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IX.

within the narrow fences of his own conceits, command to crush others who are not so forhis inveterate habit of proving himself a false tunate. It is a kind of murder to traduce, or prophet, and his late leaning towards a jesuitic even expose the defenceless, but to attacks kind of policy, leave us ample reason to re- party, such as yours, which is armed cap-dgret, for the sake not merely of Mr. Owen's pied, to the very teeth, if not in principle and reputation, but for the sake of the interests of honesty, at least in talent and resources; and your party, together with those of the world at to do this openly is surely no mark of treachery large, that be did not long since retire into or cowardice. As Pilate said to the Jews, I private life. His own opinion is that your say to all Socialists : what I have written ! party can do nothing without him, my opinion bave written, and will willingly defend. All is that it never will do anything with bim. this, however, is but the beginning of the end, There is a kind of fatality about his projects, and though such a beginning may be some and his very name conjures up the idea-un- what salt, there is no grain of bitterness in it, practical. As practical as Robert Owen, is at least I FEEL none. Your well wisher, now a praise accorded to all visionaries. I

C. 8. know he will smile when he reads or hears of this, but I had much rather he should smile at

IS THERE A GOD? my blunt ignorance, than weep for my insincerity. Nothing can be more offensive than large pretensions and small performances, talk- O YES ! answer the Charons of orthodoxy, ing as though mountains were molehills, and who live by ferrying unbelievers to hell

. acting as though molehills were mountains. However we agree with the Scotchman, who All vain boasting smells of quackery, and dooted the foct. If all ever written on the certainly nothing can be more quackish than affirmative side of this question could be Mr. Owen's pompous manner of laying claim collected together in one heap, we opine it might to the character of a practical man, aye, and be poured into a perfect vacuum, without at the only practical man to be found in Europe. all destroying the common notion of nonentity. Psha, all men are more or less practical, and Divines on this their favourite hobby are so there is much less difference between the wisest many students under Moses, the Jewish jus and most simple than is generally imagined. gler. Their forte lies in manufacturing

These are some of the truths not made of seeming something out of nothing. marble, that few among you may be charmed " It has been truly said,” remarked the with. I regret this, but cannot help it, there author of Ion, in his defence of Mr. Moxon, are prejudices to be shocked in your party as for selling Queen Mab, " that an undevout well as all others. My course is marked out, astronomer is mad; an atheist poet was a con I know it to be an honest, though it may prove tradiction in terms.” How truly an astronomer a mistaken one. I am paying freedom's price, who doubts the existence of a first-cause can and will not be easily deterred by fear or love be stigmatised as a lunatic, perhaps the learned of individuals from exercising those rights serjeant can determine. To us the insanity which can only be exercised by the free. lies on the side of those who, finding the um

To be weak

verse a mystery, take refuge in a greater, Is to be miserable, doing or suffering ;

account for it. Such procedures, if astronomi

cal, are far from being reasonable. In the but I am happy to say, that with regard to the supposition that the truth of the existence candid avowal of my opinions, I have neither a god is involved in anything that poets sim scruples nor weaknesses. Mr. Owen is but a or say is a great fallacy. A very common on man with great talents and virtues, not with- and very influential. Much popular feelia out a tolerable share of human frailties. In- has been enlisted in farour of belief in sapet fallibility, said the promising Charles Roper, natural powers by poesy, without à particle is the prerogative of no man, and he who foundation. Persons who bring forth would proclaim himself infallible, is one of the muses, instead of argument, only expose the most deceived of men, or the most daring of own weakness, as a little examination wi deceivers. The general of the Jesuits, by a show. fiction worthy of their order, was esteemed a The bard who said, “let me make you man without passions, surely you will not pro- ballads, and you may make the laws," knew pagate a like fiction with regard to the general power of poetry in forming popular notion of the Socialists. For my own part, I should Personification is the soul of poetry. It be ashamed, nay, rather would I skulk into the tendency of the poet to embody his col woods and wilds, making companionship with ceptions. To admire his skill, and to feel the half-brute balf-man bush-rangers, than force and beauty added to verse is deliciou give up my rights to inquire freely, and as to attach the importance of fact to his dren freely publish, without individual or party ings, deleterious. Homer, Virgil, Ossian, licence.

ancient poets, who sang of gods, were It is not fair for those who have the press at devout believers in divine existence.

nurses.

