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THE RICH MAN AND THE POOR MAN. at this rate he will burst his boiler to a cet. KHEMNITZER.

tainty. Take it moderately, and you will do the world; if wealthy you may call

more good.” Just conceive some earnest and This friend, that brother ;-friends and brothers all ; faithful preacher of the gospel whose ardour Though yon are worthless-witless-never mind it; induces him to be instant in season and ont You may have been a stable boy-what then? of season, as Paul recommends, and diligently 'Tis wealth, good sir, makes honourable men. warping men to flee froin the wrath to come, You seek respect, no doubt, and you will find it. then fancy the pious editor of the Examiner, But if you are poor, heaven help you! though your vulgarity of a drunken sailor. If you go

accosting him with all the rude and coarse sire Had royal blood within him, and though you

ahead at this rate, you'll burst your boiler! Possess the intellect of angels too,

to a certainty ! Take it moderately and you 'Tis all in vain; the world will ne'er inquire

will do more good! Yet, this may affects On such a score; why should it take the pains ? extreme horror at my proposing to reduce 'Tis easier to weigh purses, sure, than brains. the church revenue one half, and is of opinion,

that the magistrates do very rightly in comI once saw a poor fellow, keen and clever,

mitting me to gaol for my irreverence. Witty and wise: he paid a man a visit,

There is something peculiarly reverential in And no one noticed him, and no one ever

the idea of a fellow going ahead at the throse Gave him a welcome. Strange,” cried I, “ whence of grace, like a navigator up a tuonel, and

is it?"
He walked on this side, then on that,

supposing the preacher to be a church parson, He tried to introduce a social chat;

duly consecrated by the laying on of the bisb. Now here, now there, in vain he tried;

op's hands, the bursting of his boiler, would Some formally and freezingly replied,

be a regular explosion of the holy ghost. And some

Bravo, Mr. Editor of the Examiner. G.J.H. Said by their silence—“Better stay at home."

NOTICE. Copies of this work sent by poat A rich man burst the door, As Cresus rich, I'm sure.

to any parts where they cannot be otherwise ob

tained, at the rate of THREE for FOUÁPENCE. He could not pride himself upon his wit; And as for wisdom, he had none of it;

Post-office stamps for one month or three, with

directions, addressed to the Editor, No. 8, Hols He had what's better; he had wealth.

well-street, Strand, London, will receive attention, What a confusion!-all stand up erectThese crowd around to ask him of his health; These bow in honest duty and respect;

SUBSCRIPTIONS.
And these arrange a sofa or a chair,

Newcastle Upon-Tyne, per Mr. Harta-
burgh

..€2 00 And these conduct him there. “ Allow me, sir, the honour;"_Then a bow

Leicester, per Mr. Coltman

040 Down to the earth-Is't possible to show

Birmingham.

E. NICHOLLS, Pror. Sec. Meet gratitude for such kind condescension ?

All persons having cards filled, or partly filled, The poor man hung his head,

are particularly requested to forward them immedi. And to himself he said,

ately to the Secretary.
* This is indeed beyond my comprehension;"
Then looking round,

SECRETARIES' DIRECTIONS.
One friendly face he found,

GENERAL SECRETARY.—M. Ryall, 8, HolywellAnd said—“Pray tell me, why is wealth prefer'd

street, Strand, London. To wi m?"_“That's a silly question, friend!” PROVINCIAL SEC.-E. Nicholls, 26, Upper Wind Replied the other“ have you never heard,

sor-street, Ashted, Birmingham.
A man may lend his store
Of gold or silver ore,

HOLYOAKE'S TRIAL.
But wisdom none can borrow, none can lend."

On Saturday, August 27, in conjunction with the

Oracle, but so as to be separated and bound up by CARISTIAN RIBALDRY.--The Cheltenham itself, will be published the First Number of G... Examiner filled its pages with godly cant HOLYOAKE'S TRIAL, at Gloucester, for BLAS:

PHEMY. Specially Reported. Price id. about my remarks upon religion, and praised

NOW READY. the employment of policemen, to prove the

A Plain Answer to the Query, Ought there to be a existence of god, because, if the idea should

Law against Blasphemy?' By C. SOUTHWELL, NOW not be conserved all religious things would in Bristol Gaol. Price Threeperce. This work forthwith fall into contempt. In order to should be universally read. show the great importance whi is really at tached to religion, by this worthy, the follow. Printed by G. J. HOLYOAKE, No. 8, Holywell-street, ing extract is given from the same paper of Strand, London,and Published for him by all Liberal June 15th :-Too FAST.-The Rev, Mr.

