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the countries, which conquest was afterwards completely to investigate. The chart was designed by the ship, but the map was drawn by the sword. The reports of merchants led Alexander to India, and Cesar to Gaul and Britain. The peculiar produćts of Hindostan, the diamonds, spikenard, and spices, the tin of Cornwall, the amber of Prussia, were all known to the Greeks for ages before Alexander encountered Porus. An ancient author informs us that Cesar was tempted to the conquest of Britain by the fight of the pearls, which he probably received from the merchants of Gaul. At this day a little commerce arises from the pearls found in the mya, or what is called the horse mussel, not uncommon in the rivers of the north of Scotland, particularly the Erne, the South Esk, and the Ythan ; and we are not to wonder that the Gallic merchants traded so far, when we find that even after the fall of the Roman empire, vessels from Gaul visited the western islands of Scotland, and brought tidings of an earthquake in Italy.” Thus avarice led the way to ambition; and the extension of commerce attračted the extension of war. It is well known that two nations of antiquity contend for the palm of early commerce, the Egyptians and Phenicians, who shine in the first fragments of recorded knowledge. But Egypt was so fertile a country that its external relations seem always to have yielded to those of the narrow and barren province of Phenicia, where the merchants of Tyre and Sidon rivalled the princes of the East. In modern times we have seen a marsh, interse&ed with ditches, and defended by strong embankments, from a boisterous and superior sea, rise to a high rank among European states; and with no native produce, except butter and cheese from its rich pastures, (for even its linen is from Silesia), diffuse its commerce and colonies through every quarter of the globe, and dispute even with England the empire of the ocean. Such seem to have been the Phenicians of antiquity; of whose commerce we find extensive and lasting traces in Europe and Africa, while concerning that of the Egyptians few evidences appear. It seems to have been chiefly confined to Hindostan, and perhaps Eastern Africa. The learned Huet, bishop of Avranches, has, with great care and erudition, compiled a history of ancient commerce at the desire of the celebrated Colbert, minister of the finances of France, a most able and enlightened statesman, who exerted every nerve to extend the commerce of his country. This great work, which is little known except to the learned, will be our chief guide in a view of ancient commerce, which forms the best and surest foundation for that of ancient discovery, and as he is of remarkable accuracy, the learned reader is referred to him for "the original sources, as the nature of this essay attending a popular work, neither admits nor requires the constant quotations, necessary in a learned differtation, for the use of a few critical enquirers.

* In the fixth century. Pita Columbe apud Pit. Saná. Scot. p. 78. In the twelfth, English, Flemish

and French ships came to fish near the Isle of May in the Firth of Forth. Ib. Pita Kentegerni, a 2 Our