where are they? * echoes only tell. Their the subject on which we treat, a learned disgods no more suit modern imagination, than quisition would reveal some curious facts of the gods of modern poets will posterity's. The gods of all forms and colours. bard feels more than he thinks. Leaving the One consideration of no little weight on majesty of the universe, he endeavours to em- this subject must not be forgotten. Poets, as body, to personify the supposed power be a class, are venal and time-serving, will funcies pervades it. His mind is constitution. eulogise murders, praise tyrants, flatter power, ally unfitted for close and strict reasoning. fawn on rank and title just as patronage may He laugbs at it. Fancy and not logic, imagi- be dispensed, or the laureatship bestowed. As nation not reason, creation not fact, is his far as divinity goes, they will sing of one god, forte. To all this we do not demur. On the or thousands, just as the court fashion may decontrary, delight in it. But for consistency's mand. Byron, Shelley, Burns, and a few sake, let his reveries go forth as such. Let others, are glorious exceptions ; but

very

few all poetical gods and goddesses stand upon are such instances, and very far between. their true ground- mythology. Our nurses, ought to be otherwise : the harp should ever said the shrewd cure of Etrepigny, are our be strung to truth and liberty, not prostituted first theologians; to which may be added, to sycophancy. Where are the poets of the that the poets are the theologians of our people, whose wild strains waken the dignity

When we hear of poets rhyming and spirit of independence ? How few are about divinities, we fancy we see " their eyes they who are not chilled by conventionalisms, in fine frenzy rolling," and their brains too, or pensioned into silence and hypocrisy. Dia

giving to airy nothing a local habitation and a vinity in their hands is not less an emphemera name.

A celebrated living poet, commenting than liberty. When they sing of a god it is, One day in our hearing on the renowned bom- in nine cases out of ten, because their patrons bast of Pope, beginning

wish the multitude set gaping after nonentiAll are but parts of one stupendous whole, &c,, &c., ties above, that they may secure the things

below. said, it was a remarkable instance of how much, words skilfully arranged, could be made

Analyse the prevalent conceptions of god : to geem and sound like sense, without

contradiction, confusion, and blunder is the

possessing one grain of it

. All attempts to embody compound. Go a scale higher : the notions in language the idea of a god, whether by grow" beautifully less.” In the highest scale poets or others, have been miserable failures ;

it is notorious the notion is gone. The reafor the simple reason, that words, being as

son, through lack of education, is not generally Dr. Johnson beautifully said, " The children understood. Men who contemplate the reveof men;" the representatives of things ; and lations of science, the mighty teachings of god, according to divines, being no-thing, lan- astronomy, and look through the glasses of

Herschel at the far off universes, wending guage is out of its elements. We might carry their glorious way in realms where thought these remarks farther, and quote certain tart has never been, and where imagination and writers, wbo contend that anything can be expressed of which a clear conception is en

fancy are lost, do they not feel the mighty tertained, proving, in this case, that people who mock the overwhelming majesty of na

self-sufficiency of the boundless whole ? Men and poets are without any notion of the thing ture by their puny ravings and idiot teachings, they pretend to talk and sing about. But as that there must be some prop to uphold that this might be "going too far," "shock peo- which of itself is appalling power, are to be ple's prejudices, &c., we refrain.

We have never heard a sensible hymn of regarded with supreme pity;
Mrs. Barbauld's sung, without feeling how deep the most cogent argument of the Atheist is to

Sometimes theologians skilfully aver, that #satire is conveyed upon the folly of worship them “a confirmation strong” of the very opm its best form.' Two lines run thus :

posite truth. Let us exercise what every But oh! our highest notes the theme debase,

phrenologist will approve, namely, our organs And SILENCE is our least injurious praise.

of imitation. It is pretended that the magniThe sapient saints who were bawling forth lude of nature is a strengthening testimony their own condemnation, would not make the of belief in a god. The same consideration discovery in "Seven Ages.” Another proof to our minds is so conclusive of the sufficiency that upon the railway of religion folly always of its power, inherent properties, and creative rides in the mail train.

essence, as to render the assumption of indepenThe popular notions instilled into the na- dent agencies, more than superfluous—actually tional mind by poetry, in some cases, has been ridiculous. While its extent defies the full humanising ; no doubt that the greatest of conception of itself, and renders impossible perets have aimed at this. Still much mis- the belief in anything else. Congenial with thief has been done, and great advantages the feeling of the ancient sage, on his bed of raken of the lucubrations of the sons of Par-death, are our views : “Mother of life, from Disseur. If poetry could prove anything upon thee I came, to thee I go."

true.

