical allusion.

371. The Schoolhouse Field, to the east of Willington Cross, and at the crossing (traws=transitus) of the Bangor and Deva roads. There are no traces of building. See Skene's Celtic Scotland, i, 212, “Reginald of Durham reports one word of the Pictish language of Galloway. He tells us that certain clerics of Kirkcudbright were called, in the language of the Picts, ‘Scollofthes'; and in the title of the chapter he implies that the Latin equivalent was “Scolasticus', W. 'Yscolheic', I. 'Sgolog?? In Caernarvonshire it is still common to call the schoolmaster “ the School”.

456, etc. The Cae Percyn (parson's field), four fields opposite the Yrylon. Area, 17 a. 25 p.

. 508. Croft Yrylon (lôn=lane), north side of road, and

: west of Tybroughton Hall

. The lôn, now closed, came from the Catterdyer crossing.

296. Big Cargoeth (Cae'r Coethi), the refiner's field, to the west of Bowen's Hall. In the Bronington Enclosure Act of 1777, “Ross Poeth” Green is named. This word has been thought to refer to charcoal-burning, but more probably preserves to us the Druidical custom on Hallowe'en. See Hone's Every Day Book, i, 1413. · Plas Deese (W. Plas dy İsaf)=the lower house.

370. The Candies (Candy, i.q. Pandy)=fulling-house.

The Caelika (W. Lłychwr)=flat field. Qu. Cae Lleuci =Lucy's field (?).

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Garondle (W. Grwnd Wal) =a foundation. Cae Rondle, on the line of a British road. (Archæologia Cambrensis, 4th Series, No. XIX, p. 214.)

In Ty Broughton.-187. Tir y Goch=land of the Goch (red), a principal family in Maelor. Cf. “ Isle of Gough” at Bangor. If it is rather Gloch=bell, it would be the Tir y Gloch=church land.

249. Tunnah's Loon (W. Ffynnon Llwyn=) well in the wood.

250. Pendavies=Pen-diffwys, top of the precipice, or perhaps from ffôs=fossa.

Ditto. Ten (Ty'n) Butts (butta=extremitas). Hartshorne's Salopia, p. 248.

These three are at the south-east of Eglwys y Groes, up to which the ground runs from all sides.

Catterdyer (quatuor viæ), a crossing of two ancient ways at the top of Drury Lane.

The Hully (W. Hwyl Le)=the starting-place. In the valley below there is a watershed.

Or, W. Hywel Le=Howel's Place. There is a moated enclosure to the south-east of the Hully, and the occupation adjoining is called “The Farm”; a non-descriptive name that is often found where the lands have once been the precincts of a castle or important house. In the present instance there are two deep trenches for concealing archers, which look to the south-east. In Appendix in to 37th Report of Public Records there is “a writ in 1480, to take all the possessions of John ap Howell, late Bailiff Itint in Maillors, as he died indebted to the Earl of Chester.” Close to the Hully, but in Iscoed, there is a Cae Howell, and that family were shown to be in possession of Broad Oak in 1570. (Arch. Camb., 4th Series, No. XXVI, p. 90.)

The Brunett (W. Bronydd)=the banks. It is written Bruness at Bangor, and Bren-house in the Beaufort Progress in 1684.

British names of families still remaining connected with the east end of Maelor are :-Bleddyn, Roden, Ro

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