Booksellers. Agent for Bristol, J. Chappel, Newa

Agent, Narrow Wine-street; Macclesfield, Mr. Kirk is preaching from six to fourteen ser- Roche, Hall of Science. mons per week, in Boston. If he goes ahead

Saturday, July 16, 1842.

..

ORACLE OF REASONO,

EDINBURGH

Or, Philosophy Jindicated.com

SECULAR

(FAITH'S EMPIRE IS THE WORLD; ITS MONARCH, GOD; ITS MINISTRY

TAN PRIESTS
ITS SLAVES, THE PEOPLE."

UNION

No. 31.)

EDITED FOR CHARLES SOUTHWELL, DURING HIS IMPRISONMENT,
BY G. JACOB HOLYOAKE.

[PRICE ID.

RELIGIOUS POLICY.

good of your soul! Bulwer says Swift libelled "Never can true reconcilement grow,

man by calling bim a Yahoo; Bulwer was Where wounds of deadly hate have pierced so

never indicted for blasphemy, or he would deep."-Milton.

have envied the horses their want of souls,

and would thank god from the bottom of his Dy some species of metaphysical analysis, heart to give him Houyhnhnms instead of pitener talked of than practised, some men Christians for his neighbours. Some one has are enabled to separate evil from the evil- said, the man who first planted a stake in the doer, and to cordially hate the one while the ground to mark out his portion was the greatwellfare of the other is regarded. So would est ene

of his specie but a far greater was I do with regard to christianity and Chris- he who first found out we had souls, or more tians. I wish them do harm, nor would wil. properly, persuaded us we had. Priests imlingly do them any; but their principles and mediately took possession of them, and woe practices 1 do most heartily execrate, and has been our portion since. from them, in every form or colour, shape I do not think Christians should be served aud shade, cry "good lord deliver me !!! as they serve those who differ from them, but

Joseph Sturge has placed it upon re- they must be fairly and resolutely met and cord, that in his opinion the cruelties prac- their tyranny destroyed. It is needless to tised in our gaols tend only to harden the say they should be personally shunned, deheart, lead to despair, and infidelity. I can tested, and abhorred, their own practices will honestly testify that upon my taste only of effect that for them the moment they are unChristian mercy in one of those schools of god's derstood. No man is a more deadly foe to eridences, my intidelity and atbeism was a liberty--moral, social, and political – than is bilm-an adonyne to my spirits. To any a Christian. He upholds, whether he knows one who has fallen into the hands of god's or not, all tyranny, when he supports mental servants, the grave is less appalling a thou- despotism. The inhumanity of man to man sand times than is the horrid book you are is never so fully displayed as by Christian asked to believe in, the borrid principles men to unbelievers. It is easier to twist ropes drawn from it, and the still more horrid, re- of sand than to make men Christians by perFolting, and inhuman propounders of them. secution. The arguments of Luther would The man who has had the misfortune to fall not in an eternity of time have overthrown into the fangs of the disciples of Jesus on a the church of Rome. But he made religion ebarge of blasphemy, will ever afterwards display its hellish propensities in persecuting shudder at the sight of a bible--shun it as his followers, and down was old Rome tumhe would a poisonous viper, or a loathsome bled in a few years. “ Human feelings are reptile. It comes, saying “ Search me, for stronger than creeds,” and humanity once in me you have eternal life!" You listen aroused, will, from its love of justice, extirpate to its guileful and deceitful allurements, and all who insult and degrade it. This will soon directly you find certain torture and prospec- be the fate of christianity and the reward of tive death. To him no sight is more detes- its inhuman policy. A Christian is an obtable and revolting than a Christian; who ject of unmitigated horror, to any man wlio approaches with honied words of love and dares think for himself, and has bonesty mercy; he lures with boastings of paths enough not to be an hypocrite in expressing his pleasant and peaceful; but doubt his dogmas thoughts. Christians keep no faith--outside and cruelty-rudeness, gibes, jeers, manacles, they are mild, winning, and full of kind preand gaols are his kind replies. The hypo- tence-let them but throw off the mask, and crite! when he but once has lured you to his the Bubbs, Cappers, and Newalls are recoglair, he takes your liberty, blasts your charac- nised in every face. It is said, god hides the ter, damns your soul, execrates you before a future from men that hope may live on hidden jury, gloats like a demton as the sentence is destiny. Would it not be an equal or greater pronounced, and adds, with the bitterest glee blessing to take from us the idea of a god, and pretended affection, that he does it for the since su much demonism is awakened in hua .