We bid now farewell to all poets. They.. A HINT to the Prous.-Economy is the are not all unwise. Many mingle philosophy feature of the age it might advantageously with their songs, and the deep teachings of be applied to religion. If the men who offer the universe with their muse. Their produc- up innumerable prayers for deliverance from stions, when taken as a standard of truth, must sin would make a bold stroke (query strike), be analysed by thought; the chaff separated and pray that their god would call in the devil from the wheat; the bad from the good ; the and stop bis roaming about like a "roaring fancy from fact; the daguereotype images of lion”—what an inmense saving of Christian truth from the paintings, of fiction : then breath would be effected. If faith is good for will men derive profit from their productions, anything, this could be accomplished. We and avoid superstition's thorny roads; the recommend the trial. ways of science become ways of pleasantness, It is always a bad sign, when people are and the paths of truth be peace. Purified from more attentive to words than to the idea they all grovelling notions, the antidote will be convey. No words can be either vulgar or found to be the bane of religion ; and the indecent if the ideas they convey are just and truthful mind, in the words of Dr. Olinthius

When public bodies, or society at large, Gregory, to his mathematical pupils, “will are shocked at truth without a veil, it provex gather to itself all that is good, subordinate to corruption is present with them. The man in itself all that is good, and sit enthroned on the full health don't mind rough handling, it is riches of the universe."

G. J. H.

people full of disease, that cannot bear to be.

touched. MORALITY OF CHRISTIANITY AND OF ENGLISH

HATE.—Hate may be called the offspring of Law, of which it is part and parcel.-Prosti- laudable detestation felt by virtuous minds for

good, begotten by evil, when it means the tution in Leeds :

the “frightful mien of vice.” Taking a liberty Number of houses

175

poets take without asking, namely the permis. Average number of prostitutes, four : in each house

sion to personify, light may be said to hate

700 Number of bullies

darkness; sincerity hypocrisy; and benevo

350 Ditto mistresses

lence cruelty. Hence bate is natural to rightly 175

constituted minds, and will ever live until Total living on prostitution.

hateful men cease to exist, and odious things 1225

are known no more. No man, let modern

moralists say what they please to the contrary, Number of men visiting daily each

can love the tyrant, the cruel, and the bypos house, 80; equal for 175 houses 14000

critical, unless some fellow-feeling make

him wondrous kind." We can only love the The girls, on an average, receive £1 10g. weekly.

lovely, and like that which is pleasing. Were £1050

it not so we should want the motive wbich Spent on drink, 18.6d, each visitor 1050

induces Robberies, 2s. 6d: each, low average

us to strive to become pleasing to 1750

others, and impels us to render all around us Money.received by girls and obtained by robberies is what the 1225 in

lovely. It is a mighty agent in perfecting dividuals have to live on (the last

man's progression. Proper and vigilant exernamed £1050 being consumed on

cise appertains to it. Care must be taken that drink at the time).

we do not hate the good. Scrutiny should precede it. Attention should be fixed rather

on the cause than the instrument of evilla Total for prostitution weekly. £3850

manifestation. The moral, like the physical

world is full of antagonisms. Let baie but Yearly. £200,000 steadily be directed against evil, and love will Leeds Mercury, Jan. 4, 1840.

soon enjoy a wider domain than it now can

boast. Hate like many other things requires If sound opinions may be called truth's sound and just direction. In itself it is a use shadow, just actions are properly truth's sub- ful principle, or rather feeling of the mind. stance ; opinions, like shadows, having in themselves nothing tangible, whereas a just Subscriptions receired on behalf of Mr. Southwell. act is the realisation of a good. Virtue is not

Bristol an empty name, but the fulness of just conduct: action, action, action! being the essential of Mr. J. Ransom, Brighton

Lloyd Jones, and a few Friends moral greatness.

Anonymous, per Mr. Newall THEOLOGICAL SYLLOGISM.--The bible declares the existence of a god; the bible is the Printed by G. J. HOLYOAKE, 179, Broomhall Street declared revelation of a god; ergo, the bible

Sheffield; and Published for him by all Libera

Booksellers. proves god, and god proves the bible.

