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office he held until 1873, when his merits were properly acknowledged by his being made Principal Keeper of the Register of Deeds in Scotland. Previous to his appointment in 1853 he, in concert with Robertson, originated the Spalding Club, a society devoted to the collection and publication of MSS. bearing on the history of the northern counties of Scotland. Among the last volumes publisbed was the curious Book of Deer, a copy of which Mr. Stuart sent to the Pope, who graciously acknowledged the present, hoping at the same time that the interest shown in the history of the early Church might lead its author to become a member of the Romish communion. His great work was, however, the two folio volumes entitled The Sculptured Stones of Scotland, which will long remain a grand monument of his learned labours and sound judgment in the more difficult archæological questions of his day.

On his arriving at Edinburgh he was at once made one of the Secretaries of the Society of Scottish Antiquaries, and became the life and soul of the Society. He was so intimately connected with it that it is not easy to imagine the Society without him. He was the first among those who entered into the question of Druids and their circles, which he had done more to place in their true light than any of his contemporaries. Where the spade could throw any light he at once appealed to it; and the results of his diggings confirmed his theory that all such circles are more or less connected with burial-places, and that Druidic altars and temples existed only in men's brains. No one who has read his article on this subject, contained in the second volume of bis Sculptured Stones, will have any lingering doubt on the point.

He was an uncompromising Churchman, but could deeply sympathise with religious earnestness everywhere, and his loss will be deeply felt by those who have so long been aided by his wise counsel and liberal purse. His own University of Aberdeen made him LL.D., and he was an honorary member of the Royal Archæological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, and of the Societies of the Antiquaries of Zurich and Di storia Patria at Palermo.

By his first wife, the only daughter of Mr. Alex. Burness of Mastrich, Aberdeenshire, he left two married daughters. By his second wife, Jane, daughter of Colonel Ogilvie of Auchines, Brechin, he had issue; but the loss of some grandchildren by his first wife, and all his children by his second wife, greatly affected his health, and probably hastened the removal of one who was a Christian, not merely by profession of words, but in genuine principle and practical work. He died at Ambleside, 19 July 1877, in the sixty-fourth year of his age.




IN RE COYTY CASTLE. SIR.-In my last letter on this subject I refrained from giving a pedigree of the family of Griffith, which exists in Harleian MS. 6128, being desirous of comparing it with the original Griffith pedigree, — —a fine document now in the possession of Sir Henry Somerville Boynton, Bart., of Burton Agnes, co. York. This I have been enabled to do through the kindness of Lady Boynton, who copied out for me the portion of the original pedigree relating to the subject of Coyty Castle, the Vernons and Egertons.

Ednyved Vychan married Gwenllian, daughter of Rhys ab Gruffydd of South Wales. Their second son was Griffith, who married Gwenllian, daughter of Howel ab Trahaiarn ab Gwgan, lord of Brecknock, and by her had issue, Howel, who by Tangwystl, daughter of David Goch ab Howel Vychan, was father of Gruffydd, who married Nest, daughter of Caradoc ab Gwilim, lord of Cemmaes, and had issue, Rhys ab Gruffydd, who, by a daughter of Hamon Turbeville of Penlyn (?), was father of Sir Rhys, who married Joan the daughter and heiress of Sir Philip Somerville (1377) of Wichnour in Staffordshire, which thenceforth became the seat of the family. Sir Rhys and his wife had issue, another Sir Rhys (1380), who married, firstly, Isabel, daughter and heir of Sir Richard (or Robert) Stackpoole, and by her had a daughter Joan, heiress of her mother, who, as stated in my last letter, married Sir Richard Vernon (1413), “ of whom the Vernons now living are descended”. Sir Rhys, however, married a second time, Margaret, daughter of Lord Zouche, and by her had issue, Thomas Griffith, Esq. (1430), and John, who was beheaded. The elder son, Thomas Griffith, married Ann, daughter of Sir William Blount, and had issue, Sir John of Wichnour and Burton Agnes, who married Katherine, daughter of Sir Robert Tyrwhitt of Ketteby, co. Lincoln; and from these descended the further line of Griffith, the Egertons of Wrinchill, and the Boyntons, the present representatives of the Griffith family.

The above account shows how the Stackpole family went out of sight when its heiress married into a family far removed from the family estates ; and the issue of that marriage was only an heiress, while the main line was continued by a second alliance. How many families are thus lost, of whom an account may still remain in private archives ! It is too often the case that even good authors will say that a family is extinct, whereas it is only the chief line which has died out, or they happen not to know the history preserved by others.

Yours faithfully, Hy. F. J. VAUGHAN. 30, Edwardes Square, Kensington, W.

July 27th, 1877.


SIR.-In Vaynor, a rural district near Merthyr, one of the old inhabitants, a man nearing the allotted span of life, has what he considers a wonderful charm for curing madness in a dog. He takes a piece of cheese, and writes upon it with ink, in the form of a cross, the following delightfully simple bit of conjuring,

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This done, and the ink duly dry, the unfortunate dog is brought before him, its mouth opened, and the cheese administered. The success of the charm, according to the old man's idea, is marvellously certain. The doubter may put his doubts into two questions. Is it certain that there is anything the matter with the dog? If so, is there a virtue in cheese which the faculty has not discovered ? To the antiquary the matter is of great interest, as it is, no doubt, a relic of Roman Catholic days. The out-of-the-world district of Vaynor is just the spot where relics may be found, either in the tangible ones of old coins, china, etc., or half-hidden in the vernacular, or in the habits and customs of the place. In this case the meaning evidently is

Maria, ora pro me.”