1

man bosome in their servitude of him? By god. The supposition of one, or a million and not knowing the future, we are saved from gods, implies do contradiction. The supe being miserable ; by not knowing god, we position that there is neither one nor a million should be saved from making others so. implies no contradiction, but the supposition

Christians' policy is to attack a man of that there are and are not a million of goda, liberal opinions and taunt him to express or that there is and is not a god is quite in them. If he does, candidly and honestly, admissible. One or other of the propositions down they call the law, dungeons, and police must be true, both can'l be, we are quite upon him, and hunt him out of life. If he, sure of this, whatever else may be doubtful. through fear of these prospectively, keep back This is called by pbilosophers“ the princi. any part of his sentiments, or give them an ple of contradiction.” The great foundation orthodox version, they sbout out " coward,” says Leibnitz, in his controversial correspon“ hypocrite," and thus after having made dence with Clarke) of mathematics, is the him damn himself, they damn him too, and principle of contradiction or identity-tbat thus doubly damned, their triumph is com- is, that a proposition cannot be true and take plete. This Brindley has proved a hundred at the saine time. Of course, to deny this times, and every pulpit in every town aims principle, to say, for example, that a belief weekly at the same thing. Glorious victory in god is both true and talse, would not this for a system said to be founded upon merely plough op the foundation of mathetruth !- winning its laurels by force and matics, but every other science. I conclude, fraud, and gaining strength from falsehood therefore, that there is or is nol a somebody and deception--its true trophies from men or a something, a nobody or a nothing, a mamade disingenuous hypocrites. But let this terial or immaterial, an intelligent or utterly fail; let men meet them, disdain their over- stupid existence, who created the universe, tures, and despise their power, and Christians that is all things visible or invisible, and now will shrink within the dark' sphere of their preserves and governs the same. Here, howown infamy, and dwindle into the paltry lit- ever, we require another principle. It must tleness of meanness and vice. To a fate be as already shown, that there is or is not a like this they are fast hastening, morally ; god; but how are we to get at a conclusion and as for the success of their persecution, thereupon, either affirmative or negative? while they have the power to enıploy it, in- How are we justified in deciding for of stead of suppressing what they aim at, the against the existence of one or a million gods, experience of all persecutions proclaim that, The principle we require, the principle withas'the blood of the martys was the seed of out which we are not justified in forming an the church, so Bristol, Gloucester, Chelten- opinion for or against theism, polytheism, a ham, and a few more gaol-, will be the seed atheism, is clearly stated by the author abore and pillars of atheistical faith. Years of quoted. He says, that in order to proceed preaching and volumes of argument do legs from mathematics to natural philosophy, anoto the advance of opinions than the opposition ther principle is requisite. I mean (he conof sword and dungeon performs in a few tinues) the principle of the sufficient reason, weeks. This has been amply borne out by or in other words, that nothing happens withthe recent prosecutions. G. J. H. out a reason why it should happen so rather

than otherwise; and accordingly Archimne.

des was obliged in his book, De Equilibrio, IS THERE A GOD?

to take for granted, that if there be a balance

in which every thing is alike on both sides, “The word god, is for the most part used to denote and if equal weights are bung on the two

the impenetrable cause of those effects which as- ends of that balance, the whole will be at tonish mankind, which man is not competent to rest. It is because no reason can be given explain."-System of Nuture.

why one side should weigh down rather than

the other. Now by this single principle of There is or is not a god. There is or is the sufficient reason may be demonstrated the not a somebody or a somethinga nobody or being of a god, and all the other parts of menothing, who existed before the worlds. There taphysics or natural theology; and even, in is or is not an intelligent existence, large or some measure, those physical truths that are small, good or bad, local or aniversal, by independent of mathematics, such as the dy. whom all things were made, itself unmade. namical principles, or the principles of forces. There is or is not such a being or existence, This is all quite true, even that part of it but whether it is more probable there is than which relates to demonstrating the being of that there is not, reason alone can determine. a god. The sufficient reason May be given There may be a score of gods—there may be for the being of a god, and whenever it is one god- there may be none at all. It is given I will not cavil about words, but rea. not impossible there can be a million of gods, dily allow the being of a god to be demon. it is only improbable; it is not impossible strated, but not till then. Leibnitz does nothere can be somewhere, or somehow, one | where affirm that this single principle of the