Saturday, March 26, 1842,

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ORACLE OF REASON,

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"FAITH'S EMPIRE IS THE VON

ORID; ITS MONARCH, GUD; 11S MINISTERS, TVEPRIESTS;
ITS SLAVES, THE PEOPLE.

HSLLOS
No. 15.]
EDITED FOR CHARLES SOUTHWELL, DURING HIS IMPRISONMENT,
BY G. JACOB HOLYOAKE.

[Price 1d.

resistance, and no philosophy can alter the THE PHILOSOPHY OF

case; for true philosophy finds out what naFORBEARANCE.

ture is and busies itself only to provide the our daily intercourse is with fallible beings, most

of whom are undisciplined in intellect, the sinves proper conditions for her manifestation. A
of prejudice, and unconscious of their own mental proper knowledge of human nature and how

energies. The essential condition of intellectual it is ever modified by influences, how it is al-
progress in such a world, is the resistance of social ways at birth a fountain of goodness, and sub-
influences, or of impressions from our fellow-
beings."-CHANNING.

sequently changed independently of the indi

vidual, may prescribe the mode of treatment LET people say what they will, this is an an- in antagonistic cases, but can never destroy tagonistic world, and is likely long to remain the fact of resistance, nor its justness nor palo. The spirit of resistance, not only to “in- naturalness. To make the subject more clear, luences and impressions, but also to attacks, we will suppose a case, perhaps the utility

is a prime element of existence, the right arm will compensate for the formality. We shall
16 life. With it virtue is supported, right probably stumble over some differences which
stablished, and men walk through the world. must not be regarded disdainfully, seeing that
Without it justice is silent, injustice ran pant, they make up variety which nature is said to
omd men, like friable stone, are trampled into love.
hue dust, or lie down footstools under the feet In the first place the difference must be

of tyrants. How should resistance be con- narrowly scanned. No man has made a con-
flucted? What principles should regulate it?tract to think as another may, nor to imitate
Soine decry all resistance, but either they who the customs another may choose to follow,
to 30 are removed from oppression's sphere The primary duty is to feel certain we have
or do not practice their own precepts. Modern our " quarrel just." If annoyed by rudeness
philosophy has done more io confound than or cruelty, we merely see the influence of bad
dear up the subject. It may be affirmed of training upon an individual, which is to be con-
llie doctrine of forbearance as the satirist sidered the cause of his bad behaviour, and
wiltily did of metaphysics :

our first feeling must be pity for his misforIn non-resistance's subtleties crossed, tune, not anger for his offence : but with anger The more we jog on the more we are lost; nor without it, offences are not to be borne with Discussed eterually, it still

impunity. No man could practice such a Like Paddy's ale, it thickens as it clears.

principle and live. What is to be done to Soiter in modo fortiter in re, said Lord Obtain redress? The offender must be mildly Chesterfield to his son, and perhaps few max- remonstrated with, patience, forbearance, anil

ima batter express the right course to pursue. kindness must be exercised. So far goes the Philosophy teaches gentleness, self-preserva- advice of moralists for curing the dissentions tion demands firmness. If we look at man of the old world, which is all very good in its kind through the lenses of necessity, and see way, and especially so when it answers the inmen the creatures of circumstances, still we tended purpose; but when it fails, as it does are obliged to resist them. Truth resists every day even when applied to the advisers, falsehood ; right, might; honesty, hypocrisy, what is to be then done our informant saith and so on through the category of all the vir- not. They who should boggle at every omistues and their opposite vices. Passing from sion they find would not get through a case the moral to the physical sphere, resistance in one of Georgium Sidus's years, so we must u there side by side with necessity. Ani- proceed and supply the deficiency as correctly buals are definitely constituted, are modified as our partial "experience will prmit. ike men by situation and training, yet we According to our notion, patience under insult tread upon the viper, shoot the tiger, and do has two limits. One natural enough—when many other things at times not very remark- we can bear it no longer; the other, when our able for mildness and forbearance. So of our forbearance increases that insolence it is meant treatment of each other ; when we come in to repress. With regard to the first, seeing contacts fatal to peace and life, nature teaches how men are whirled about by the winds of

