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the authorities, was, it appears, entrusted to Mr, the cortrary, in the absence of proof; if yon can read Roebuck. An admirable move a better man than of the treatment of SOUTHWELL and HOLYOAKE Roebuck could not have been selected. He occu- without determining to exert yourself to destroy the pies a proud position in the House of Commons, creeds that cause such atrocities, then I can only say and his greatest praise is, that he is feared and that your feelings düfer widely from mine, nor wonlá hated by all the bigots, and all the scoundrels in St. I exchange with you on any account. As to the Stephens.

inerits of the two plans, read the first part of the If I mistake not, the miserable gang

of Cheltenham first article in No. 20 of the Oracle ; refute that res. bigots will find that in this instance they have been soning, and I shall be convinced. In discussing over cunning, and made a halter for their own theology, I always avoid the use of harsh expresrichly deserving necks. Don't forget to agitate, sions lest I should create feelings of combativeness agitate, agitate! The Home Secretary should be where I intended to impart conviction. The forebesieged with memorials and petitions. I have no going is a correct statement of the differences beToom to say more, than that the Rev. F. Close is at tween B.H. and J.C.F. I have done with the subthe head of the merciful scoundrels—a man whose ject. Yours,

J. C.F. character is hit off in the following lines :One of the savage murd'rous brood,

Derby, July 2, 1842. To carnage and the given;

DEAŘ SIR, I expected to have increased the subWho thinks through unbelievers' blood

scription by inducing Mr. BUCHANAN to speak

few words in behalf of the victims, at the close of Lies the directest path to heaven!

the two lectures he delivered here last week. But In good health and spirits, faithfully yours,

no! socialism has not taught Mr. B. charity. No CHARLES SOUTHWELL.

religionist could have spoken with a greater asperity

of feeling than did Mr. B. He contended that the B. HAGEN versus J. C. F.

existence of deity was not a legitimate subject for Sir.-Those sentences commencing with B. H., are discussion, that neither the negative or affirmative extracts from Mr. Hagen's letter ; those with J.C.F, could be proved; so that, according to this advocate my remarks

upon
them.

for free inquiry, upon all subjects, we are to allow B. HAGEN: I do not approve of your reasonings all the evil consequences that result from the as. in No.17 of the Oracle; I deny that an unwise change sumptions of the affirmative, without endeavouring has come over the Socialist policy during the last to shew that such assumptions are not founded in two years.-J.C.F.: Indeed! Then perhaps you are reason; so much for free enquiry.

H. R. prepared to prove that more good has been done during the last two years than in the two years preceed. THE FREE INQUIRER'S WHY AND ing; if so, I shall be happy to hear you, as I am not

BECAUSE aware of the evidence on which your opinion is found

WRITTEN BY CHARLES SOUTHWELL. ed, except it be that we have more money at com

(Continued.) mand; but this I consider á paltry consideration when compared with the emancipation of the human

Why do the majority of mankind maio

tain that mind is distinct from matter? race from the evils of superstition. B. H.: “If we place individuals under the influ

Because the majority of mankind believe ence of bad circumstances, will not their characters what they are told to believe, and feel rather be bad,” if under good ones the reverse ?–J. C. F.: than reason ; so that, errors which have once Certainly; but the existence of superstition prevents taken root are made fashionable, strength. the removal of bad circumstances, and also prevents ened by age, and handed down through the establishment of good ones, hence the necessity countless generations; in the words of Milfor its destruction; is it not wise to clear

away
the

ton, error supports .custom, and custom rubbish from the foundation, before we attempt to supports error,” which, from being a weak erect the building ?

and sickly plant, presently, like some deadly B. H.: I admit there has been a change, but I also upas, flourishes in rank luxuriance, standing ! believe that change is the result of conviction.-J. C. unscathed amid the lightning of reason. F.: I do not doubt the sincerity of those who oppose The longing after immortality the almost theological discussion; but the purity of their mo- universal tenacity of life-has been tritives is no proof of the general utility of the courge umphantly adduced as irrefragable evidence, they have adopted.