XVIII.

suficient reason has demonstrated or will that it would be absypd, or rather a contrademonstrate the being of a god; he only af- diction in terms, to talk of a negation where firms what no Atheist denies, that it may be there has been no affirmation. Nor are those demonstrated. The Atheist, however, it is who reject as inconclusive the reasons urged proper distinctly to say, does deny that the by supernaturalists called upon, from the sufficient reason can be adduced in proof of simple act of denying, to prove a negative. a god, he does most emphatically deny that For example, my hot-headed neighbour may reason has been or can be given wby that affirm that the moon is made of a peculiar scale of the argument should " weigh down kind of pudding, but I cannot see upon what rather than the other." The Atheist thinks reasonable grounds I, who might be disposed the weight of reason lies in the opposite to disbelieve him, am called upon to disprove scale, that, in short, the sufficient reason his assertion. may be and has been given in demonstra- Can you disprove the existence of a god ? tion that there is no god; and why, I should cry the theologians. No, gentlemen, no, it like to know, may not the principle of the is not the Atheist's business to disprove, but Bufficient reason be as legitimately applied yours to prove a god. This is intelligible, to the denial as to the affirmation, to the and fixes the saddle on the right horse. It disproof as to the proof of a god. This argu- is obvious, that though a proposition may be inedi acquires additional force when we con affirmed without being denied, it is inconnder the fact that if there be presumption ceirable that anything should be denied, beand pure loss of labour in reasoning about a fore it is affirmed. If, therefore, there be any god of gods at all, the folly cannot be charg- dogmatism or presumption in declaring that ed upon Atheists; no, Theists and all other there is or is not a god, like the famed Irish fupernaturalists have exclusive right and title reciprocity, 'tis all on one side, and that the to it. They asserted there is a god or gods, affirmative side of the question. There is then, and of course, not till then, others were not one tittle more dogmatic presumption in stirred up to examine their reasons, to test denying a god, than there is in denying devils, their sufficiency. I never could understand angels, or witches. If people with heated upon what principle one man is to be deemed imaginations will declare, and not only depresumptious for denying the sufficiency of clare, but act upon the declarations that there another man's reasonings; still less can I understand why it should be quite legitimate sober-minded men to be refused liberty to

are gods, devils, angels, furies, &c., why are for a fanatical blockhead to affirm a god, yet question such existences? Why should Phil. quite illegitimate for a pbilosopher or a fool lip drunk be heeded and his words cherished to deny one. This has been put in a clear as oracles, while Phillip sober is either to be point of view by Mr. SOUTHWELL in his beaten down best have no attention lately published" Reply to a Discourse on

paid to him? Why, I should like to be the subject of Deity.' The Atheist, says informed, are we to be denied an appeal to he, simply denies that there is reason to be the principle of the sufficient reason, as well lieve in the existence of a first cause, which with regard to the existence of a god as any denial is the necessary consequence of ma- other existence? It would be difficult for terialism, a philosophy that admits not the creation or destruction of matter. This de sophistry itself to frame a satisfactory answer mial of an intelligent being, said to be not all but the merest rabble deny the existence

to these questions. Upon what principle do material but distinct from all that sense can conceive is called dngınatic. But in truth, other principle can they deny such imaginary

of witches, angels, or devils Upon what the charge of doginatism more properly at- existences, but that of the sufficient reason; taches to those who affirm, than to those who and is it not preposterous for men to demand deny a proposition. If god had never been affirmed, he could not have been denied. It good, sufficient reason for one class of superis a rule of logic, and a very sensible rule, that There is or is not reason to believe in a god ;

natural existences, and not for another? the onus probandi, that is the burthen or weight of proving, rests on those who affirm if there is, it can be shown, if there is not,

sạch belief should be rejected. Reason, to a proposition. Priests have affirmed the ex. istence of a god, but who will maintain that consistent inquirers, is all or nothing, and it they have complied with the rule of logic ?

cannot be admitted that those who embrace a Who is convinced by their “strong reasons,'

principle are allowed to pick or choose in its that an immaterial being first created and application. Gibbon tells us that the gods

of the ancient Germans originated in the now governs the universe ? Before being convinced, it is necessary to understand, but I hopes, fears, and ignorance of that fierce never yet beard either priest or layman say people. The gods of other nations can boast he understood god. It is therefore important no nobler origin. Iguorance created, knowthe reader should remember that the denial of ledge will destroy them. Knowledge has de2 god results from the lack of proof on the part stroyed witchcraft-it will destroy, utterly anof those who affirm such an existence, and nihilate godcraft. No one has proved, no

or

XIX.

