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which still exists among savages of the present time. Outside the cave, but under the shelter of the rock, an immense number of bones of fish, flesh, and fowl, were found, together with flints.

What was to all appearance the hearth-place, in the centre of the place (s...s), is the salle aux festins funéraires. This seems to have been its intended use, and, in fact, it could not have been the abode of men from its exposed situation. They lived in some neighbouring cavern more suited as a dwelling, but established their cemetery here, in front of which they held their funeral feasts.

The wide difference between this primitive burialplace and the complete dolmen may be thought to support the theory that these could have no connection between them, and that one did not naturally arise out of the other, and hence the dolmens were introduced by some later comers. But even allowing as much as this, the difference between the two systems is not so great; for there are instances of what we may call hybrid dolmens, partly natural, partly artificial, as in the neighbourhood of Cordes in the south of France, and elsewhere in that country, where the chamber itself is in the living rock, but closed in by slabs placed by man. The well known Henblas example in Anglesey and which, if we are not mistaken, has been figured and described by Mr. Hugh Prichard of Dinam, a well known antiquary of Anglesey, may be another instance. Here two enormous masses of rock have been placed by some strange natural agency near one another in such a manner as to induce men to take advantage of it, and erect against them a small chamber, most of the slabs of which remain either on the spot, or are to be found thrust aside in the hedge-rows.

There remains, however, one difficulty which has yet to be got rid of. If there were no distinct dolmenbuilding race, and in fact nothing very peculiar about a dolmen at all, except the size and magnificence of some, how is it that they are scattered about so irre

gularly and numerously in some districts, and totally absent in others ? Bonstetten, in his map, which has been reproduced in several works, has laid down the various districts in which they appear ; but this only gives a general notion in what portions of Europe these monuments exist. And even in these districts there are in reality extensive spaces where they are wanting. Some, as already mentioned, account for this anomaly by supposing that the wandering hordes passed through these parts too quickly to admit of their stopping to erect sepulchres which from their size would require more time than could be spared. Such a solution, as we have seen, can hardly be accepted as satisfactory. Another suggestion, not more satisfactory, is that this supposed race appeared in Europe at a time when the present low lands were then submerged, and the only available ground was that which is now high ground, and as a general, but by no means universal, rule these monuments do occupy elevated positions. Scandinavia may, however, be excepted from the rule, as by the time this people reached that part of Europe, the lower levels had emerged. A third and easier solution may be given, that vast districts now inhabited were once nothing but morasses overgrown with under-wood, and totally unfit for human occupation; but, on the other hand, the present high lands are often without any such relics, while others near them abound with them. This question was discussed at the Stockholm International Meeting, which was closed by the simple and sensible remarks of Mr. John Evans, namely, that the presence of the necessary materials led to the building of them. Where they were not procurable, another and more simple form of burial would be adopted. There are certain parts of Wales where these dolmens abound. In others they are unknown. It will be found that in the one district there are the means of building them ; in the other there are none. Is it not from such a cause that the grand works of Abury were erected, the downs on which they stand being thickly covered with

such masses, hundreds of which still remain scattered about in the district ? The same may be said of Stonehenge, although that great puzzle is made still more puzzling by the fact that an important part of it is composed of stones, the source of which has not yet been determined by geologists. The nearest similar rocks are said to be only found in Merioneth ; but it is hardly likely they were brought from such a distance. The real framework, however, of this unique monument is built of the large stones found close at hand. As to the real age of dolmens and their builders, all must be speculation ; but there is no reason why they may not have existed even prior to the neolithic period, if we cannot carry them as far as the reindeer period.

The Society is much indebted to the pencil of Mr. G. Worthington Smith for the accompanying illustrations, the accuracy of which will be acknowledged by those who have seen the monuments themselves.

E. L. BARNWELL.

97

HISTORY OF THE LORDSHIP OF MAELOR GYMRAEG OR BROMFIELD, THE LORDSHIP OF IAL

OR YALE, AND CHIRKLAND,

IN THE PRINCIPALITY OF POWYS FADOG,

(Continued from p. 39).

LLANFORDAF.