“ confirmation strong as proofs of holy writ," B. H.: But why not throw off the fear of

man,

that the mind or soul of man is distinct from and put your name to your articles ?-J. C. F.: When yon prove that the name of a person alds the body; whereas, our desires prove nothing weight to his argument, I will do so ; I have no fear but our desires, while the soul's dependance

upon body is matter of fact; so closely, inB. H.: As far as I am able tą judge the object of deed, are they united, that if two, like man the writers in the Oracle of Reason, their principal and wife, they are two in one. As to the arobject is to attack the prejudices of others ; bụt the gument so often rashly used, that whatever Socialists wish to show by practice what is good thinks necessarily has a soul, which soul is this plan, I have not the shadow of a doubt, will gain immaterial, indestructible, and therefore immore converts than the other.–J.C.F.: I deny that mortal, like a two-edged sword, it cuts in the writers in the Oracle have any object in view than more ways than one; for if the act thinkthat of doing good; it is very illiberal to suppose , ing prove that we have an immortal soul, we

238

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of man.

If a

are irresistibly led to the startling conclusion The wooden articles which he is said to have manu. that brutes, birds, and fishes, have immortal factured were of different kinds, according to dit. Bouls : for that they think, it seems hardly ferent authors: Justin and the gospel of Thomas tell necessary to prore. Lebnitz bears witness us they were ploughs and yokes ; consequently they to a bound in Saxony that could speak dis- make him a cartwright. According to the Arabian tinctly thirty words; the sagacity and mis- gospel of the Infancy, he made yates and milk pails, chievous propensities of monkies are well and sieves, and bores, and was, therefore, a joiner or known, while the faithfulness of dogs, who bor-maker, On the contrary, the Proterangelion of hever betray their masters, nor fawn on those Jumes makes him work at buildings, and consethey love not, is most surprising, but little quently considers him a carpenter. Now, according regarded, because they are seen so often; nay, self at the occupation of his father; for when the

to Mark (vi. 3), Jesus appears to have worked him. even the wild horses on the plains of Ame Nazarenes ask who Jesus is, he makes them say, is rica to the south of tbe Rio de la Plata, are

not this the carpenter? and not, is not this the car: called insurgent, because in troops of 10,000 penter's son ? like Matthew. It is true, that when individuals, preceded by videttes and de- | Celsus speaks with raillery of the Christian founder tached skirmishers, they advance in a close having been a carpenter, Origen replies, that Celsys column which nothing can break.

must have forgotten that in no gospels receive:l by the travelling carriage, or a body of cavalry is church is Jesus called a carpenter. The passage in perceived approaching, the leader of the wild Mark, cited above, has been, in fact, varied by some, horses advances upon a reconnoisance, and and read son of the carpenter ; and it was thus, prothen, according to the movements of the bably, that Origen read it, unless it escaped him chief, the whole body passes at a gallop to altogether. This reading has even been preferred the right or left of the caravan, inviting at by some modern critics; but Beza has well remarked the same time the domestic horses to deser- upon the subject, Fortasse mutavit aliquis existimans tion. The latter often join their late com

hanc artem Christi majestati parum convenire; and panions, and are never again observed volun- no one has yet had interest enough to make the tarily to return to the domestic state. To change to the contrary; and in fact, from this very multiply instances of the reasoning power of indication, many fathers of the church, and the animals would but fatigue our readers' atten Apocryphas, have supposed that Jesus really did tion undecessarily, as the poor bird, fluttering follow the trade of his father; and Justin even atits wings against the bars of its cage, or the

taches soine importance to his having fabricated domestic cat, which may be seen by our

ploughs, and yokes, and scales, as being symbols of hearths, do by their acts prove that they are to the gospel of the Infancy, Jesus went with Joseph

the activity and justice of his future life. According not merely lumps of earth, but organised to the places where he went to work, and assisted thinking substances.