appears

fate," and blown through society with their taken of your patience the oppressors should early associations, like finger-posts, ever point- be removed like so many blocks of wood, with ing the way they are to walk, and tyrant-cus- the least possible suffering to them, but their tom driving them into the path, we confess power of making misery should be effectually theast patient-enduraace, like the summer's syn taken away. Some are of opinion that moral should be lengoãn goiåg dows. But if the förce in our ago is sufficient to secure haman end proposed is noto answered, it inust go rights. Sy be it. But if not, no nation or down, or the truth of the trite saying, "we people should therefore give the pledge of may have too much of a good thing,” will soon submission. It is the nature of power to inbe evident. Forbearance, like eating, is capital toxicate, of oppression to grow rampant. in moderation, in excess it leads to disease. Teach that human endurance bas no limits, When he wbose fault has been forgiven feels and you teach that wrong has no day of redresse be has received a licence to repeat it, some Assure authority that no ungentle opposition measures must be taken to teach him better; shall ever disturb its repose or rectify its the least possible pain should be inflicted, but harsh extortions, and it will slumber for ages in a firm resistance must now be offered. To the seats of injustice while the wronged and the preach unlimited patient endurance under in- slave would remain to die miserable students of sult is to encourage tyranny and injustice on Job. In society those who have rights to gain do one part, shameful submission and cowardice well to remember that they who withhold them on the other. Whoever gives such advice, do are the children of fate like theirselves, and theirselves little credit, and whoever takes it should proceed to obtain satisfaction with mild. render theirselves contemptible: the meekness, but nevertheless with firmness and resolu. slave of every oppressor, and the helpless tion, and should early in the struggle nerve their prey of every knave. The wise man will, selves for the worst. A different teaching we perhaps, never feel anger at wrong done to are aware is now fashionable, but tinctured him, will remonstrate, strive to reform, en- more with fear and expediency than with dure long, will never resent, never be driven truth and liberty. If society has unfortunately to revenge ; but when these fail he will take made the tyrant, nature has luckily made the the most effectual and mild means in his slave to resist. In the battle for freedom 00 power to restrain the aggressor, in self-protec-man should rest with less than success, not tion. In any attack from others, endangering permit cajollery nor pusillanimity to prevent life or person, the same principle of self-pro- bim employing the proper means of securing it tection should guide, and nothing which self- These opinions may lie open to some oh preservation does not demand should be done. jections, if not on the score of truth, on that el It is wise to step aside from the falling tree, policy. It will be thought we should dwell conduct the lightning's flash away, but it is with confidence on the sufficency of moral also right to kill the snake when scotching forces for the work of regeneration. It is will not be safe.

rather with the principle than the practice The stupid precept, "resist not evil,” which that we now have to do. The adoption none but tyrants preach and slaves practice, is physical means will be a matter of careful de only recommended because in accordance with bate among men of high toned courage, the prejudices of authority and power. He perhaps from the constitution of England who will turn one cheek to be smitten when despair, misery, and accident will more likely the other has been struck, will soon have his at last determine it. We are of opinion this face disfigured. To " rely on the power of moral force, if left free to act through the press love,” as we are sometimes gravely told, is a would do wonders. But as an element in the very agreeable thing where love exists; but he calculation of the wronged under oppression who expects its embrace from the arms of hate, we think if plıysical ineans were excluded strangely mistakes the world and the nature of dignity would be taken from their sufferings things therein. Nature teaches self-preserva- and their hopes lowered. Because of recen tion. Philosophy dictates that it be effected, miscalculation and failure the whole thing ha if possible, without the infliction of pain to been condemned, wbich answers no better pur others. Experience says, study the world, pose than showing how many sickly fish sur and do not look for it to exercise those virtues vive on the waters of liberty. When men an

reduced to the lowest stage of savage or anima What is true of individuals, applies to the wants, viz. the battle against famine, in which, soi masses; when oppression's iron paw is laid the Quarterly Review five years ago, nine-tenth on them, it may be remembered that men of of mankind are engaged, it is of little use to ex mistaken views are the oppressors, though in one patiate to such on the virtues of patience an sense they are more unfortunate than the intellectual redemption. Philosophers in suci oppressed. But iron rule is not, therefore, a state would laugh at it. It is bärd to believ less grievous to be borne. What is to be done? that the morality which let them sink will rars Philosophy again assists us. Remonstrate, them again. Cases occur every day in whic endure, if you can, and when advantage is it is better to die than to live. When men ay

it does not possess.

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