Add. MS. 9864. RICHARD LLOYD of Llwyn y Maen and Llanfordaf, ab Robert Lloyd ab

Meredydd Lloyd. See Archæologia Cambrensis, April 1876, p. 115

John Lloyd of Llan-=Elizabeth, d. of Sir Peter Newton Edward Lloyd of sordaf, living 1544 of Haethleigh, Knt. Llwyn y Maen

1 John Lloyd=Margaret, d. of Sır Roger Richard... d. of Edward Trevor of Llan Kynaston of Morton, Knt. Lloyd

of Oswestry fordaf

heiress, ux. Hugh Meredydd

of Oswestry

John Lloyd=Mary Lettice, d. of George DavidŞElizabeth, d. of Edward of Llan. Caulfield of Oxfordshire, Lloyd | Davies of Valle Crucis fordaf Judge of North Wales, and of Abbey (y Cneifiwr Glas), Baron Charlemont in Ire- Blaen son of David Fychan ab land

y Ddol | Madog ab Robert of the

parish of Rhiwfabon

Edward Lloyd of Llanfordaf, Ffrances, d. of Sir Edward Trefor of Hugh colonel in the royal army,

Bryn Cunallt, Knt., ob, 15th Lloyd ob. Feb. 13, 1662

Dec. 1661

Edward Lloyd of Llanfordaf, living 1680,=Bridget, d. of ... Pryse of

:
Edward Lloyd in Oxford, 1695

Ynys Grugog

CORRIGENDA. See Arch. Camb., April 1876, p. 118, for Eleanor, ux. Richard Stands, vicar

of Oswestry, read Eleanor, ux. Richard Stanney ab Richard Stanney

Fychan of Oswestry. P. 118. Robert Lloyd, the second son of John Lloyd ab John Lloyd, was

of Plas Newydd ; and the third son, Edward Lloyd, was of Hafod y

Garreg, and married a daughter of Robert Muckleston. January 1877, p. 34. The arms of the family of Bach Eurig were, sable, a

hart (not a he-goat) standing at gaze argent, attired and unguled or. P. 39, second line from bottom, for Cynddelw read Cubelyn. 4TH SER., VOL. VIII.

7

LLWYN Y MAEN.

ddd. MS. 9864.
Edward Lloyd of Llwyn y Maen=Joane, d. of Daniel Meynes

See Arch. Camb., April 1876,

p. 117

Colonel Richard Lloyd>Margaret, d. of George Onslow of of Llwyn y Maen Onslow, Walton Grange in Stafford

shire, and Boveradon

Jane, ux.
Edward
Calverley

1

1 Edward Lloyd.., d. of ... Edwards of Jane, ux. John Mary Eleanor

of Llwyn y 1 Choley in Cheshire Calverley of Maen, captain'

Wooduns in Cheshire

Richard Lloyd Catherine, d. of John Roydon of Isgoed, ab John ab Roger of Llwyn y

Roydon of Holt and Isgoed, captain in the royal army, ab Maen John ab John ab John Roydon, Sergeant-at-Arms. Her mother was Mary, d. of... Hanmer of Kenwich in com.

Salop. (Harl. MS. 1971.)
Edward Lloyd living 1695.3

The dates given at p. 117, Archæologia Cambrensis, April 1876, are from tombstones in Oswestry Church.

PONT Y GOF OR NANTCLWYD.

Add. MS. 9865.
Thomas Parry Wynn of Tref Rhuddin, ab John ab Harri

Simon Parry, barrister,=Jane, d. of Gabriel Parry-Grace, ux., 1, Pyers

of Gray's Inn, He John Thel Bach, B.A. Mull;" 2, John bought Pont y Gof from wall of Bathafarn

Parry, parson of Peter Elis 1

Llanrhudd William Jane, ux., 1, John Wynn Jones of Plas

Newydd in Llanfair Dyffryn Clwydd ;

and 2, William Vaughan of Bron Hau1

log

1 Captain in the royal army. He died Feb. 13th, 1662. 2 She died August 4th, 1675.

3 According to the dates on the tombstones, Edward Lloyd of Llwyn y Maen died 10th January 1686, aged sixty-four; and his wife Elizabeth died in May 1697.

4 The Mull family came into Wales with Edward I. Their pedigree is as follows: Ambrose Mull of Ruthin, Esq., who was aged twenty-five in 1673, married Margaret, daughter of Thomas Ellis of Coed Cra in co. Flint, by whom he had a son and heir, Peter, who died Oct. 25, 1702; and a daughter, Mary, wife of Thomas Parry.

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