him, that is to say, when Joseph made any thing too This subject will be continued at greater length long or too short, Jesus, by extending his hand in fulure numbers.

towards it, reduced it to its proper

dimensions REVIEWS.

species of assistance very useful to Joseph, since,

according to the quaint remark of the Apocrypha, he “ STRAUSS' LIFE OF JESUS."

was not very skilful at his carpenter's trade: appaThe Life of Jesus (now publishing in weekly num

rently they thought the profession too vulgar even

for him. bers) is certainly the most extraordinary production that has issued from the

perseverance and research that must have been required “THE APOCRYPHAL NEW TESTAMENT." to produce such a work is astonishing. The learn. The Books of the Apocryphal New Testament (now ed Doetor shows that the writers of the New Tes.

in the course of publication in cheap weekly num, tament disagree and flatly and plainly contradict

bers) are as ancient and as genuine as those of the each other in the relation of every event of Jesus'

New Testament. But the unnatural and aston. life. His criticisms clearly prove the utter impos.

ishing feats of Jesus described therein, were consibility of these disagreements ever being recon.

sidered even too preposterous for the very ig. ciled. This celebrated work will undoubtedly introduce a new mode of thinking and reasoning upon

norant (and consequently deluded and religious)

fanatics of former times to swallow, and therefore ell questions connected with christian theology; for

a few wily bishops formed themselves into a connit must become evident to all who study it that the

cil, at Nice, and undertook to separate these books evangelical writings can not be founded in truth.

from those of the New Testament. To determine The following quotations are interesting :

which were and which were not the word of god a THE TRADE OF JESUS.

a show of hands was taken upon each book, and “The occupation of Jesus in his infancy and youth, many of those now called genuine were made so appears to have been determined by the trade of his by a majority of one! and many of those called father, who is called a carpenter in Matthew xüi. 55. apocryphal were determined to be apocryphal by The Greek word employed to denote this trade, is a casting vote!! But so eqnally divided were the ordinarily taken to mean faber lignarius, or car. opinions of these Nicean judges upon several of penter. But some parties, from motives of mystery, the books, that there was no majority either way, have endeavonred to make out that he was a lock- and, after much wrangling and strife, it was at emith, others a goldsmith, and some even a mason. last decided that those books upon which the show

press. The

of hands was equal, should all be placed under the member of the community from violence and table together, while they retired to pray that god outrage, fall naturally within the province of would, during their absence, place the true gos- the civil ruler, for these, may all be accom. pels upon the top of it, and leave the false ones un, plished by power; but an attempt to distinguish derneath -- which was accordingly done, and truth from error, and to countenance one set which god accordingly did. Hence the New Tes- of opinions to the prejudice of another, it to tament, and hence the Apocryphal Books. The work is curious and entertaining, and of much apply power in a manner mischievous and

absurd.-Robert Hall. more value than the “ genuine" books. We give

A PROPRECT FOR THE 'TWENTIETA CENan extract from the first go pel of the infancy of Jesus, which also appears as a note in “Strauss' TURY.-Inasmuch as the expected earth. Life of Jesus:"—

quake has been postponed, a prophecy of as " And Joseph, wheresoever he went in the city the Monthly Repository's review of " Howit's

grave import may have some interest. In took the lord Jesus with him, where he was sent for to work to make gates, or milk-pails, or sieves, History of Priestcraft," when the Repository or boxes ; the lord Jesus was with him, whereso