Our profound author, beginning with the first traces of man upon the globe, observes that Cain, as an agricultor, must have exchanged with Abel, who was a herdsman, corn against meat and skins for clothing: and thus, perhaps the first murder arose from a quarrel originating in commercial intercourse. He then proceeds to state, that Tubal Cain, the first artificer of brass and iron, must have exchanged the produćts of his labour for other articles; and that navigation must have been at a very low ebb before the flood, else ships of any size might have saved great numbers of mankind. These speculations shall be left to the learned bishop, who seems to have resolved, according to the Spanish proverb, “to leave nothing in the inkhorn.” But he soon affumes the exuberance of his learning, and the splendour of his talents, to discuss a most variegated theme with great erudition and precision. “The Holy Scripture does not furnish a more ancient example of commerce than that of the caravan of Ismaelites and Madianites, to whom Joseph was sold by his brethren. They returned from Galaad bringing their camels laden with spices, and other precious merchandises of that country, to be imported into Egypt, where there was a great sale, on account of embalming the bodies after death. The purchase which they made of Joseph, and the sale which they made of him in Egypt, to Potophar, the chief of the household of Pharaoh, shews that their traffic was not confined to those merchandises of Galaad. Their country was situated between Galaad and Egypt, regions abounding in peculiar produćts, which they exchanged from the one to the other, by constant journies, and affiduous labour. It must, nevertheless be remarked, that when Jacob, for the second time, sent his sons to buy corn in Egypt, he ordered them to take the most precious articles to present to Joseph, so as to procure his favour; and that those merchandises were almost the same that the Ismaelites and Madianites had brought from Galaad. Joseph himself undertook a commerce of far greater importance; when, having divined from the dreams of Pharaoh, the seven years of famine, which were to afflićt Egypt and Canaan, and even all the earth, he skilfully profited by the seven years of plenty, which were to precede them, and amassed a greater quantity of corn in the royal granaries than was sufficient to extract all the silver and all the cattle of Egypt; and to turn all the funds of the country to the profit of the King, and thus furnish supplies to adjacent countries.” The reader will hence perceive, that the exquisite history of Joseph includes, not only the first formal mention of commerce, but the slave trade, the bribery of a minister, the dreams of a monarch, the corn laws, the property tax, and the principles of monopoly. But when our learned author argues from the filver which Joseph puts into the coffers of his brethren, that money was then known, he forgets that no Egyptian coin has ever been found prior to the Ptolemies; and, as it is probable, that rupees were equally t - unknown unknown in Hindostan at that period, the filver must have been in bars, which were cut, as in China, according to the value wanted. It would seera that the Egyptians chiefly enjoyed the commerce of the East by the Red Sea; and the Phenicians that of the West, by the Mediterranean, although the latter were not wholly estranged from the commerce of the East, being in possession of a port at the extremity of the Red Sea; as the Egyptians often availed themselves of the mouths of the Nile, to trade to the ports of the West, so that one of the ports of Tyre was called the Egyptian haven. Strabo has observed, that the first kings of Egypt, contented with the opulence of their country, interdićted foreign commerce; but this observation seems to apply to the trade by the Mediterranean, which might have become dangerous to Egypt from the easy access to the whole kingdom, by the mouths of the Nile, and the navigable course of that river for the small vessels of that time; so that it became a matter of state policy, not to open this defect to the eyes of strangers. But the trade with Hindostan was very anciently known, both to the Egyptians and Phenicians; and Ptolemy Philadelphus only re-opened and improved this branch of commerce. Perhaps in the foundation of Alexandria, at a distance from the mouths of the Nile, one motive was to have a port which would not expose that sacred and pervading river to the eyes of foreigners. The enmity of Alexander to Tyre, and her daughter Carthage, might also induce him to select this fituation between them; a fituation which attracted a prodigious commerce for more than eighteen centuries, till the trade of the East was opened by the Cape of Good Hope, communicating by canals and the Red Sea, with the whole oriental world, and with eastern Africa; and, by the Mediterranean, with part of Afia, Europe, and Africa. But the early commerce of Egypt by the Red Sea was impeded by the Idumeans, who only permitted them to use one ship in the intercourse with Hindostan. The pretended conquests of the ancient kings of Egypt, Osiris and Sesostris, in Hindostan, only indicate, according to our learned author, the origins of a great trade with that country, establishing an influence fimilar to conquests, of which examples are not wanting in modern times. The chronological plan, pursued by Huet, has many inconveniences, while it would have been a superior arrrangement to have exhibited in one view the commercial history of each country. Under the article India, he resumes this Egyptian intercourse; and observes, that when Cambyses conquered Egypt, many Egyptians sought refuge in Hindostan. As the Persians then had, and still retain, a most singular and rooted aversion to sea voyages, founded on the unconquerable ideas of their ancient religion, the Persian conquest super-induced the ruin of Egyptian commerce, till it was revived by Ptolemy Philadelphus. Much information on this subjećt may be derived from Arrian's Periplus of the Red Sea, who instructs us, at the same time, that the ancient route was chiefly r along