one ever can prore the impossibility of witch. In both we find animals much stiperior to craft; no one has, no one ever will prove the the lowest-vertebrata ; and in both, also, we impossibility of godcraft, vet both crafts will find species which are, in many respects beo be annihilated by reason, both will sooner or low the higbest radiata. It is the necessary later be beld in equal contempt. And is it consequence of a natural arrangement, which not edifying to hear free inquirers, who go aims at grouping together the different forms about the country preaching against devilism, of living beings according to the type or plan angelism, and witchery, in all its branches, on which they are constructed, that such yet shrink from exposing godism; nay, not should be the case. Neither of these two only shrink from exposing the pernicious ab- sub-kingdoms can be regarded as in all re. surdity, but stigmatise as rash, illegitimate, spects superior to the other. The high deand dogmatic all who are more consistent velopment of the locomotive power io the and less cowardly than themselves? They artienlata strikingly contrasts with its usnally laugh at and scout the devil, speak with scorn slight possession by the mollusca. On the of witches, and profitably amuse themselves other hand, the digestive and nutritive sysat the expense of the angels, but gods they tems in the mollusca are much more concover with the mantle of their protection. plex, and attain a higher organisation ; $o They attack superstition every where but in that the heart, for example, of the tunicala its stronghold, and shake away, in Samsonic (the lowest class of mollusca) is as powerful style, ac a pillar here and a pillar there of the in its action on the circulating Huid as that Dagonish temple, but let any one tng at the of the highest articulata." main prop of the building, without the re- Having taken the arrangement of Cuvier, moval of which it canvot tumble, and they who places the articulata near the rudinta, cry out-illegitimate, consider our thin skulls, I shall proceed to describe their leading feaact upon the “better to be safe" principle, tnres. There are four classes in this diri. and don't " go too far.”

M. sion, the annelida, crustacea, arachnida, and

the insecta. The general form of the bodies THEORY OF REGULAR GRADATION. vided into segments. Among the articulata

of these animals is long, cylindrical, and di.

are found all the senses, and for the first time My paper last week treated of the lowest sub a symmetrical body, or that form in which division of the great division of the inverte- too similar halves appear to be joined to. brata; that is, if we make two instead of four gether, as in a man. The solid parts or ske. distinctions—the rertebrata and the inverte- letons are always placed externally. The crab, brata. The members of that sub-division, spider, beetle, and butterfly are specimens of it was seen, possessed few if any of the cha- this division. racteristics commonly associated with the

The articulata exhibits a peculiarity in term animal. The distinctions between ani. the nervous system, which often enables the mals and vegetables, so perfect and apparent real character of doubtful animals to be dis under some circumstances, cannot be deter. tinguished. A double cord ruus along the mined at all times with sufficient certainty to centre of the lower surface of the aninal, convince and carry conviction to every mind. studded with knots or ganglia at regular Just so is it with the distinctions, arbitrary intervals, which are so many centres from ones, erected to assist onr imperfect senses in which the nerves pass off to the different the animal kingdoin. The change from one segments. The head, also, hus its ganglia, animal to another is so gradual, that it is only in which the double cord terminates anteby an examination in the first place of deci- riorly. Where the members, however, are dedly-marked specimens, that investigators not uniformly distributed along the whole are enabled to determine where a positive body, but are concentrated to one part, as distinction exists, when compared with some in insects, arachnida, and the higher crusta. others, from whence they were doubtless de- cea, we observe a corresponding concentrarived; but having once got a clue they fol. tion of the ganglia in that region. The low it to its real or apparent source,

and there, degree of this concentration indicates the for convenience, make an imaginary distinc elevation of the animal in the series. The tion. As an illustration, I may quote the following classes must be arranged in the following from Chambers, which will show articulated series, though in some of them the true state of the case, and the difficulties the characteristic structure is very indistinct: to be contended against. "From the verte- Annelida, or worm tribe. In these the body brata we might pass, in descending the ani. is prolonged, without any distinct appelmal scale, either to the mollusca or the arti- dages for locomotion. The habitation is culata, both of which exhibit some points of usually aquatic, though sometimes terresapproximation with them. In both we ineet, trial. T'he division into segments is not as in the vertebrata, with very highly organ- | very distinct, the entire skin being soft.ised as well as very simply constructed beings. Myriapoda, or centipede tribe. These have

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