was edited by Mr. J. Fox, these remarkable ever be went. And as often as Joseph had anything words occurred:--" On this age the bappi. in his work to make longer or shorter, er wider or ness of centuries, the prosperity of truth denarrower, the lord Jesus would stretch his hand penus; let it not disappoint the expectations, towards it, and presently it became as Joseph and mar the destinies of millions." Oo the would have it. So that he had no need to finish margin of a copy belonging to the late C. anything at his own hands, for he was not very R. Pemberton, whose great trustfulness iu the skilful at his carpenter's trade. On a certain tiine progression of humanity was only equalled the King of Jerusalem sent to him and said, I would by his intense reverance for it-against the have thee make me a throne of the same dinen- words just quoted was written in his hand this sions with that place in which I commonly sit. Jo emphatic sentence, 'ON THIS POINT IT WILL. seph obeyed, and forthwith began to work, and con- The great misfortune s, that this melantinued two years in the king's palace before he choly prediction is very likely to be fulfilled. finished it. And when he came to fix it in its place One® consolation however, remains, every he found it wanted two spans on each side of the lover of his species may do much, very much, appointed measure, which, when the king saw, he

to avert it. May it share the general fate of ja was very angry with Joseph. And Joseph, afraid of the king's anger, went to bed without his supper, self joins heartily, if the dead do join in any

prophecies! In which wish Pemberton his taking not any thing to eat. asked him, what he was afraid of? Joseph replied, thing.

G. J. H. Because I have lost my labour in the work which

SUBSCRIPTIONS I have been about these two years. Jesus said to him, fear not, neither be cast down; do tbou lay

Birmingham, G. B. per E. Nicholls

Lancaster, per H. L. by Card.. hold on one side of the throne, and I will the other,

Preston, per James Drimniond and we will bring it to its just dimensions. And Leicester, per Mr. Coltman when Joseph had done as the lord Jesus said, and Do. per Mr. Biltson each of them had with strength drawn bis side,

Derby, per H. Roche.. the throne obeyed, and was brought to the proper

Birmingham, per Mr. Harris, by Card.. 038 dimensions of the place ; which miracle, when they

Birmingham. E. NICHOLLS, Proo, Sec. who stood by saw, they were astonished, and praised - Notice.-Copies of this work sent by post god. The throne was made of the same wood which was in being in Solomon's time, namely, wood

to any parts where they cannot be otherwise ob adorned with various shapes and tigures.”

tained, at the rate of THREE for FOURPENCE, Post-otlice stamps for one month or three, with

directions, addressed to the Editor, No. 8, Hols. Free DiscUSSION.-The most capital well-street, Strand, London, will receive attention. advantage an enlighteaed people can enjoy, is the liberty of discussing every subject which

SECRETARIES' DIRECTIONS. can fall within the compass of the human

GENERAL SECRETARY.-M. Ryall, 8, Holywellmind; while this remains, freedom will flour street, Strand, London. rish; but should it be lost or impaired, its sor-street, A sited, Birmingham.

PROVINCIAL SEC.-E. Nicholls, 26, Upper Windprinciples will neither be well understood, nor long retained. To render the magistrate a

HOLYOAKE'S TRIAL. judge of truth, and engage his authority in On Saturday, Angust 27, in conjnnction with the the suppressions of opinions, shows an iuat. Oracle, but so as to be separated and bound oy by tention to the nature and design of political itself, will be published the First Number of G.

HOLYOAKE'S TRIAL, at Gloucester, for BLAS society. When a nation form a government, PHEMY. Specially Reported. Price id. it is not wisdom but power they place in the hand of the magistrates ; from whence it fol- Printed by G.J. HOLYOAKE, No. 8, Holywell-street, lows, his concern is only with those objects

Strand, London,and Published

for him by all Liberal which power can operate upon. On this ac

Booksellers. Agent for Bristol, J. Chappel, News count, the administration of justice, the pro

Agent, Narrow Wine-street; Macclesfield, Mt.

Roche, Hall of Science. tection of property, and the defence of every

Saturday, July 9, 1842,

.

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EDINBURGH

ORACLE OF REASON,

Or, Philosophy Tindicated. “FAITH'S EMPIRE IS THE WORLD; IT'S MONARCH, GOD; ITS MINISTERS, THE PRIESTS

ITS SLAVES, THE PEOPLE."