Ora pro me, Maria.” This, in connection with the cross, suggests the times of the wandering friars, some of whom, as in Chaucer's day, were not above getting a penny or a meal in working charms for the simple folk in towns and villages. Merthyr.

Charles WilKINS.

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CYTIAU'R GWYDDELOD AND TRECEIRI. Sir,-I have no intention of opening the question here as to who were the builders of the structures called by some antiquaries Cytiau'r Gwyddelod, and I only wish to know in what parts of Wales that name is used. My friend Mr. Elias Owen, in a paper recently read at the Llangollen Congress of the British Archæological Association,

stated that it is not current in Carnarvonshire. Is this so? And is the term confined to Anglesey or Holyhead Island ? But not to ask questions only, I will venture to give it as my opinion that Trecaeri should be written as it is pronounced by the natives, namely, as Treceiri. Since the Meeting of the Association at Carnarvon I have ascertained that in Carnarvonshire ceiri is a plural of cawr (a giant), so that Treceiri has nothing to do with caerau (forts), even supposing there had been an optional plural caeri; not to mention that Trecaeri would have been pronounced differently from Treceiri, which accordingly means the fort of the giants. This certainly implies that the Welsh regarded Treceiri as the work of a people other than the Kymry.

J. Rhys.


Sir,- Last spring a paper was read at the Annual Meeting of the Newcastle Society of Antiquaries, by the Rev. Dr. Hooppell, on the signification of the names of the Roman stations “per lineam Valli", and on the probable position of those hitherto unidentified. A good deal of this was reproduced by Mr. Hooppell in a somewhat shorter paper submitted to the Cambrian Archæological Association at the Carnarvon Meeting, under the title of “The Keltic Origin of Names of Roman Stations and Deities in the North of England.” The subject is a good one; but there is no concealing the fact that Dr. Hooppell is not a master of the Celtic scholarship necessary to deal successfully with it. An instance or two will suffice to show this. The first word handled is Cilurnum, which is a place he thinks the Kymry to this day would call Cyl hyrn ; but that is a mistake unless they should feel inclined to exchange their language for what Dr. Pughe has thought proper to give them as Welsh. Had Dr. Hooppell told us that the name is to be explained by means of the Welsh word celurn (a cauldron), or that it would not apply to the place, it would have been useful information. Amboglanna he explains as am bo glannau, which, if Welsh, could only mean “let there be for me banks”. Still he is not altogether out in his guess, as Amboglanna, both according to the rules of Welsh philology and his description of the place, may well contain an early form of Welsh glan (a bank or shore) and

of am (around, about), German If the word existed now in Welsh, it would be met with as amlan. When Aballaba is shown to be y bala bach, the rules of Welsh philology are utterly ignored, and an etymology perpetrated which far surpasses in absurdity the stock instance of cadaver regarded as a shortened form of caro data vermibus. In his former paper Dr. Hooppell translates y bala bach into “the little hill”. It is to be hoped that it is not an accident that he has not reproduced it, for bula has nothing to do with hills, bnt means the outlet of a lake, as in Y Bala in Merioneth ; Bala Bridge, between the two


lakes at Llauberis; and Bala deulyn, or Bala of the two lakes, near Nantlle.

We thank Dr. Hooppell for calling attention to the subject he has chosen, but we cannot congratulate him on his performance this time.

A. B. C.

Miscellaneous Notices. MELVERLEY.— This almost unique and curious little church is about to undergo restoration, and we are glad to be assured that its features will be carefully preserved. It stands in the diocese of St. Asaph, and county of Salop, near the junction of the Severn and the Vyrnwy rivers, and so close to the banks of the latter that, a few years ago, one dark evening when the floods were out, and the writer was anxious to complete his inspection, it was a matter of no little cautiousness and of some danger to pass between the west end and the water's edge. The church is described, in the History of the Diocese of St. Asaph, as “one of the most curious and interesting in the whole diocese, the framework being of timber, strongly bound together longitudinally, and compacted internally by two rude and massive frames of beam work, which divide the body of the church into chancel, nave, and ante-chapel; the interior spaces of the walls being filled in with wattle and dab, the most primitive form of lath and plaster, save only at the east end, which appears to bave been rebuilt of brick in the year 1718. One of the frameworks serves as a screen, and divides the chancel and nave into two nearly equal parts, the other, in addition to forming an ante-chapel, serves the further purpose of supporting a gallery and a bell turret.' The seats were originally open benches, to which, in 1718, doors were attached, and they were converted into somewhat clumsy pews. The font is octagonal, and the windows small and square.” The work of restoration is entrusted to Mr. Haycock of Shrewsbury.

Pennant MELANGELL.-In the third volume of the Archæologia Cambrensis, 1848, pp. 137, 324, et seq., an account is given of this interesting old church, with delineations of its exterior, its screen and font and effigies, and it is added that “the whole edifice requires putting into thorough reparation.” This has now been done, and the building been secured for the wear and tear of many generations, in statứ quo. Even the little Norman capitals remain upside down in the south wall, and the front of the rood loft, instead of being replaced above the screen, still stands facing what was once a gallery, but is now a vacant space. That this was the position of the legendary carving, can hardly be doubted, or that the second porch, which has now been done away with, covered, not the priest's door, but that which led up to the rood loft. The little narrow loop

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