along the shores of Arabia, and southern Persia, to the Indus, the pilot Hippalus hav-
ing been the first who traversed the wide sea.
The Egyptians also traded with Ethiopia, by means of the Nile; having portable
boats when they came to the cataraćts. It is also probable that they visited the eastern
coast of Africa, following the shores as usual in the early navigations. It is even
likely that the name Aphrica, as imposed by the Greeks, is only a slight alteration of
the oriental word Ophir, a commercial name celebrated in Scripture for gold and other
produćts, still abundantly found in Sofala and other parts of eastern Africa; not more
distant from the Egyptian ports on the Red Sea, than Tarshish or Tartessus, the isle of
Gades or Cadiz, in Spain, from Tyre or Sidon.
Such are the obscure notices concerning the ancient commerce of Egypt, which
would require, indeed, a special dissertation, to collect and collate the different authorities,
and to weigh them in the scales of deliberate criticism. But the commerce of the
Phenicians having been directed to the North and West, is more interesting to the
European reader, and shall therefore be resumed.
The commerce of the Phenicians has been celebrated since the earliest dawn of
Grecian history. Herodotus informs us that they were even the carriers of the trade of
Egypt and Assyria; as if they were the very inventors, not only of navigation and
commerce, but of astronomy; the observation of the stars having been indispensable to
mariners before the compass was invented in the twelfth century, for it is mentioned by
a French poet about the year 12o.o. This inestimable discovery had probably passed
to the West during the Crusades, and existence of the kingdom of Jerusalem, for it had
been long known to the Chinese; and the obscurity of the invention is probably owing
to its having been gradually adopted by a few vessels that visited the ports of the Christian
kingdom of Jerusalem. But before this improvement some knowledge of the stars
was indispensable to navigators, whence their various appearances are carefully noted in
the ancient calendars or almanacs. Pliny, whose work is a Cyclopaedia of ancient
knowledge, and whose reading few ancient authors had escaped, regards the Phenicians
as the inventors of commerce. Not contented with the wide expanse of the Mediter-
ranean, they entered the Ocean by the Streights of Gibraltar, and extended their trade
to the North and South, nearly a thousand years before the Christian epoch. In the time
of Solomon they were so famous that in emulation he ordered fleets, to follow their
track to Tarshish and Ophir. For the more commodious intercourse with the Red Sea,
that Prince founded a town as an intermediate mart; but this could not be Palmyra,
which is in a very different direction, with temples dedicated to false gods; and the
oriental tradition is of no avail, as it is well known, even from the Arabian Tales, that
every remarkable monument is ascribed to Solomon. In return for the advantages of

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trade, Solomon assigned to the Tyrians, under the name of Hiram their king or chief magistrate, twenty townships, as an additional territory. But ancient Tyre, which was ruined by Nebuchadnezzar, and stood on the continent, must not be confounded with the more modern, taken by Alexander, which was raised upon a little isle. The ancient commerce of Tyre has been illustrated by the Prophet Ezekiel. Among the most curious articles, were ivory from the isles of Chittim ; fine linen and embroidered work from Egypt; blue and purple from the isles of Elishah; silver, iron, tin, and lead from Tarshish (all which metals are still found in Spain); slaves and vessels of brass from Javan, Tubal, and Meshech; horses and mules from Togarmah; ivory and ebony from Dedan; bright or polished iron, caffia, and calamus, from Dan and Javan; spices, precious stones, and gold, from Sheba and Raamah. Many of these countries might be illustrated from their produćts, but this would require a learned commentary; and the reader is meanwhile referred to the commentators. But it must not be forgotten that, both in ancient and modern times, the intermediate mart has often been confounded with the original country, especially if very distant ; thus Mocoa stones have been understood to be a produćt of Mocoa in Arabia, while they passed thither from western India; and that fine fabric called muslin, derives its name mnsolino, from the town of Mosul on the Tigris, where it was brought by caravans from India. Carthage was the daughter of Tyre, and succeeded to the splendours of the Phenician name in commerce and discovery. Situated at a great distance to the West, her dis. coveries became more interesting to the inhabitants of Europe. Her conquests in Africa and Sicily impress us with less attention, than those in Spain, and her visits to other portions of western Europe. The tin, which Tyre had brought from Spain, Carthage, by a more remote progress, discovered in the south of England; and the ancient empress of the seas unknowingly visited the modern. The manufactures of Carthage seem to have been few, consisting chiefly of cabinet work, and of that prepared and ornamented leather of which they left the art in Africa, whence we still derive our morocco. At the beginning of the third Punic war, which caused her ruin, Carthage counted seven hundred thousand inhabitants; and in Africa alone not less than three hundred towns and villages obeyed her sway. The Carthaginian territory not only included all the coast which extends from the greater Syrtis to the columns of Hercules,—a space of more than three thousand miles,—but an extent from the same columns towards the south, where Hanno built so many towns, and established so many colonies. In Spain, almost entirely conquered, Asdrubal founded the celebrated city of Carthagena, described in such glowing colours by Polybius. Such was the Carthaginian empire, founded by trade, and matured by arms; the first empire which irradiated Europe, and infused some civilization in the West. But the

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