No. 30.)

EDITED FOR CHARLES SOUTHWELL, DURING HIS IMPRISONMENT,
BY G. JACOB HOLYOAKE.

[PRICE ID.

THE DEBASING EFFECTS OF

RELIGION.

Infidels ! hearken to the treatment insolent Christians prepare for you, and say if you are willing to submit to it! Lover of liberty ! talk no more of your principles, till the deg. radation you hare guffered has been wiped

"Superstition, or what the world calls RELIGION, the greatest possible encouragement to vice.

WILLIAM PITT.

away!

The above frank and correct admission of A sober, industrious, and intelligent family the dangerous effects of godism, occurs in a residing in King-street, Cheltenham, gell Letter on Superstition, addressed to the mul- books, rather with the hope of benefiting sotitudinous sects of Great Britain, ascribed to ciety, than from care for profit. Some men the first earl of Chatham. Never has the in the Chronicle printing-office in the same truth of the assertion been so fully borne out town, sert, a few days ago, * a boy to get and demonstrated as in the recent Chelten- then two numbers of the Oracle of Reason, bam persecutions, Magistrates may dogma- The boy failed at his first application, which tize from the bench, lawyers do the same in was to Mr. H. Fry; he then proceeded to the courts, and parsons rant in their pulpits, un- family in King-street, and uses Mr. Fry's til they tear their sacred gabardine, about re- name, without his knowledge or consent, and ligion being of a moral tendency, that a holy on this ground, & thus deceived, Mrs. ADAMS christianity is interwoven in our laws and sends the two numbers, for which the lad did constitution, and that to the belief in a god not pay, but took them away on the pretence we owe the preservation of social order ; but that they were for Mr. Fry. These papers, when the barbarity, outrage, fierce malignity, thus fraudulently, and under false pretences, illegality, dangerous doctrines and practices obtained, were then carried to that sapient of which these persecutions are composed, are champion of the lord, Mr. Bubb, and forthcalmly weighed, the conclusion seems inevi- with, in the name of a god, Mrs. Adams is table, that religion, christianity, and god-be- seized, and late at night torn from her family lief together are the greatest curses at present and thrust into a dungeon, where her husband afflicting society !

has been put just before ; and there, were it In the days of the inquisition, a wretch of not for public opinion, to be kept for the rea bishop, named Gardiner, and a villain called mainder of their lives. This is precisely the Bonner, pounced on people and thrust them unvarnished case of the Adams's. into dungeons, because they, the most depraved Here, be it remarked, that it mattered not and morally hideous of all perhaps that ever to the cause of god if the fellows who sent catered for the glory of a god, happened to the boy from the Chronicle office were the differ from them in opinion. Then men rose most infamous scoundrels on earth-it is sworn in

rage, execrated the miscreants, and hurled by the lad, under their directions, that the their church and power into the dust! Can. paper bought was blasphemous, and forthwith NOT THIS BE DONE AGAIN ? The same the emissaries of religion are sent on their inscenes bave been levied before our eyes ! human, infamous, and murderous errand, and Humanity demands to be vindicated once domestic affection is blighted, children are more--AND FOR EVER, from the savagery made orphans, and parents prisoners ! What of religion !!

a state of liberty, law, and justice is this, in Christians! attend to the following narra- which a few men, no matter of what charactive, and blush for your infamous practices !

• Seo No. 27.

song!

and are

ter, and a boy, a mere child, can drag pa would whip them to death or strangle them in rents from their homes, plunge them in gaol, their cells, as Dr. Pincher regretted he could and their children in a poor-house. Thus re- not do to me," where it not that indignant huligion pours upon us its blessings ! Thus marity has learned mercy and justice at a promotes social order! Thus renders men better source than the bible and a holier throne virtuous and kind ! Rightly did Pemberton than heaven! exclaim of the religious

The best answer to the supposed immoral. Still they gather! Fierce they throng :

ities of atheism, is an exhibition of the real Fruud their weapon! Blood their

immoralities of religion. When men, acting CHURCH their word! Oh then be strong!

on the affirmative that there is a god, peržie

trate these enormities in his name, Compact as a rock.

transformed into demons hy their belief, and A lad swears to words being blasphemous spread misery and hypocrisy in their path he very likely could not read, certainly not every hour, while the religion arising out of understand ; a child, who could not tell the their unfortunate belief is, in the emphatic holy ghost from a pidgeon, swears that god words of Pitt, the “greatest possible encouis affronted. Poor god, it he has no better ragement to vice," shall we be told that atheservants ! no better advocates ! Mark, also, ism is speculative, and without a practical the lad appears first to have been tutored in bearing ; since it alone can bring men back his lessons of craft and deception, the young to reason and realities, to nature ever truthful rascual had been tanght the maxim of Paul, and kind, to humanity and virtue ? Because

Being crafty, I canght you with guile.' the Theist cannot prove his affirmation, that But for his deception, false pretences, and there is a god, nor the atheist cannot prove fraud he would never have obtained the books a negative to it, it must not be supposed, as at all from Mrs. A. unless he had fetched his hy too many it erroneously is, that no good employers. Two things arise here for con- can result from the discussion. Let us but sideration. First, the employment of decep- convince men that there is good reason to distion and falsehood, are pretty moral instru- believe that there is a god, and the whole ments to bolster up a case of blasphemy with. cabinet of creeds and all the injustice and cruWho will say, after this, that christianity and elty they create would be at once swept away, persecuting godites will not stoop to anything and men, in the dignity of nature, would rise to effect their hateful purposes ? Secondly, a to the loftiest virtue. Were it true that the fine boy this! a credible witness for god! Theist or godist contented himself with dis. kissing the bible and taking oaths with bis puting merely about his affirmative, then it lips warm with lying, and his heart full of might be of little practical use to disturb his deceit! This was publicly understood in dreamings; but while all our laws, customs, court, as Mr. Fry stated before the magis- and institutions while the very foundations of trates his intention to indict bim for forging morality are made to rest upon the assumption his name, and thus, by false pretence, effecting that there is a god, while all men every day, his dishonest purpose. It appears the lads to the danger of our liberties, lives, and best employers sent the money some hours after, principles, ACT ON THE AFFIRMATIVEand had Mrs. ADAMS been a Christian she the question of atheism is a grave and serious would have refused it, and prosecuted the one. juvenile scoundrel for obtaining property from Religious liberty in its present state is a her fraudulently,

brand on christianity, and a reproach to free. Good Christians! Look on this case, and dom, it reflects infamy on believers, and distalk again how religion and the service of god grace on Infidels : the one is infamous for his conserves morality, truth, and virtue. Tell tyranny, and the other disgraceful for his tame us what moral or infernal curse could have submission. Let us resolve no longer to be committed more vices in the same time than debased by the insolence of religious pride nor the cause has done which you patronise ? rendered contemptible by submission to it. Mr. ADAMS's case was worse supported

G. J. H. legally than this, as a witness swore he did not sell the number he was indicted for. And the principal witness against him admitted he SUNDAY.-One should suppose the great gave the Oracle he produced to the other wit- | Jehovah, every Sunday morning when he

The same law that punishes ADAMS awoke, and recollected the day, would call to would, if impartially administered, punish him Gabriel to keep the doors and shutters close,

that he might not be bored with the horrible Shall we call ourselves men, and sit down din of the Christians, about the carpenter's quietly, while christianity vests a power in son and the ghost; or say, as Quin used to his the hands of every abandoned wretch of de- man, in very gloomy mornings, "Call me to stroying honest men and ruining a virtuous morrow, Johu."-- Yahoo. family? The same spirit and holy cause which thrust ADAMS and his family into gaol

ness.

page

214.

too.

. See

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